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appears to have been too confidential over the of the Commons in 1575, and Lord Chief Baron of amiable indiscretions of Madame Lefebvre. the Excbequer) acquired it by purchase from his

In his lightor vein the author speaks, in the kidsman, Daniel Fincb, second Earl of Nottingham course of kis campaigns, of the many attractions of (son of the first earl above mentioned, and grandthe fair sex in Vienna and in Poland, in Silesia son of the marriage of Sir Heneage Finch, Speaker and in Berlin, as opposed to those of Baden and of the Commons in 1625, with Frances Bell, grandSaabia, on which latter subject he is more candid daughter of the before-damed Speaker, Sir Robert than polite. Finally, the wortby general's criticisms Bell), and it passed by devise from Philip Bell, on things musical and theatrical in the capitals and who died s.p. in 1677, to bis nephew Pbilip Bell, great towns of Europe are worthy of note. The then to bis nephew's son Henry, and afterwards comedies and opéra-bouffes of Vienna and its to Henry's son, my great-grandfather Henry Bell faubourgs especially attracted bis attention, in spite above mentioned, after the death of whom it was of an occasional shock given to his modesty. He sold by his widow. The portrait in question hung gives warm praise to the musical capabilities of in Wallington Hall, and was removed thence when the Bavarians of 1805, and, passing through a the place was sold by my great-grandmother. church of Landsbut, thus far sinks bis patriotism From the connexion between the Finch and Bell and speaks his mind :

families it seems to be very probable that the " J'ai été surtout ravi de l'harmonie du chant. Il y portrait in question may be that of the first Earl a bien loin do semblables accords aux beuglements des of Nottingham, and have come into the possession chantres de nos cathédrales et au bruit rauque des of Philip Bell when be purchased Wallington Hall serpents qui les accompagnent. Les Français, d'ailleurs from the second earl as above stated. si rarement dotés par la nature, sont, je penso, le peuple

I should be glad of any information which may de l'Europe qui chante le plus mal.”

W. H. QUARRELL.

tend to corroborate my theory, and also to ascer-
tain who may have been the artist by whom the

portrait was painted. Are there in existence any SUPPOSED PORTRAIT OF FIRST EARL OF well-authenticated portraits of the first Earl of NOTTINGHAM.

Nottingbam ; and where? I have recently parI am owner of a fine oil painting, a life-size chased an engraving purporting to be that of a half-length portrait of a gentleman, or nobleman, portrait of him, datod a.D. 1681 ; but it appears, dressed in a black doublet, apparently velvet, so far as one can judge from an engraving, to be richly adorned on the shoulders and arms with that of a dark rather that of a fair haired man, heavy gold bullion lace, and wearing a deep collar and I cannot distinctly identify the features in the and cuffs of fine lawn. He is an elderly man, two portraits, although there seem to me to be large-framed and stout, and has fair bair, word

some points of resemblance between them.

John H. JOSSELYN, long under a black skull cap, a thin fair moustache

Ipswich. and small chin tuft, & well-shaped and slightly aquiline nose, and a double chin. He stands be described in Smith's Catalogue of Engraved

Portraits," a table on which lies a massive gold or gilt mace, on which the letters O. R. are plainly readable,

p. 1665.]
and holds in his right hand a paper or parchment

THE YULE OF SAXON DAYS.
scroll, bearing an inscription, of wbich so much as
is visible identifies it with the title of the statute

(Continued from get S. viii. 483.)
13 Car. II. c. 1, viz., “An Act for Safety and Norse tradition points us to the far Asaland-most
Preservation of His Majesty's Person and Govern- probably Asia —from which Odin came, and the
ment against Treasonable and Seditious Practices underlying affinities of race and language attest its
and Attempts"; which fixes the date of the portrait truth. How much of Scandinavian mythology,
as not before 1661, and probably within a few years with its constant warfare between good and ovil,
after that date.

is akin to Persian belief, and how much of Hebrew I have arrived at a conclusion that the portrait tradition underlies them both is a question too may be that of Sir Heneago Finch, Lord Keeper wide for so brief an essay. But a clearer light is in 1674, Lord Chancellor in 1675, and first Earl thrown upon the worship of Thor when we rememof Nottingham, for the following reasons :- ber him as the Beskytter, the protector, the shelter,

The portrait came to me through my late mother, and find that Houssa, Uzzi, or Husi is the divine daughter of Scarlet Browne Bell, eldest son of protector among the tribes of the Euphrates Henry Bell, which Henry and bis male lineal and the descendants of Ishmael. From this name ancestors owned Wallington Hall, Norfolk. the Gothic huse, English house, is evidently

Wallington Hall came into the Bell family in derived, showing that the sheltered heartb, the seventeenth century, when Philip Bell (eighth that is the house, literally bore bis dame. Bon of Sir Robert Bell, of Beaupré Hall, Norfolk, Philology takes us still further when it traces and great-grandson of Sir Robert Bell, Speaker Thoror Thorah to the Hebrew for law or

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order received from Sinai. Thus, as far back as called "the men of the three ships," " the short we can go, among the earliest vestiges of the faith sword men,” or Saxons. Their leaders, the brothers of our Scandinavian forefathers, we find these Hengist and Horsa, are spoken of as the greatideas in close association—Thor, the embodiment grandsons of Odin, and, as their old songs express of protection, law and order, united with thunder it, “They followed gaily the track of the swans." and fire ; tbe blazing pile of pine-log8 ; the as- The lapse of time between the arrival of the three sembling of the free; the rejoicing of the reunited ships and the escape of the exiles suggests the family at the feast of the home, when children, identity of their ancestral Odin with the leader of followers, and bondmen were gathered around the that gallant band. The Northmen held the trangfather and king:

migration, or rather the reincarnation of souls. The Thorsthing or Housethings, now shortened They believed by giving a child the date of into Hastings, only survives amongst us as the a distinguished man, especially of his own forename of the polling place. But in Yarmouth, the fathers, the soul of his name-father was transfused oldest seaport on the Norfolk coast, where the into the child. Thus we find St. Olaf was named Danish element prevailed long after the Conquest, after bis most famous ancestor King Olaf Garstadwe find the ancient chartered court of the borough All, and in his day the common people believed was formerly called the Court of Husting, now the that the old king was really born again in St. Olaf. court of record ; all the crimes committed within Among a race cherishing ideas like these the the borough being tried there.

heroic mariner could not fail to be regarded as Amongst the Teutonic nations he who gave the the incarnation of their god Odin, the heaven father largest entertainments was held in the most esteem. and victor king. These feasts commonly lasted several days. No We must now recall the familiar story of Honguest thought of departing until the empty bowls gist's first winter in England. The feast he gave and the increasing heap of bones showed that the to Vortigern, when Rowena presented the wassailabundant provisions were consumed. Athenaus bowl to the British king, was undoubtedly the describes à Gaulish feast which lasted a year first. Yuletide over kept within our whito-faced without interruption. Not only every individual isle. Many have ascribed the origin of the Saxon of the tribe, but overy stranger also who chanoed wassail to the daughter of Hengist. Others identify to pass through the country, was made welcome. it with the grace-cup of the Greeks and Romans ; It was a belief sanctioned by long established but there seems more reason to suppose the custom that at the festive board men spoke out presentation of the wassail-bowl was as closely their real thoughts with greater boldness and associated with the Saxon Yule as the ivy with formed their most daring plans.

which the bowl was wreathed. In speaking of the Germanic race, Tacitus says : Brand tells us of an ancient custom among the • When they wanted to reconcile enemies, to form Kentish villages, for which he can offer no explana. alliances, to appoint chiefs, or to treat of war and

peace, tion, although it was kept up as late as 1779, it was during the repast they took counsel- time in referring to the holly and ivy with which they which the mind is most open to the impressions of simple decorated their houses at Christmas. In this truth, or most easily animated to great attempts. These traditional observance the mistletoe has no partartless people during the conviviality of the feast spoke without disguise, and next day weighed the counsels of another indication of its purely Saxon origin. the former evening. They deliberated at a time when We must remember the holly is the only thing they were not disposed to deceive, and took their remaining alive and green throughout the dark resolution at a time when they were least liable to be winter of the frozen north, where they reverence deceived."

it as the Grantra. Therefore we may conclude it Sach were the traditionary customs which was “a symbol dear” to Hengist and Rowena regulated the Saxon Yuletide. If in this spirit before their winter in Britain. Brand adds, the the father and king of the nation deliberated with holly and ivy which decorated the Kentish farm. bis eldermen and warriors, so likowise the father houses at Christmas were never taken down until consulted with his song. We must now turn to Shrovetide. Was this the limit of the ancient Kentish customs for additional light upon the Yule? The village maidens then collected the early Yule, for the Saxon settlement upon the witbering ivy and bound it into a bundle, which Kentish shore bad grown into a kingdom before they denominated the ivy-girl. Meanwhile the the descendants of Odin cast the lance against village boys bad got possession of the bolly, which their idols and listened to the gentler teachings of they had twisted into the rude effigy of a man. By Christianity. About one hundred and seventy nightfall their respective bonfires were lighted; years after the daring escape of the Northmen from but the bolly-boy was nowhere to be found. the legions of Probus, the cowardly Vortigern Girlish craft had stolen him away, and all the requested Saxon aid. in answer to his invitation stealthy cunding of the lads was now exerted to 1,500 men landed on the coast of Kent. Three get possession of the ivy-girl by way of reprisal. ships brought them over, and they were therefore or course they succeeded, and by the time the

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holly-boy was discovered blazing in the maidens' than the climber in the shade to typify their love bonfire the ivy-girl was carried off in triumph and in adversity and their fidelity unto the absent ones burnt likewise with much shouting and glee. they were mourning as the dead ? Sorrow reigned ;

In this curious practice we cannot fail to per- no bird but the owlet was heard, no laughter but
ceive a marked personification of these bardy the laughter from the cold, when holly and his
evergreens--a personification we again meet with merrymen appeared within the hall, and joy and
in an old ballad of the days of Henry VI. pre- mirth took the place of weeping and despair :-
served in the British Museum. Here the bolly Nay, Ivy, nay; it shall not be i-wy8;
and ivy are placed in opposition

Let Holly hase the maystery, as the manner is.
Old Ballad of the Days of Henry VI. The story of that return was sure to be repeated
Nay, Ivy, nay; it shall not be i-wys;

when those parted ones gathered around the king's
Let Holly hafe the maystery, as the manner is. fire. Even if this occurrence did not originate the
Holly stond in the Halle fayre to behold;
Ivy stond without the dore; she is full sore acold.

custom, it must have imparted an added zost to

the old feast of Thor, and made the family reunion Holly and his merry men they dancyn and they sing.

the one indestructible characteristic of the Yule Ivy and hur maidens they wepyn and they wryng. Nay, Ivy, nay, c.

by the sheltered bearth. This was the festival which

the father of Rowena introduced into Britain. Ivy hath a lybe, she laugbit with the cold;

A similar antithesis is found in the garland gay
So mot they all hafe that wyth Ivy hold.
Nay, Ivy, nay, &c.

which crowned the head of the boar—the most
Holly hat borries as red as any rose;

conspicuous dish at the Saxon Yule feast—and the They foster the hunter, and kepe him from the doo. rosemary, another funereal herb, which was placed Nay, Ivy, nay, &c.

in its mouth. After Rowena's day the preparaIvy hath berries as black as any slo;

tion of the wassail-bowl evidently belonged to the Ther com the oule and ete bym as she goo.

maidens, who wreathed it with ivy and carried it
Nay, Ivy, nay, đc, round with appropriate songs.

E. STREDDER.
Holly hath byrdys a full fayre flock,

21, Stowe Road, Shepherd's Bush, W.
The nightyogale, the poppyngy, the gayntal lavorok.

(To be continued.)
Nay, Ivy, nay, c.
Good Ivy what byrdys hast thou ?
Non but the owlet that kreye how ! how !

JEREMY TAYLOR.-On 14 Jan., 1635/6, Jeremy Nay, Ivy, nay, &c. Taylor was admitted to a fellowship at All Souls' This weeping ivy with her maidens can have no College, Oxford, and his biographer, the Rev. reference to the infant Christ or the Bacchus Henry Kaye Bonney, observes, that "at this time weed, as the ivy which wreathed the wine-cup at the Papists circulated a report that he was strongly the Norman festivals was often called, or the inclined to enter into communion with the Church ivy wreath frequently hung up outside the door of Rome." Mr. Bonney believed, however, that as a vintner's sign. The allusion to the owlet's cry, the authority upon which this rests must be coneven now regarded as a warning of the approach sidered very doubtful, and that the best answer to of death, shows plainly that the ivy of the Yule the report was an appeal to Taylor's works," which wreath was identical with the ivy of the funeral contain nothing that savours of Romish errors ; garland. The holly and ivy thus contrasted may but, on the contrary, abound with arguments represent the twofold pbase of the festival - against them." He also quotes from the first the gloom of the “mother night” and the joy of Letter to one tempted to the Communion of the the new-born year.

Church of Rome,' a passage already printed in Still, if this were all, it is hard to see why the N. & Q.' (45b S. vi. 391), to the effect that the funeral emblems are given to the female, while allegation was perfectly a slander." the brightness and merriment ascribed to the holly The Rev. Robert Aris Willmott, in his work on are always male, and stranger still why the Bishop Jeremy Taylor' (1847), speaks (p. 99) of weeping ivy is placed without the door and the the “improbable story of his intended secession dancing holly within, a position which the to the Roman Church," and adds that “ we must youngest Viking, the beardless boy, would have close our ears to the universal teaching of his works, scouted and contemned. But if we accept the holly before we can believe that he bad ever turned a and ivy as the memorials of the return of the favourable eye upon the papal superstition." exiled Goths from the borders of the Euxine, they Anthony à Wood appears to be the first writer full of meaning :

who referred to the rumour. His words are:Ivy stands without the door and is full sore acold. “ About the same time (that he was admitted a fellow What attitude could more vividly describe the of All Souls') he was in a ready way be confirmed a desolation of those Saxon women, hopelessly watch member of the church of Rome, as many of that per

Buasion have said, but upon a sermon delivered in S. ing through that weary "mother night" of sepa- Mary's Church in Oxon. on the 5 of November (Gunration and suspense ; or what more fitting emblem | powder-treason day), an. 1638, wherein several things

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were put in against the papists by the then vice-chan- Wood was first introduced to Franciscus à cellor, he was afterwards rejected with scorn by those of Sancta Clara at Somerset House on 29 Aug., 1669, that party, particularly by Fr. à S. Clara, bis intimate and afterwards visited him frequently in London. acquaintance; to whom afterwards he expressed some sorrow for those things be had said against them, as the

THOMPSON COOPER, F.S.A. said S. Clara hath several times told me."- Athena

THE SEA-SERPENT. - It is interesting to find Oxonienses,' ed, Bliss, iii. 782. Franciscus à Sancta Clara above referred to quity. Some myth relating to it appears to have

that the sea-serpent was known in remote antiwas a learned Franciscan friar, whose real name existed among the Accads, who, blending, with was Christopher Davenport, and who sometimes later arriving races, helped to form the population passed under the name of Hunt. He was born at of ancient Chaldea. Speaking of the worship of Coventry in 1598, and died at Somerset House, serpent gods, Lenormant says in ‘La Magie chez in the Strand, on 31 May, 1680. For some years les Chaldéens,' 1874, p. 207:— be lived in concealment at Oxford, or in the neigh

“The Accads made of the serpent one of the principal bourhood, being on terms of friendship with Dr. attributes, and one of the figures of Ea (lord of the Barlow, the Bodleian librarian.

terraqueous surface of the earth, and of the atmosphere), Heber, in his 'Life of Jeremy Taylor' (p. xvi), and we have a very important allusion to a mythological expresses the opinion that

serpent in these words of a dithyramb in the Accadian

tongue placed in the mouth of a god, perhaps Ea...... "when Davenport, as Wood assures us, ascribed to Like to the enormous serpent with seven heads, the Taylor & regularly formed resolution of being reconciled weapon with seven heads, I hold it. Like to the serpent to the church of Rome......it is most reasonable, as well which lashes the waves of the sea [attacking) the enemy as most charitable, to impute the assertion to a failure in face-devastatrix in the shock of battles, extending of memory, not unnatural to one

so far advanced in its power over the heaven and the earth, the weapon years as he must bave been when Wood conversed with with (seven) heads (I hold it].'" him."

The words given in brackets are emendations Wood's assertion is, however, confirmed in a billing spaces where the text is mutilated in the remarkable manner by a passage occurring in

original.

G. W. very rare work, which is not to be found, I believe, in the Library of the British Museum. This is MOTTOES FOR SUNDIALS.-Some of the readers entitled, “The Literary Life of the Rev. John of ' N. & Q.' may like to know that there are upSerjeant, written by himself at Paris, 1700, at the wards of three hundred of these in Charles Leadrequest of the Duke of Perth"; and it was pub better's 'Mechanick Dialling ; or, the New Art lished at London in 1816, 8vo., under the editor of Shadows,' 8vo., 1773, pp. 101-116. It would ship of the Rev. John Kirk, D.D. Serjeant, or be well if they were reprinted in ‘N. & Q.' or elsemore properly Sergeant, who was a distinguished where, as I think the book containing them is controversial writer on the Catholic side, after rare. I do not call to mind ever having seen a referring to his reply to Bishop Taylor's ' Dissuasive copy except that in the library of the Society of from Popery,' makes the following positive state. Antiquaries.

EDWARD PEACOCK. ment:

[See Indexes to 'N. & Q.,' passim.] “Mr. Hunt, otherwise called Sancta Clara, a Fran. ciscan, a worthy and grave man, did assure me, that

FOLK - LORE

TO MARRIAGE AND when Dr. Taylor was a Master of Arts in Oxford, he BAPTISM. -A short time since I was at a wedding had converted him to the Catholic faith, and was about in Lincolnshire. On the important morning the to reconcile him; but it happened, that there running a whisper in the university that he was inclined to bridegroom had an interview with his mother-inPopery, the Vice-chancellor, to give him occasion to law to be in the garden of her house, it not being clear himself, put him upon preaching the 5th of Novem considered right that he should come indoors until ber sermon, which he did, and (as is the fashion) did after the marriage ceremony. I believe he had in it tell twenty lies of the faith and faults of Catholics. dined with the bride and her family the night Fear of the world, and of losing his repute in the uni.

before. versity, made him to commit that fault; for he was far from having yet received the Holy Ghost to strengthen A working man in Yorkshire was advised to bim;

yet he still preserved his former intentions. But call his child Giles or Michael, because of the dates Mr. Blunt would not yield to reconcile or absolve him, of its birth and baptism; but he declined, saying till be bad first by some public writing made satisfaction “the saints would want it” if he made it their for the lies he had preached and printed (as bis sermon was by order of the Vice-cbancellor) against God's

namesake. This idea is probably of Protestant church, and bad retracted the falsehoods he had growth, as in earlier times it was quite general to preached; which he, valuing the praise of men name a child after the saint who presided over its than the glory of God, would not do, and so lost bis half. birthday.

St. SWITHIN. vocation, and continued as he was. In Cromwell's days be bad published his ' Liberty of Prophecying,' in which he was very civil to Catholics. But now the Church vii. 287, 414; gth S. vi. 448; vii. 156).-As this

MATTHEW ARNOLD'S CROMWELL.' (See 7th S. of England scrambling up again at King Charles his restoration, and he having got a bishopric, he was poem, I believe, is very scarce-I fancy it is not become our greatest enemy."

even in the London Library, but I am not sure

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RELATING

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I think it may interest your readers, or some of But in the early days of the Tractarian movement them, to make some acquaintance with it. I the adoption of this costume was a sure sign that accordingly send what is perhaps the finest passage, the wearer sympathized with that section of the or, at all events, one of the finest passages in it, High Church party then known as Paseyites. hoping that .N. & Q.' will find room for it. I and after Cardinal Newman went over to the owe my own acquaintance with the poem to a Church of Rome, these garments were stigmatized correspondent of N. & Q.,'uoknown to me per- with the epithet of M.B., which briefly meant sonally, who has, very kindly and courteously, lent “ Mark of the Beast.” me a volume of Oxford Prize Poems,' containing “Tbird, I really fear whether a profane person like also Dean Stanley's interesting poem "The Gipsies.' me, a carnal west country alderman, in a white bat and Then his ege Blumbered, and the chain was broke

brown holland trousers, would not be somewhat out of That bound his spirit, and his heart awoke;

character among the cloud of M.B. coats, which I con. Thon-like a kingly river-swift and strong,

ceive a meeting of the E.C.C.C.S. (as Hope writes it) to The future rolled its gathering tides along !

present."– Lile and Letters of E. A. Freeman, D.C.L., The shout of onset and the shriek of fear

LL.D.,' by W. R. W. Stephens, B.D., vol. i. p. 46, letter Smote, like the rush of waterr, on bis ear;

from É. A. F. to the Rev. B. Webb, dated 22 April, 1854. And his eye kindled with the kindling fray,

“ Betsy had arranged this object' in a pink bed-gown The surging battle and the mailed array !

of her own, a pair of the minister's trousers turned up All wondrous deeds the coming days should see,

nearly to the knee in a roll the thickness of a man's And the long Vision of the years to be.

wrist, and one of the minister's now-fangled M.B. waistPale phantom hosts, like shadowe, faint and far,

coato, tbrough the armholes of wbich two very long Councils, and armies, and the pomp of war !

arms escapod, clad as far as the elbows in the sleeves of And one swayed all, who wore a kingly crown,

the pink bed-gown."-See The Colleging of Simeon Until another rose and smote bim down.

Oleg.' in Mr. 7. R. Crockett's • Bog Myrtle and Peat,' A form that towered above his brother mon;

p. 268, London, 1895. A form he knew-but it was shrouded then !

It is, perhaps, worth while noticing that in 1895 With stern slow steps-unseen-yet still the same, a minister of the Scotch Kirk is represented as By leaguered tower and tented field it came; By Naseby's bill, o'er Marston's heatby waste,

wearing as a matter of course a garment which By Worcester's field, the warrior-vision passed !

in 1845 was considered to be the badge of the From their deep base thy beetling cliffs, Dunbar,

extreme Romanizing party of the Church of EngRang, as he trode them, with the voice of war !

land,

O. W. Penny. The soldier kindled at his words of fire;

Wokingbam. The statesman quailed before bis glance of ire ! Worn was his brow with cares no thought could scan; ORAL Tradition. The following clipping from His step was loftier than the steps of man; And the winds told his glory—and the wave

the Scotsman of Tuesday, 19 November, seems Sonorous witness to his empire gave ! LI, 131-58.

worthy of preservation in 'N. & Q.':With the last couplet may be compared the lines father of the Church of Scotland, attained his ninety

“ The Rev. Dr. Smith, of Cathcart, Glasgow, the in Mr. Swinburne's fine poem Cromwell's Statue,' second birthday yesterday. The reverend gentleman, in the Nineteenth Century magazine for July, 1895: who continues to enjoy good health, bas been minister of His hand won back the sea for England's dower.

the parish of Cathcart for sixty-seven years, and cele

brated bis pastoral jubilee in 1878. He retains a wonder. His praise is in the sea's and Milton's song.

ful memory, and has a recollection of conversing with a

soldier who carried arms at Culloden." This being so, may we not apply to Cromwell Thus the account of an event which happened a Victor Hugo's lines in praise of “Welf, Castellan hundred and fifty years since, may to-day be had d'Osbor'?

only at second hand. Si la mer prononçait des noms dans ses marées,

R. M. SPENCE, M.A. O vieillard, ce serait des noms comme le tien.

Mange of Arbuthnott, N.B. JONATHAN BOUCHIER, HAPPY Text. - At the conference of the M.B. COATS AND Waistcoats. During the Institute of Journalists, held at Exeter in Septemlast few days I bave come upon the following two ber last, the Rev. Canon Edmonds, B.D., preached passages which seem worthy of preservation in a sermon in the cathedral from the words : "And N. & Q.' There are probably many readers of He charged them that they should tell no man; the younger generation to whom the letters M.B., but the more He charged them, so much the

more when applied to coats and waistcoats

, must present a great deal they published it” (St. Mark, vii. 36). an impenetrable mystery. It may be as well, This surely deserves a record among felicitous texts. then, to say that they were originally used to It must be added that the sermon was worthy of it. describe a long clerical coat which came down

B. W. S. Dearly to the heels of the wearer, and a waistcoat A New CRYPTOGRAM.--At this time of year which hid bis shirt entirely from view, after the new puzzles are sometimes in vogue. manner of a cassock. The waistcoat is now almost Most cryptograms are really very easy to solve. aniversally worn by the clergy, and the coat, with Their usual defect is that the same symbol always a considerable shortening of its tail, still survives. means the same thing. I offer for solution the

&

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