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Yule, Sir Henry, LL.D., 1830-1889. Scottish engineer, in India 1840-62. Cathay, 1866; Book of Marco Polo, 1871; AngloIndian Glossary, 1886.

Ynlee, David Levy, 1811-1886. M.C. from Fla. 1841-45; U. S. Senator 1845-51 and 1855-61.

Yule Log. Still burned in parts of England and the Continent at Christmastide. The usage is a survival from the old festival of the revival of the sun after the winter solstice. Magical properties are attributed to the Yule Log, which is believed to bring good luck. It is a widespread custom to keep part of the old log to light the new one the following year. In n. Italy the charred log is regarded as a protection against lightning.

Ymien*. Native tribes of the coast of Peru, who have now become merged in the general population. In the vicinity of Lima there are many ruins attributable to this people, the most extensive being at Caxamarquilla, ab. 15 m. from Lima and near Truxillo.

Yun-ho, or Yun-lianq-ho. Chinese name of the Grand and Imperial Canal. It runs from Hangchou to Tientsin, ab. 700 m.; constructed in the first part of the 7th century primarily for the conveyance of the tribute of rice from the s. provinces. It is still an important means of communication between the n. and s. in the e. plain, though the section n. from the Hwangho to the Yu-ho has been dry since ab.1852.

Yupanqui, ab.1380-ab.1440. Ninth Inca sovereign of Peru. He assumed the government ab.1400, conquered the Chancas, and annexed their territory. At his death the Inca Empire embraced nearly all the territory of what is now Peru.

Yuruarl. River of Venezuela, rising to the e. of the valley of the Caroni, flowing e. till it joins the Cuyuni in ab. 61J° W, long. Its valley contains valuable gold mines.

Ylisle. Village of Spain 28 m. e. of Plasencia, on the slopes of the Sierra de Vera. It has ruins of a famous Hieronymite monastery, where Charles V. spent the last 18 months of his life and died Sept. 21, 1558.

Yu§uf-ben Taxfyn, d.1106. Emir of Morocco; victor over Alfonso VI. of Castile 1086; usurper in Cordova, Grenada, and other kingdoms of s. Spain.

Yver de Chazelles, Jean Pierre, 1709-1786. French naval officer and Arctic explorer. Voyage, 1752-53; Mexico, 1778.

Yves d'Evrenx, Pierre, ab.1575-ab.1625. French Capuchin, missionary to Brazil 1611-14. His Voyage, 1615, was repub. 1864.

Yvetot. Town of n. France, 24 m. n.w. of Rouen. Till 1881 its lords were entitled king, as in a familiar song of Beranper. Yvon, Adolphe, 1817-1893. French painter. Y'> lang-Y 'ylang. See Ihlang-ihlang.

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Zabism, or Sabism. Svstem of pagan philosophy, containing Gnostic and Neoplatonic elements, chiefly in Syria ab. 800-1200.

Zabriskic, Abraham Oothout, 1807-1873. Chancellor of N. J. 1866-72.

Zaeatecas. Capital of the state of Z. in central Mexico, in a silver mining region; founded ab.1540. Elevation 8,000 ft., pop. ab. 60,000. The state has an area of 25,229 sq.m.; pop., 1893, ab. 486,000.

Zneli, Franz, Freiherr Von, 1754-1832. Hungarian-German astronomer.

Zneeliaeu§. Jewish taxgatherer at Jericho, whose curiosity to see Jesus passing through Jericho led to his conversion. Luke xix. 1-10.

Zaeliariae, Just Fkiedrich Wilhelm, 1726-1777. German mock-heroic poet.

Zaeliarias, d.752. Pope from 741; able and influential.

Zacyntllllg (modern Zante). Largest of the Ionian Islands; w. of Morea. It is entirely mountainous or hilly in the w., with a stretch of fertile plains running n.e. to the s. coast; the w. coast is accessible only in summer; noted for its vines and

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Mediterranean, 7 m. n.w. of the mouth of the Muluya; known from ancient times as a protection to ships. Spain, who owns them, has fortified them as outworks for Melilla.

Znlfrc. Residue obtained in roasting cobalt ores. Ground up with various substances, it is used for painting porcelain blue.

Zngros Mountain*. Between ancient Media and Assyria; general name for the mountain systems of w. Persia.

Zalin, Thoedor. D.D., b.1838. Prof. Gottingen 1871, Erlangen 1878 and 1891, Leipzig 1888-91. Cyprian, 1882; Hut. N. T. Canon, 1888-91.

Znldivnr, Rafael, b. ab.1830. Pres. Salvador 1876-&5.

Zalcuciis, 7th cent. B.C. Greek lawgiver of Locri.

ZaliiiKki, Edmund Louis Gray, b.1849 in Poland. Lieut. U.S.A. 1866, Captain 1887; developer of the pneumatic dynamite torpedo-gun and other military devices; writer on ordnance.

ZnluNkl, Josef Andrei, 1702-1774. Bp. of Kieff; banished 1767-73; Polish bibliographer and collector. Leges Polonia, 1732: Specimen hist. Polonicm eriticce, 1733.

Zhiiih. Fortified city in Numidia. where Scipio defeated Hannibal and ended the 2d Punic war 202 B. C.

Zamaeois, Eduardo, 1842-1871. Spanish genre painter. Fine colorist and brilliant designer. Education of a Prince. 1870.

Znmbceenrl, Francesco, Count, 1756-1812. Italian aeronaut.

Zambesi. River of s. Africa. Rises in lat. 12° S., flows s.e.. n.e., e., and finally s.e. to the Indian Ocean. Owing to the

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Zebu (Bos indicut).

in India have been bred for specific purposes, resulting in several races, useful for milk, draught, riding, etc. White bulls when branded with the image of Siva are held especially sacred by the Hindus: they are free from labor and restraint, and are not molested even when they commit depredations.

Zebulun. Tenth son of the patriarch Jacob, and ancestor of one of the twelve tribes of Israel.

Zeeharfali. Jewish prophet, author of 38th O. T. book, ab. 520 B.C., written to encourage the despondent Jews after the return from Babylon. Chapters ix.-xiv. are perhaps much older.

Zcdekiah. Last king of Judah 598-588 B.C.; son of Josiah. Rebelling against Nebuchadnezzar of Babvlon, his suzerain, he saw Jerusalem taken, the temple burneJ, his sons slain, and was then blinded and carried to Babylon, there to die in prison. Jer. xxxiv. 2-5.

Zedlitz, Joseph Christian Von, 1790-1862. Austrian poet and dramatist.

Zedoary. Name given to the roots of several species of Zingiber and Curcuma, native of China and Bengal, resembling ginger in its qualities, but now entirely replaced by the latter.

Zeeland. See Zealand.

Zcishcrscr, David, 1721-1808. Moravian missionary among the Indians of Pa. and Ohio; abundant in labors and sufferings. Delaware Dictionary, 1887; Onondaga Grammar, 1888; Diary, 1888.

Zelaya, Jose Santos, b. ab.1845. Pres. of Nicaragua 1893.

Zell, Bernhard, 1715-1779. German traveler in Mexico and Cal. His Reisen, 1771-72, indicated the existence of gold in Cal.

Zell, Matthaus, 1477-1548. Reformer at Strasburg.

Zeller, Eduard, b.1814. Prof, of Theology at Berne 1847 and Marburg 1849, of Philosophv at Heidelberg 1802 and Berlin 1873-94. Philosophy of the Greeks. 1844-52 and later, tr. in 6 vols. 1868-83; Hist. Apostles, 1854, tr. 1875-76; Strauss. 1874.

Zeller, Jules Sylvain, b. 1820. Prof. Paris 1858; historical writer: especially on Italy and Germany.

Zeller, Karl Friedrich, 1758-1832. German musician, teacher of Mendelssohn; conductor Singakademie in Berlin; founder Royal Institute for church music 1809.

Zenana. Harem or women's apartments in India.

Zend. Old Persian dialect, sometimes called Old Bactrian, in which was written the sacred book of Zoroaster, the Avesta (q.v.). It comprised three books of verse, hymns, prayers, and laws.

Zendejas, Miouel Geronimo, 1724-1816. Mexican painter, self-taught.

Zenea. Joan Clemente, 1834-1871. Cuban lyric poet and patriot; executed.

Zenith. Point where the plumb-line produced upward pierces the celestial sphere.

Zenitb Distance. That of a star from the zenith, measured on a great circle.

Zenith Telescope. Instrument much used for determination of latitude. It consists of a telescope having an altitude and azimuth mounting, provided with a delicate level and mi crometer, by means of which the difference of zenith distance


Combination Transit and Zenith Telescope.

of two stars may be measured. These stars are so selected that one culminates n. of the zenith, the other s. at approximately equal zenith distances. The measurements so made with the declinations of the stars furnish data for determining the latitude.

Zenker, Jonathan Karl, 1799-1837. Prof. Jena 1828. Die Pflanzen und ihr Studium iiberhaupt, 1830: Merkantilische Waarenkunae, 1831-35.

Zeno, 5th cent. B.C. Philosopher of Elea, s. Italy; pupil of Parmenides; famous for his denial of the existence of motion and for the paradoxical illustrations of Achilles and the Tortoise, and of the flying arrow, to prove his position.

Zeno, ab.850-260 B.C. Philosopher of Cyprus, founder of the Stoic school or "Porch" at Athens ab. 312 B.C.

Zeno, d.491. Byzantine Emperor 474; Isaurian; son-in-law of Leo I.

Zeno, Apostolo, 1668-1750. Italian dramatist, poet, and critic. Plays, 10 vols., 1744; Epistole, 6 vols., 1785.

Zeno, Nicolo. ab.l340-ab. 1391. Venetian seaman, said to have visited Greenland, Newfoundland, and coasted as far Virginia.

Zcnobia. Wife of Odenathus, King of Palmyra. Queen of the East 266; defeated and made prisoner by Aurelian 272; led in his triumph 274.

Zenon dc Rouvroy, Charles Albert, 1098-1759. French writer on the American colonies.

Zenteno, Carlos De Tapia, 1698-ab.l770. Prof. Mexico: writer on Aztec language.

Zenteno, Jose Iqnacto, 1785-1847. Chilian general and minister of war, active against Spain.

Zeolite. Group of minerals, including a number of species,

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