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drag by the sea-shore on this coast. A Scarabeus Capricornus odoratus which I take to be mentioned by Moufetus, fol. 150. “I have taken some abroad ; one in my cellar, which I now send;" he saith, “Nucem moschatam et cinnamomum vere spirat.” To me it smelt like roses, santalum, and ambergris. I have thrice met with Mergus maximus Farensis Clusii; and have a draught thereof. They were taken about the time of herring-fishing at Yarmouth. One was taken upon the shore, not able to fly away, about ten years ago. I sent one to Dr. Scarborough. Twice I met with a Skua Hoyeri, the draught whereof I also have. One was shot in a marsh, which I gave unto a gentleman, which I can send you. Another was killed feeding upon a dead horse near a marsh ground. Perusing your catalogue of plants, upon Acorus verus, I find these words:—"found by Dr. Brown neer Lynn:" — wherein probably there may be some mistake; for I cannot affirm, nor I doubt any other, that it is found thereabout. About 25 years ago, I gave an account of this plant unto Mr. Goodyeere, and more lately to Dr. How, unto whom I sent some notes, and a box full of the fresh juli. This elegant plant groweth very plentifully, and leaveth its julus yearly by the banks of Norwich river, chiefly about Claxton and Surlingham; and also between Norwich and Hellsden-bridge; so that I have known Heigham church, in the suburbs of Norwich, strewed all over with it. It has been transplanted, and set on the sides of marsh ponds in several places of the country, where it thrives and beareth the julus yearly.
Sesamoides salamanticum magnum ;-why you omit Sesamoides salamantium parvum ? This groweth not far from Thetford and Brandon, and plentiful in neighbour places, where I found it, and have it in my hortus hyemalis, answering the description in Gerard.
Urtica romana, which groweth with button seed bags, is not in the catalogue. I have found it to grow wild at Golston by Yarmouth, and transplanted it to other places.
Dr. Browne to Dr. Merritt.
[Ms. SLOAN. 1830.]
Aug. 18, 1668. HONORED SIR,
I received your courteous letter, and am sorry some diversions have so long delayed this my second unto you. You are very exact in the account of the fungi. I have met with two, which I have not found in any author ; of which I have sent you a rude draught inclosed. The first, an elegant fungus ligneus, found in a hollow sallow. I have one of them by me, but, without a very good opportunity, dare not send it, fearing it should be broken. Unto some it seemed to resemble some noble or princely ornament of the head, and so might be called fungus regius ; unto others, a turret, top of a cupola, or lantern of a building; and so might be named fungus pterygoides, pinnacularis, or lanterniformis. You may name it as you please. The second, fungus ligneus teres antliarum, or fungus ligularis longissimus, consisting or made of many woody strings, about the bigness of round points or laces ; some above half a yard long, shooting in a bushy form from the trees, which serve under ground for pumps. I have observed divers, especially in Norwich, where wells are sunk deep for pumps.
The fungus phalloides I found not far from Norwich, large and very fetid, answering the description of Hadrianus Junius. I have a part of one dried still by me.
Fungus rotundus major I have found about ten inches in diameter, and [have] half a one dried by me.
Another small paper contains the side draughts of fibulæ marine pellucide, or sea buttons, a kind of squalder; and referring to urtica marina, which I have observed in great numbers by Yarmouth, after a flood and easterly winds. They resemble the pure crystal buttons, chamfered or welted on the sides, with two small holes at the ends. They cannot be sent; for the included water, or thin jelly, soon runneth from them.
Urtica marina minor Johnstoni, I have often found on this coast.
Physsalus I have found also. I have one dried, but it hath lost its shape and colour.
Galei and caniculæ are often found. I have a fish hanging up in my yard, of two yards long, taken among the herrings at Yarmouth, which is the canis carcharius alius Johnstoni, table vi, fig. 6.
Lupus marinus, you mention, upon a handsome experiment, but I find it not in the catalogue. This lupus marinus or lycostomus, is often taken by our seamen which fish for cod. I have had divers brought me. They hang up in many houses in Yarmouth.
Trutta marina is taken with us. A better dish than the river trout, but of the same bigness.
Loligo sepia, a cuttle; page 191 of your Pinax. I conceive, worthy sir, it were best to put them in two distinct lines, as distinct species of the molles.
The loligo, calamare, or sleve, I have also found cast upon the sea-shore; and some have been brought me by fishermen, of about twenty pounds weight.
Among the fishes of our Norwich river, we scarce reckon salmon 6
yet some are yearly taken; but all taken in the river or on the coast have the end of the lower jaw very much hooked, which enters a great way into the upper jaw, like a socket. You may find the same, though not in figure, if you please to read Johnston's folio, 101. I am not satisfied with the conceit of some authors, that there is a difference of male and female ; for all ours are thus formed. The fish is thicker than ordinary salmon, and vory much and more largely spotted. Whether not rather Boccard gallorus, or Anchorago Scaligeri. I have both draughts, and the head of one dried ; either of which you may command.
Scyllarus, or cancellus in turbine, it is probable you have. Have you cancellus in nerite, a small testaceous found upon this coast? Have you mullus ruber asper ?-- Piscis octangularis Bivormii?-Vermes marini, larger than earth-worms, digged out of the sea-sand, about two feet deep, and at an
6 In June, 1927, I knew of two salmon-trout in our Overstrand mackarel nets.-G. 7 Bait for codling.-G.
ebb water, for bait?? They are discovered by a little hole or sinking of the sand at the top about them,
Have you that handsome coloured jay, answering the description of garrulus argentoratensis, and may be called the parrot-jay? I have one that was killed upon a tree about five years ago.8
Have you a May chit, a small dark grey bird, about the bigness of a stint, which cometh about May, and stayeth but a month; a bird of exceeding fatness, and accounted a dainty dish? They are plentifully taken in Marshland, and about Wisbeech.
Have you a caprimulgus, or dorhawk;' a bird as a pigeon, with a wide throat bill, as little as a titmouse, white feathers in the tail, and paned like a hawk ?
Succinum rarò occurrit, p. 219 of yours. Not so rarely on the coast of Norfolk. It is usually found in small pieces ; sometimes in pieces of a pound weight. I have one by me, fat and tare, of ten ounces weight; yet more often I have found it in handsome pieces of twelve ounces in weight.
Dr. Browne to Dr. Merritt.
(us. SLOAN. 1830.]
Sept. 13, [1668.] I received your courteous letter; and with all respects I now again salute you.
The mola piscis is almost yearly taken on our coast. This last year one was taken of about two hundred pounds weight. Divers of them I have opened ; and have found many lice sticking close unto their gills, whereof I send you some.
In your Pinax I find onocrotalus, or pelican; whether you mean those at St. James's, or others brought over, or such as have been taken or killed here, I know not. I have one hung up in my house, which was shot in a fen ten miles off, about
8 The Garrulous Roller. 9 Not uncommon; I had a young one brought me a few years ago.--G. 1 It is becoming scarce at Cromer. The fat amber most commonly occurs.-G. 2 The Stork. 3 Very rarely seen at Cromer. I think they are met with on sandbanks near Hunstanton.-G.
and because it was so rare, some conjectured it might be one of those which belonged unto the king, and
Ciconia, rarò huc adrolat. I have seen two in a watery marsh, eight miles off; another shot, whose case is yet to be seen.
Vitulus marinus. In tractibus borealibus et Scotia. No rarity upon the coast of Norfolk.3 At low water I have known them taken asleep under the cliffs. Divers have been brought to me. Our seal is different from the Mediterranean seal; as having a rounder head, a shorter and stronger body.
Rana piscatrix. I have often known taken on our coast; and some very large. Xiphias, or gladius piscis, or sword-fish, we have in our
I have the head of one which was taken not long ago, entangled in the herring-nets. The sword about two feet in length.
Among the whales you may very well put in the spermacetus, or that remarkably peculiar whale which so aboundeth in spermaceti. About twelve years ago we had one cast up on our shore, near Wells, which I described in a peculiar chapter in the last edition of my “ Pseudodoxia Epidemica;" and another was, divers years before, cast up at Hunstanton; both whose heads are yet to be seen.
Ophidion, or, at least, ophidion nostras, commonly called a sting-fish, having a small prickly fin running all along the back, and another a good way on the belly, with little black spots at the bottom of the back fin. If the fishermen's hands be touched or scratched with this venomous fish, they grow painful and swell. The figure hereof I send you in colours. They are common about Cromer. See Schoneveldeus, “ De Ophidia.”
Piscis octogonius, or octangularis, answering the description of Cataphractus Schonevelde ; only his is described with the fins spread; and when it was fresh taken, and a large one. However, this may be nostras, I send you one; but I have seen much larger, which fishermen have brought me.