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substance, and is not itself true protoplasm: hence it is called deuteroplasni. The so-called ••yolk" of a hen's egg represents the entire original egg cell or ovum, greatly distended with yolk granules: the white is accessory albuminous food material, wrapped around the ovum after it leaves the ovary, and after it has been impregnated. Yolk-Gland*). See Vitellarium.

Yolk-Xueleus. Accessory nucleus present in eggs during their growth, and supposed to have the function of making yolk. It is not constantly present, and in many eggs the proper nucleus of the egg manufactures the yolk spheres. In other cases the investing cells of the ovum elaborate the yolk, which is absorbed by the ovum directly; sometimes entire cells or their nuclei may wander into the ovum, where they undergo degeneration and conversion into yolk. See PARANUCLEUS.

Yolk-Sac. Egg. or yolk of the egg, after it has been inclosed by epibole and the embryo developed as a definite structure upon it, so that a sharp demarcation exists between the yolk and the embryo.

Yon. Edmond Charles, 1841-1897. French etcher.

Yonge, Charlotte Mart, b.1823. English novelist and historical writer, in the Ch. interest: author of some 120 vols.; ed. Monthly Packet. Heir of Bedeli/ffe, 1853: Landmark* of History. 1852-57: Daisy Chain. 1856; Golden Deeds, 1864; Book of Worthies, 1868; Life of Bp. Patteson, 1873.

Yonkeri. City of Westchester co., N. Y., on the e. bank of the Hudson. 18 Iu. n. of the Batterv; suburb of New York; chartered 1855 and 1872. Pop., 1890, 32,033.

Vorititmo. MlNAMOTO. 1146-1199. Sbogun of Japan 1192; founder of its mediaeval system.

York. Ancient city of Yorkshire, on the river Ouse; capital of Northumbria and Deira: destroyed by William I. 1068. Its noble minster dates mostly 1154-1400. The cathedral is in many respects the most remarkable of all English churches.

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It measures 524J ft. by 250 ft., with central tower 216 ft. high, and the western towers each 202 ft. It was completed as it now stands in 1472. Hadrian resided here in 120. and Severus died here 211. The castle, dating from Edward I., is an interesting object near the river, with Clifford's Tower. Pop., 1891, 66.984.

York. Capital of York co.. Pa.; 28 m. s. of Harrisburg; founded 1741; chartered 1787 as a borough, 1887 as a city. It has some manufactures. Congress met here 1777-78. Pop., 1890, 2u.79:i.

York, Archbishopric Of. Second to that of Canterbury, <rivin;rits incumbent third rank after the royal family; founded 634. It had Scottish jurisdiction till ab.1470.

York, Cardinal. See Stuart, Henry B.

York, House Of. Richard, Duke of York, was descended on the female side from Lionel, Duke of Clarence. 3d son of Edward III., as also by his father from the 5th son of the same Edward: the house of Lancaster held the throne by descent

from the 4th son of Edward III. The law of primogeniture favored York. To this line belong Edward TV. and V. and Richard III. The civil wars were ended, and the claims of the 'two rival houses to the throne merged, by the marriage of Eliz, abeth, eldest daughter of Edward IV., to Henry VII., his danI gerous rivals being removed by execution. The badge of Yors was a white rose. Yorke. See Habdwicke. Earl Of. Yorkshire. See Swine. Yorkshire College. See Leeds.

Yorktown. Capital of York co., Va.. on York River. Here Cornwallis, after a siege of ten days, surrendered to Washington Oct. 19. 1781. Magruder and' Johnson, C.3.A.. were besieged bv McClellan April 5-May 4,1862, and abandonee the town. Pop!. 1890, 221.

York von Wartenburg, Hans David Ludwio. Graf Von, 1759-1830. Prussian general 1807; leader in the revoil against Napoleon and alliance with Russia 1812-13; distinguished 1813-14; ennobled 1814; Field-marshal 1821.

Yoruba, or Yarriba. Farming country of w. Africa, n.e. of Dahomey. Area ab. 19.000 sq. m.. pop. ab. 3.000.000.

Yosemite Valley. In the Sierra Nevada, Cal.. ab. t ni. long, a mile or less in width, and near a mile below neighboring level; surrounded by precipitous granite walls, 3.000 to 4,000 ft. high; supposed to be the work of a glacier; first known to whites 1851; controlled by State commissioners; greatlr resorted to for its scenery. Its falls and rocks are especially famed.

You. DOMINIQUE, 1775-1830. Leader of La. pirates, pardoned for his services in the battle of New Orleans 1815, and thenceforth prominent in public affairs.

Yoaatt, William, 1777-1847. English veterinarian and writer. The Horse, 1831; Sheep, 1832; Cattle, 1834; 77k Dog. 1842.

Youmani, Edward Livingston. M.D., 1821-1887. American writer on chemistry; founder International Scientific Series 1871. and Popular Science Monthly 1872. Houx&M Science, 1867.—His sister and helper, Euza Ann. b.1826. hus pub. several books on Botany.—His brother. William J AT, 51.D., b.1838. has continued his editorial work, and pub. Pioneers of Science, 1895.

Young, Sir Allen William, R.N., b.1830. Arctic explorer, knighted 1877. Two Voyages of the Pandora. 1879.

Yonng, Andrew White. 1802-1877. American writer on government. Political Hist. U. S., 1855-88.

Young, Arthur, 1741-1820. English farmer and author: Sec. to Board of Agriculture from 1793; ed. Annals of Agriculture, 1784-1801. His Towr in Ireland, 1780, and Travels in France, 1792-94. were repub. 1890-92; the latter is often quoted. His Farmers' Kalendar, 1771, was verv widelv circulated. A French tr. of his works, 1800-1, filled 20 vols."

Young, Bhioham, 1801-1877. Mormon elder 1832, apostle 1835. and pres. 1844: leader of the emigration from Nauvoo. 111., to Utah; founder of Salt Lake City 1847, and of the Stat

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Yule, Sir Henry, LL.D., 1830-1889. Scottish engineer, in India 1840-62. Cathay, 1866; Book of Marco Polo, 1871; AngloIndian Glossary, 1886.

Ynlee, David Levy, 1811-1886. M.C. from Fla. 1841-45; U. S. Senator 1845-51 and 1855-61.

Yule Log. Still burned in parts of England and the Continent at Christmastide. The usage is a survival from the old festival of the revival of the sun after the winter solstice. Magical properties are attributed to the Yule Log, which is believed to bring good luck. It is a widespread custom to keep part of the old log to light the new one the following year. In n. Italy the charred log is regarded as a protection against lightning.

Ymien*. Native tribes of the coast of Peru, who have now become merged in the general population. In the vicinity of Lima there are many ruins attributable to this people, the most extensive being at Caxamarquilla, ab. 15 m. from Lima and near Truxillo.

Yun-ho, or Yun-lianq-ho. Chinese name of the Grand and Imperial Canal. It runs from Hangchou to Tientsin, ab. 700 m.; constructed in the first part of the 7th century primarily for the conveyance of the tribute of rice from the s. provinces. It is still an important means of communication between the n. and s. in the e. plain, though the section n. from the Hwangho to the Yu-ho has been dry since ab.1852.

Yupanqui, ab.1380-ab.1440. Ninth Inca sovereign of Peru. He assumed the government ab.1400, conquered the Chancas, and annexed their territory. At his death the Inca Empire embraced nearly all the territory of what is now Peru.

Yuruarl. River of Venezuela, rising to the e. of the valley of the Caroni, flowing e. till it joins the Cuyuni in ab. 61J° W, long. Its valley contains valuable gold mines.

Ylisle. Village of Spain 28 m. e. of Plasencia, on the slopes of the Sierra de Vera. It has ruins of a famous Hieronymite monastery, where Charles V. spent the last 18 months of his life and died Sept. 21, 1558.

Yu§uf-ben Taxfyn, d.1106. Emir of Morocco; victor over Alfonso VI. of Castile 1086; usurper in Cordova, Grenada, and other kingdoms of s. Spain.

Yver de Chazelles, Jean Pierre, 1709-1786. French naval officer and Arctic explorer. Voyage, 1752-53; Mexico, 1778.

Yves d'Evrenx, Pierre, ab.1575-ab.1625. French Capuchin, missionary to Brazil 1611-14. His Voyage, 1615, was repub. 1864.

Yvetot. Town of n. France, 24 m. n.w. of Rouen. Till 1881 its lords were entitled king, as in a familiar song of Beranper. Yvon, Adolphe, 1817-1893. French painter. Y'> lang-Y 'ylang. See Ihlang-ihlang.

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Zabism, or Sabism. Svstem of pagan philosophy, containing Gnostic and Neoplatonic elements, chiefly in Syria ab. 800-1200.

Zabriskic, Abraham Oothout, 1807-1873. Chancellor of N. J. 1866-72.

Zaeatecas. Capital of the state of Z. in central Mexico, in a silver mining region; founded ab.1540. Elevation 8,000 ft., pop. ab. 60,000. The state has an area of 25,229 sq.m.; pop., 1893, ab. 486,000.

Zneli, Franz, Freiherr Von, 1754-1832. Hungarian-German astronomer.

Zneeliaeu§. Jewish taxgatherer at Jericho, whose curiosity to see Jesus passing through Jericho led to his conversion. Luke xix. 1-10.

Zaeliariae, Just Fkiedrich Wilhelm, 1726-1777. German mock-heroic poet.

Zaeliarias, d.752. Pope from 741; able and influential.

Zacyntllllg (modern Zante). Largest of the Ionian Islands; w. of Morea. It is entirely mountainous or hilly in the w., with a stretch of fertile plains running n.e. to the s. coast; the w. coast is accessible only in summer; noted for its vines and

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Mediterranean, 7 m. n.w. of the mouth of the Muluya; known from ancient times as a protection to ships. Spain, who owns them, has fortified them as outworks for Melilla.

Znlfrc. Residue obtained in roasting cobalt ores. Ground up with various substances, it is used for painting porcelain blue.

Zngros Mountain*. Between ancient Media and Assyria; general name for the mountain systems of w. Persia.

Zalin, Thoedor. D.D., b.1838. Prof. Gottingen 1871, Erlangen 1878 and 1891, Leipzig 1888-91. Cyprian, 1882; Hut. N. T. Canon, 1888-91.

Znldivnr, Rafael, b. ab.1830. Pres. Salvador 1876-&5.

Zalcuciis, 7th cent. B.C. Greek lawgiver of Locri.

ZaliiiKki, Edmund Louis Gray, b.1849 in Poland. Lieut. U.S.A. 1866, Captain 1887; developer of the pneumatic dynamite torpedo-gun and other military devices; writer on ordnance.

ZnluNkl, Josef Andrei, 1702-1774. Bp. of Kieff; banished 1767-73; Polish bibliographer and collector. Leges Polonia, 1732: Specimen hist. Polonicm eriticce, 1733.

Zhiiih. Fortified city in Numidia. where Scipio defeated Hannibal and ended the 2d Punic war 202 B. C.

Zamaeois, Eduardo, 1842-1871. Spanish genre painter. Fine colorist and brilliant designer. Education of a Prince. 1870.

Znmbceenrl, Francesco, Count, 1756-1812. Italian aeronaut.

Zambesi. River of s. Africa. Rises in lat. 12° S., flows s.e.. n.e., e., and finally s.e. to the Indian Ocean. Owing to the

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