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coiLage is abundant. The university, founded 1582, has ab. 75 teachers and 1,500 students, largely in medicine. Pop., 1890, 60,844.

Wuttke, Heinrich. 1818-1876. Prof. Leipzig 1848; historian of Silesia 1842-47. Entstehung der Schrift, vol. i., 1872.

Wultke, Karl Friedrich Adolf, 1819-1870. Prof. Berlin 18.54, and Halle 1861. Geschichte des Heidenthums, 1852-53; Christian Ethics, 1860-62, tr. 1873.

Wyandots. Tribe connected with the Iroquois. A few remain in I. T. and Kan.

YVyant, Alexander H., 1836-1892. American landscape paink r. N. A. 1869.

Wyatt, Sir Francis, ab.1575-1644. Gov. of Va. 1621-26 and 1639-42.

Wyatt, James. 1746-1813. English architect, builder of Beckford's Fonthill Abbey, Wiltshire, Eng.

Wyatt, Sir Matthew Digby, 1820-1877. English architect, knighted 1869. Industrial Arts. 1851; Metal-work, 1852; Fine Art, 1870; Note-book in Spain, 1872.

Wyatt, Richard, 1795-1850. English sculptor.

Wyatt, Sir Thomas, 1503-1542. English lyric poet, knighted 1536. His works, collected 1557, are largely sonnets and satires. —His son, Sir Thomas, ab. 1521-1554, rose against Queen Mary, and was beheaded.

Wychcrlcy, William. 1640-1715. English author of a few prose comedies, notable for wit and grossness. written ab.165971, produced 1672-77, pub. 1712. The Plain Dealer, 1665-77. is the best, and procured his release from prison and a pension 1686.

Wycliffc. See Wiclif.

Wyt'llfTe College. At Toronto. Can.; theological school, founded 1779; affiliated with Toronto Univ.

Wye. Branch of the Severn, rising in Wales, and flowing 150 ni. e. and s.; noted for beauty.

Wyeth, John Allan, M.D., b.1845 in Ala. Prof, in New York 1881. Surgery, 1879-87.

Wyeth, Nathaniel J., 1802-1856. Pioneer, in Oregon from 1835.

Wykeham. See William Of Wykeham.

Wylle, James Aitken, LL.D., 1808-1890. Prof. Edinburgh Prot. Inst, from 1860; voluminous writer. Hist. Protestauism, 1874-77; Hist. Scottish Nation, 1886.

Wylle, Robert, 1839-1877. Anglo-American painter, in Brittany from 1864.

Wylle, Samuel Brown, D.D., 1773-1852. Reformed Presb. pastor in Phila. from 1802. and prof. 1809-51. Greek Grammar, 1838; Life of A. Mcteod, 1855.

Wyllyt, George, ab.1570-1645. Gov. of Conn. 1642.-His grandson, George, 1710-1796, was Sec. of Conn. 1734-94.—His son, Samuel, 1739-1823, was Col. 1776-82, and Sec. of Conn. 1796-1809.

Wj man. Jeffries. M.D., 1814-1874. Prof. Harvard from 1847; pres. Boston Society of Natural History 1856-70; active investigator, and of high authority as a comparative anatomist; author of many papers.

Wyman, Robert Harris, U.S.N., 1822-1882. ComniancW 1862; active on the Atlantic coast; Captain 1866; chief hydro?rapher 1869-77; Commodore 1872. Rear-admiral 1878.

Wynants, Jan, ab.l615-ab. 1680. Dutch landscape-painter.

Wynkin dc Wordc. See Worde.

Wynkoop, Henry, 1737-1816. In Congress from Pa. 177982; M.C. 1789-91.

Wynn, Richard, ab.1750-1813. S. C. officer 1775-82; M.C. 1793-95 and 1809-13.

Wynne, Edward, 1734-1784. English lawyer. Eunomm. 1767.

Wyntoun, Andrew Of. ab.1350-ab.1425. Scottish versifier, His Orygynale Cronykil extends to 1406, and was pub. 1795 and 1872-79.

Wyoming. State between Montana and Colorado, nearly rectangular; area 97,890 sq. m. The e. part consists of undulating plains. The central and s.w. portion is level and plateaulike; in the s. and n.w. are ranges of mountains, reaching altitudes of 14.000 ft. The average elevation is 6.400 ft. The climate is arid and subject to extremes of cold. The principal industries are cattle and sheep-raising and coal-mining, the latter mainly in the s.w. part. The capital is Cheyenne. W. was organized as a Territory 1868, and became a State 1890. Pop., 1890, 60,705. (See Map", page 1681.)

Wyoming Massacre. In Luzerne co.. Pa., on the Susquehanna, near Wilkesbarre, July 3-5, 1778. by British, In

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dians, and Tories, who slew over 200; celebrated by Campbell in Gertrude of Wyoming. The region was settled ab.1762, and was claimed by Conn, till 1788.

Wyoming, University Of. At Laramie: opened 1887. It comprises colleges of arts and of agriculture, a normul school, schools of mechanics and mines, and the State Experiment Station. It has 11 professors, 3 tutors, and 118 students.

Wyrc Forest. In the n. e. of Worcestershire, Eng., forming the s. part of the Severn coalfield.

Wyss, Johann Rudolf, 1781-1830. Prof. Berne 1806; eii. Alpenrose. 20 vols., 1811-30. His Swiss Family Bobinmt. 1812-13, is famous.

Wythe, George. LL.D., 1726-1806. Delegate to Congress 1775-76; signer of the Declaration of Independence: Va. judpe 1777; law prof, at William and Marv Coll. 1779-89; Chancellor of Va. from 1786; member U. S. Constitutional Convention 1787.

Wyttenhach, Daniel, 1746-1820. Prof. Amsterdam 1771. and Leyden 1799-1816; ed. of Plutarch's Moralia 1795-1830; biographer of Ruhnken 1800.—His wife, Johanna ( m.1818, d.1830, pub. Tlukigene, 1815, and Alexis, 1823.

Wyttenbaeh, Thomas. D.D., 1472-1526. Swiss reformer, teacher of Zwingli; prof. Basel 1505. canon at Berne 1515. m.1524.

Wyvern. Fictitious monster, occurring in heraldry. It resembles a dragon, but has only two legs and feet, which are like those of the eagle.

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prepared for the market by the New England States annually. See ACANTHOPTERI.

Xiphistcrnum. Posterior end of the breast bone.
Xiphoid Whale. See Odontoceti.
Xiphosura. See Pcecilopoda.
X-Rays. See Roentgen Rays.

Xylcm. Woody portion of a fibro-vascular bundle.

Xylem-Plate. Portion of xylem included between two medullary rays.

'Xylenes. C.H^CH,),. Dimethvlbenzenes; liquid hydrocarbons, known in three forms, all present in coal-tar, from which commercial xylene is prepared. Orthoxylene boils at 142° C, metaxylene at 137° C, and paraxylene at 137° C. They are used as solvents for rubber, and for making the xylidines.

Xylcnols. C,H,:,OH,(CH,),. Phenols derived from the xj'lenes; made by fusing the xylene sulphonic acids with caustic potash.

Xylldlne Red. C1,H1,N107S,Na„. Sodium salt of the compound formed by the action of diazoxylidine upon /J-naphtholdisulphonic acid; brown powder, soluble in water. It dyes wool red.

Xylidines. C,H, • NH,.(CH,),. Bases prepared by the action of reducing agents upon the nitroxylenes. Six forms are known; five are liquids, one is a solid. They are used in the manufacture of coal-tar colors.

Xyloidin. C,H,(NO)aO,. Explosive product obtained bv the action of nitric acid on starch; discovered by Braconnot 1832.—Also, some varieties of collodion prepared by the action of nitric acid on wood-cellulose.

Xylonite. See Celluloid.

Xylophone. Musical instrument formed by suspending a series of strips of wood so that they are free to vibrate transversely when struck with a little wooden mallet. Each piece



is of such dimensions as to sound with a known pitch. Thev are then arranged in a row. with the lowest notes at one end and the highest at the other. By striking the pieces in the proper order, melodies and other musical effects may be produced.

Xyridaceae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermce and sub-class Monocotyledons, comprising 2 genera and 50 species, widely distributed throughout the warmer parts of the earth; called the Yellow-Eyed-Grass family.

Xysythrus, or Xiscthrus. Name given by Berosus to the hero of the Deluge, in the Babylonian version of the story.

X. Y. X. Correspondence. Name given to the dispatches of Marshall, Pinckney and Gerry, who were sent to France as commissioners 1797. which contained the insulting demands of Talleyrand and the other Directors. In the congressional copies X. Y. and Z. were substituted by President Adams for the names of Talleyrand"s emissaries.

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