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Diseases are the arms whereby
We naturally do fall and die.
What furie is 't to take a death part,
And rather than by nature, die by art.
Men, for me, again shall chime
To Jared's or Mathuselah's time.
That thread of life the Fates do twine
Their gentle hands shall clip, not mine.
O let me never know the cruel
And heedless villany of duel;
Or if I must that fate sustain,

Let me be Abel, and not Cain.
From the same biographer, I learn that Sir Thomas died
May 16th, 1634; so that Browne's mother was probably left
a widow the second time.

His continental travels in France, Italy, and Holland, immediately followed his Irish tour, and the whole may be supposed to have occupied about two years, terminating in his return to England, after having obtained his degree of M. D. in the university of Leyden, in 1633. He then settled as a physician at Shipden Hall, near Halifax. None of his biographers, indeed, have mentioned this fact; but I cannot see the slightest reason for refusing the testimony of Bently, who published the following account of him, during the life of his son, Dr. Edward Browne. After enumerating Dr. Power and other physicians who resided at Halifax, he proceeds thus :—"And unto whom I cannot forbear adding the learned Dr. Browne, (who, for his worth and fame, was thought worthy of knighthood by his prince,) because, in his juvenile years, he fixed himself in this populous and rich trading place, wherein to shew bis skill and gain respect in the world : and that during his residence amongst us, and in his vacant hours, he writ his admired piece, called by him Religio Medici."5 This account is confirmed by the Rev. Thomas Wright; who wrote for the express purpose of revising Bently's work and correcting its errors, and, therefore, had he not believed the account of Browne to be correct, he would have omitted it: whereas he has adopted and amplified it; informing us that “about the year 1630 he lived at Shipden Hall, nigh Halifax; at which time he composed that excellent piece, &c."6 Dr. Watson, and, more recently, Dr. Whitaker,8 have adopted the statement, which derives additional countenance from the fact, that Dr. Henry Power and Mr. J. Brearcliffe, both resident at Halifax, were among Browne's correspondents.

5 Halifax and ils Gibbet-law placed in a true light, 12mo. Lond. 1708, p. 88, 89.

6 Wright's Antiquities of the Town of Halifax, 8c. 12mo. Leeds, 1738, p. 152. His date, however, is certainly too early by two or three years.

In such a spot, and especially at the commencement of his professional career, he must have had considerable leisure; which it is very natural to suppose he would endeavour to improve, by reviewing and preparing some memento of the events of his past life. We may regard Religio Medici as the result of such retrospect; for though not pretending to the character of a narrative, it makes frequent allusion to incidents and conversations which had occurred in the course of his travels; and exhibits to us the impressions made on him by the imposing ceremonies of the Romish church, which he had witnessed abroad. It was not, however, Browne's object to draw up a narrative; but to compose "a treatise upon the spirit and form of his religious belief, and it may claim (as one of his reviewers has well said 9) a high rank among the fairest monuments of English mind." It has always appeared to me, that it was Browne's great aim, in the conduct of his understanding, and in the regulation of his feelings, to assign just limits to the respective jurisdictions of faith and reason; asserting, on the one hand, his right to the free exercise of his understanding on those subjects of which it is the legitimate province of reason to judge ; but, on the other hand, submitting both intellect and feeling wherever the decisions of revelation have commanded the exercise of faith. This was his rule; and if he fell into false philosophy, it was less through the fallacy of his reason than the erroneous or overstrained application of his rule. For example, he too hastily deemed the language of scripture opposed to the tenets of Copernicus; and, therefore, rejected instead of examining them. He found witches and inchantments mentioned in the Bible, as well as various forms of spiritual existence and agency; all these he therefore placed at once among the articles of his faith, scarcely allowing his reason either to investigate the meaning of terms, or even to inquire whether that which was

7 Antiquities of Halifax, 4to. p. 459. $ Loidis and Elmete, fol. p. 370.

9 Athenæum, 1829, No. 93.

permitted in those days might not, like miracles, long ago have ceased to exist. To advocate the principle just stated, and thus (as Browne quaintly says) endeavour to “compose those feuds and angry dissentions between affection, faith, passion,” was his object in his first and most celebrated work; in which we admire no less “the universal charity of his spirit, the catholic humanity of his feelings, and his strong assurance of hopeful faith,” than that force of genius and fervour of imagination, those glowing sentences, and noble flights of fancy, with which it abounds.

It is not improbable, however, that the leisure, so favorable to the accomplishment of this work, was more ample than suited his professional aspirations; and inclined him to seek for a wider sphere of action. This was soon supplied by his migration, after a residence of about three years, to Norwich; whither, as Anthony a Wood informeth his readers, he “was induced in 1637 to remove, by the persuasions of Dr. Thomas Lushington, formerly his tutor, then rector of Burnham Westgate, in Norfolk. Whitefoot does not mention Dr. Lushington, but attributes his removal to the joint solicitations of Sir Nicholas Bacon, of Gillingham, Sir (or rather Dr.]” Justinian Lewyn, and Sir Charles Le Gros, of Crostwick.* Both these accounts, I have no doubt are correct; and the question immediately arises, why did these men take so lively an interest in the affairs of Browne? His acquaintance with Dr. Lushington is explained by Wood; it was a college connection:-and I believe that of the others to have been the same. They were all probably at college together, and I suspect Dr. Lushington to have been tutor to more than one of the party: Mr. Bacon held him in such high regard and admiration, that he published a work of his on Logick in 1650, when he was living in obscurity and subsisting on his pen, having been deprived of his spiritualities. From the anxiety thus evinced by both tutor and friends to place Browne within their reach, we are entitled to infer that his university career was distinguished by that attractive amenity of disposition, which conduced not less than his rare intellectual qualifications to secure him the attachment and admiration of all who knew him.

Dr. Lushington, “a famous scholar of his time," born in 1589, at Sandwich, in Kent; matriculated at Oxford, as a member of Broadgate's Hall in 1606-7. Bp. Corbet (then of Oxon.) first made him his chaplain, obtained for him a prebendal stall at Salisbury, and on his own translation to Norwich, bestowed upon him the rectory of Burnham-Westgate, in Norfolk, and got him appointed one of Charles the first's chaplains. During the Commonwealth, he lost his spiritualities, and lived obscurely, publishing several books for his maintenance. At the Res. toration, he had the offer of great dignities in the church, “but being then aged and infirm, he chose rather to keep what he had with quietness, than be a dean with riches." He accordingly ended his days in retirement, among his relations at Sittingbourne, in Kent, on 22nd Dec. 1661-aged 72-and was buried in the parish church there, and a comely monument was erected to his memory, exhibiting his bust to the middle, in his doctor's gown.-Wood's Athena, by Bliss, iii, 526. Browne, in a letter to Aubrey, says that Lushington was born at Canterbury; and was chaplain to Prince Charles in his minority. He also enumerates other works besides the Treatise on Logic.-See p. 467 of this vol.

? He was then Mr. Bacon :-see note to the dedication of the Garden of Cyrus, vol. iii, 381.

3 I find Justinian Lewyn, LL.D. mentioned as commissary in the archdeaconries of Norfolk and Norwich in 1633 and 1660; but no Sir J. L.-See Blomfield, ii, 474.

4 This was the father of Thomas Le Gros, Esq. to om Hydriotaphia was dedicated. The grandfather, Sir Thomas, was knighted by James, in 1603. See vol. iii, 451. The Biog. Brit, says, on what authority I know not, that the grandson was afterwards knighted. The writer, probably, confounded the two.

It was possibly in compliance with the suggestions of these friends that Browne, in a few months after he settled at Norwich, was incorporated Doctor of Physick at Oxford, July 10, 1637.5 When settled at Norwich,” says Whitefoot, “he was much resorted to for his admirable skill in physick:” and we may presume, that the zealous recommendations of his powerful friends were not wanting to bring him into notice. In short, the advantages of connexion with which he started in this county were very considerable; and he was well calculated to improve them to the utmost. He very soon contracted an alliance with a family of some antiquity and well connected in the county, by marrying, in 1641, Dorothy, the fourth daughter of Edward Mileham, Esq. of Burlingham St. Peter, and grand-daughter (as I suppose) of John Hobart, Esq. By this marriage Dr. Browne's connexions were greatly extended, his father's family being numerous. I have not been able to trace his collateral alliances, but he asserts a relationship to several families of note in the county :-for example, those of Hobart, Townsend, Astley,7 &c. and it is highly probable that his marriage was the connecting link.

5 In the annals of the College of Physicians, the date of this incorporation is July 13, 1635. But I find it thus entered by Wood, among those which occurred in 1637. “ July 10. Thomas Browne, lately M. of A. of Pemb. Coll. now Doct. of Phys. of the University of Leyden, in Holland, was then incorporated Doct. of that faculty.” Attached to this entry is a note, by Bp. Kennet ; quoting a passage from the preface to Master Blundevile his Theoriques of the Seven Planets, 4to. 1602 ;-in which he expresses his obligations to his good friend, M. Doctor Browne, (one of the ordinarie physicians to her Majestie) in Norwich.” Who this Dr. Browne was, I cannot say with certainty; it might be Dr. Launcelot Browne, physician to the Queen, who wrote a commendatory letter to Gerarde's Herbal of 1597. In this letter he calls himself Launcelotus Brunius, Medicus Reginens. It is dated, not from Norwich, but ex Aula Reginea Westmonast. ipsis Kal. Dec. 1597.

6 In the church of Burlingham St. Peter, I find the monuments of Robert, the grandfather of this gentleman, who had six children, and of Gregory his 8 This gentleman was of Magdalen College, Cambridge, and became B. D. before 1652, in which year is dated “ Some short Directions for a Student in the University ;" a MS. in the Bodleian, by him. Johnson attributes to him the au. thorship of “a small treatise for the instruction of young persons in the attainment of a Latin stile." Mr. Crossley pointed out to me some years ago the following article in the catalogue of Mr. Ford, a Manchester bookseller, for 1811 :-"No. 11701: Directions for the Latin Tongue, by the Author of Religio Medici ( Sir Thomas Browne), VERY SCARCE, and not in his collected Works; 4s. 6d. London, 1681.” In all probability this was the work spoken of, written not by the author, but by the translator of Rel. Med.

The unexpected publication of Religio Medici in the following year, his avowal of it, and his consequent correspondence with Digby, contributed no little to his fame and success. From that time he took that distinguished rank among the literary men of his day, which he ever after maintained. Respecting the occasion and circumstances of this luis first appearance before the public, I shall say nothing here, having already spoken of it in my preface to the Religio Medici. No sooner was the book printed, than the public commenced operations upon it. Merryweather 8 placed it more fully before the continental critics, by his excellent version into Latin, printed at Leyden in 1644, and immediately reprinted at Paris. In the following year came forth Ross's Medicus Medicatus, of which Johnson drily remarks, that it was “universally neglected by the world.9 Editions with copious anfather, who had but two, a son and daughter. In the registers of the parish, which I had the opportunity of consulting, through the kindness of the present minister, the Rev. Jer. Burroughes, I find no entry of the marriage of Dr. Browne: but one marriage occurring in 1641, and none from that time till 1648. Mr. Mileham, I find from these registers, married twice, and had eight children by the first wife, and five by the second, 7 Dean Astley married into the Hobart family.Blomfield, ii, 451.

9 This remark stands in very pleasant contrast with the mention which Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty, in his Jewel, hath made of this remarkable person

“I must salute that most learned and worthy gentleman, and most endeared minion of the muses, Mr. Alexander Ross, who hath written manyer excellent books in Latine and English, what in prose, what in verse, than he hath lived yeers.After a formidable list of these books, he says, “ Besides all these vol. umes, books, and tractates, he composed above 300 exquisite sermons, which were by the merciless fury of Vulcan destroyed all in one night, to the great grief of many preachers, to whom they would have been every whit as useful as Sir


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