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LATEST EDITION

A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES AND
GENERAL LITERATURE

NEW MAPS AND MANY ORIGINAL AMERICAN ARTICLES BY EMINENT AUTHORS

IN THIRTY VOLUMES

WITH NEW AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT

EDITED UNDER THE PERSONAL SUPERVISION Ok

DAY OTIS KELLOGG, D. D.

Fvrmerly Professor vf English Literature and History, Kansas State University, tic, etc,

ASSISTED BY A CORPS OF EXPERIENCED WRITERS

EULLV ILLUSTRATED, WITH OVER TEN THOUSAND PORTRAITS. PLATES AND ENGRAVINGS
ORIGINAL NINTH EDITION IN TWENTY-FIVK VOLUMES EDITED BY

PROFS. SPENCER BAYNES, LL.D., And W. ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D.

ASSISTED BY OVER ONE THOUSAND CONTRIBUTORS

VOLUME XXI

NEW YORK

THE WERNER COMPANY

CHICAGO
1899

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Encyclopaedia Britannica

Vol. Xxl (rot-sia).

Total number of Articles, 779.
PRINCIPAL CONTENTS.

ROTIFERA. Prof. A. G. Bourne.
ROUMANIA. George G. Chisholm, ALA., B.Sc,

and A. J. Evans, Author of "Through Bosnia

on Foot."
ROUSSEAU. George Saintsbury.
ROWING. Edwin D. Brickwooo.
ROYAL SOCIETY. Herbert Rix.
RUBENS. Henri Hymaxs, Conservateur a la

Bibliotheque Royale, Brussels. [M.A.
RUSSIA. P. A. Kropotkine and W. R. Aiorfill,
SABBATH. W. Robertson Smith, LL.D.
SABINES. Sir E. H. Bunbury, Bart.
SACRIFICE. W.robertson Smith, LL.D., and

Rev. Edwin Hatch, D.I).
SAIL. E. Jew Ill.

SAINTE-BEUVE. Matthew Arnold, D.C.L.
SAINTE-OLAIRE DEVILLE. Prof. A. Crum

Brown, F.R.S., University of Edinburgh.
ST. JOHN, KNIGHTS OF. A. M. Broadi.ey.
ST. LAWRENCE. Sir Charles A. Hartley,

K.C.M.G.

ST. LOUIS. D. II. M'adam, St. Louis.
ST. PETERSBURG. P. A. Kropotkine.
SAINT-SIMON, COMTE DE. Thomas Kikki P,
M.A.

SAINT-SIMON, DUC DE. George Saintsbury.
SALIC LAW. J. H. Hessels, M.A.
SALMONID/E. J. T. Cunningham, B.A.
SALT. F. Maxwell Lyte. F.C.S.
SALUTATIONS. E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., LL.D.,
F R S

SAAIARITANS. W. Robertson Smith, LL.D.
SAMOS. Sir E. H. Bunbury, Bart.
SAN FRANCISCO. W. C. Bartlett, LL.D.
SANSKRIT. Prof. Julius Eogeling, Ph.D.
SARDINIA, (ieokgk G. Chisholm.
SARPI. Richard Garnett. LL.D.
SATIRE. R. Garnett, LL.D.
SAVTIGNY. John Aiacdonell, Barrister-at-law.
SAVINGS BANKS. E. W. Brabrook, F.S.A.
SAVONAROLA. Madame Linda Villari, Flor-
ence.

SAVOY. II. B. Brkigs.

SAWS. G. W. Hotchkiss, Chicago.

SAXONY. Findlay Muirhead, M.A.

SAY. J. K. Ingram, LL.D., Librarian, Trinity
College, Dublin.

SCALIGER. Richard C. Christie.

SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES. Dr. Adolf
Noreen, University, Upsala.

SCARLET FEVER. J. O. Affleck, M.D.

SCEPTICISM. Prof. Andrew Skth, M.A., Uni-
versity College of South Wales.

SCHELLING. Prof. R. Adamsox, LL.D.

SCHILLER. James Sime, ALA.

SCHIZOMYCETES. H. Marshall Ward, ALA.

SCHLEIERMACHER. Rev. .1. F. Smith.

SCHOLASTICISAI. Prof. A. Skth.

SCHOOLS OF PAINTING. J. Henry Middle-
Ton, F.S.A., Slade Professor of Fine Art,
Cambridge.

SCHOPENHAUER. W. Avallace, ALA., LL.D.,
Whyte's Professor of Moral Philosophy, Ox-
ford.

SCIPIO. Rev. W. J. Brodribb, ALA.

SCOTLAND—History,Geology, And Statistics,
^eneas J. G. Mackay, LL.D., Arch. Geikie,
F.R.S., and T. F. Henderson.
Church. Rev. Allan Aienzies, B.D.
Early Literature. John Small, LL.D.
SCOTT, SIR WALTER. Prof. W. Minto, M.A.
SCREW. Prof. Henry A. Rowland, Johns Hop-
kins University, Baltimore.
SCULPTURE. Prof. J. H. Aiiddleton.
SCYTHIA. Prof. A. Von Gutschmid, Tubingen.
SEAL. W. H. Flower, LL.D., F.R.S.

Fisheries. Rev. AI. Harvey, St. John's, N.F.
SEA-LAWS. Sir Travkrs Twiss, Q.C., D.C.L.,
F.R.S.

SEALS. Prof. J. H. Aiiddleton.
SEAAIANSHIP. Capt. H. A. Aioriarty, R.N.,
OB.

SEA-SERPENT. W. E. Hoyle, M.A., "Chal-
lenger" Expedition Office.

SEA WATER. Prof. W. Dittmar, F.R.S.

SEISMOMETER. Prof. J. A. Ewino, B.sc.

SELJUKS. Prof. M. T11. Houtsma. Leyden.

SEMITIC LANGUAGES. Prof. Theodor Nol-
Deke, University of Strasburg.

SENECA. R. D. Hicks, ALA.

SENEGAA1BIA. D. Kaltbrunner, Author of
"Manuel du Voyageur."

SENIOR. J. K. Ingram, LL.D.

SEPTUAGINT. Julius Wellhausen,Ph.D., Pro-
fessor of Semitic Languages, University of
Marburg.

SEPULCHRE, HOLY. A. B. Ai'gkigor, LL.D.

SEQUOIA. C. Pierpont Johnson.

SERIES. A.cayley.m.a., F.R.S., Sadlerian Pro-
fessor of Mathematics, University of (Jam-
bridge.

SER VIA. G. G. Chisholm and W. R. Morfill.
SEVERUS. J. S. Reid, D.Litt.
SEYIONE. George Saintsbury.
SEWERAGE. Prof. J. A. EwiNG.
SEWING MACHINES. James Paton.
SEX. Patrick Geddes, F.R.S.E.
SEXTANT. J. L. E. Dreykr, Ph.D.

SHAFTESBURY, EARLS OK. Osmtnii Airy

and Rev. Thomas Fowler, ALA., Oxford.

SHAKESPEARE. T. Spencer Baynes, LL.D.
Bibliography. H. R. Tedder.

SHARK. Albert Gunther, Ph.D., F.R.S.

SHEEP. W. H. Flower, LL.D.

SHELLEA\ W. M. Rossetti.

SH ERI DAN. Prof. W. Minto.

SHERIFF. JR. J. G. Aiackay, LL.D.

SHIP. Rev. Edmond Warre, Eton College.

SHIPBUILDING. Sir Nathaniel Barnabv
K.C.B.. late Director of Naval Construction
Whitehall.

SHIPPING. W. Cunningham, B.D.

SHOEMAKING. James Paton.

SHOOTING. J. Dalziel Dougall, Author ol
"Shooting, its Appliances, Practice, and Pur-
pose."

SHORTHAND. The Hon. Ion G. N. Keith-fal-
Coner, M.A.

SHREW. Surgeon-AIajor ,G. E. Dobson, F.R.S.
SIAM. Coutts Trotter.

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