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prepared for the market by the New England States annually. See ACANTHOPTERI.

Xiphistcrnum. Posterior end of the breast bone.
Xiphoid Whale. See Odontoceti.
Xiphosura. See Pcecilopoda.
X-Rays. See Roentgen Rays.

Xylcm. Woody portion of a fibro-vascular bundle.

Xylem-Plate. Portion of xylem included between two medullary rays.

'Xylenes. C.H^CH,),. Dimethvlbenzenes; liquid hydrocarbons, known in three forms, all present in coal-tar, from which commercial xylene is prepared. Orthoxylene boils at 142° C, metaxylene at 137° C, and paraxylene at 137° C. They are used as solvents for rubber, and for making the xylidines.

Xylcnols. C,H,:,OH,(CH,),. Phenols derived from the xj'lenes; made by fusing the xylene sulphonic acids with caustic potash.

Xylldlne Red. C1,H1,N107S,Na„. Sodium salt of the compound formed by the action of diazoxylidine upon /J-naphtholdisulphonic acid; brown powder, soluble in water. It dyes wool red.

Xylidines. C,H, • NH,.(CH,),. Bases prepared by the action of reducing agents upon the nitroxylenes. Six forms are known; five are liquids, one is a solid. They are used in the manufacture of coal-tar colors.

Xyloidin. C,H,(NO)aO,. Explosive product obtained bv the action of nitric acid on starch; discovered by Braconnot 1832.—Also, some varieties of collodion prepared by the action of nitric acid on wood-cellulose.

Xylonite. See Celluloid.

Xylophone. Musical instrument formed by suspending a series of strips of wood so that they are free to vibrate transversely when struck with a little wooden mallet. Each piece



is of such dimensions as to sound with a known pitch. Thev are then arranged in a row. with the lowest notes at one end and the highest at the other. By striking the pieces in the proper order, melodies and other musical effects may be produced.

Xyridaceae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermce and sub-class Monocotyledons, comprising 2 genera and 50 species, widely distributed throughout the warmer parts of the earth; called the Yellow-Eyed-Grass family.

Xysythrus, or Xiscthrus. Name given by Berosus to the hero of the Deluge, in the Babylonian version of the story.

X. Y. X. Correspondence. Name given to the dispatches of Marshall, Pinckney and Gerry, who were sent to France as commissioners 1797. which contained the insulting demands of Talleyrand and the other Directors. In the congressional copies X. Y. and Z. were substituted by President Adams for the names of Talleyrand"s emissaries.

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Yak (Bos grunniena).

Yakuts. Turkish tribes of the Lena valley of Siberia, numbering ab. 200,000. They have strong Mongolian features, and great powers of endurance, practice stock-raising, but are mainly nomadic hunters. They are nominally Christians, but polygamy prevails extensively.

Yakutsk. Capital of the province of Y. in e. Siberia, 1.800 m. n.e. of Irkutsk, on a left bank branch of the Lena, Khatystakh. It has a great fair from June 22 to Aug. 13 (new style) with returns amounting toab. 2i million dollars. It was founded as a Cossack station 1(582. and is now the center of the fish, tallow and fur trade of n. Siberia.

Yale, Elihu,1649-1721. Anglo-Indian merchant, b. in Mass.; benefactor 1715-21 of the college which took his name.

Yale, Linus, 1821-1868. American inventor of combination locks.

Yale University. Chartered 1701 as the collegiate school of Conn.; in 171(5 removed from Saybrook to New Haven; named Yale College 1718. taking the name of a liberal benefactor; rechartered 1745; title changed 1887. It is organized in four departments: Philosophy and Arts (including the scientific school). Theology, Medicine, and Law. The theological school was founded 1822; degrees in theology were first conferred 1867. The medical school, organized 1812. came under the complete control of the corporation 1884. The scientific school, begun 1847 as a school of chemistry, was endowed by J. E. Sheffield 1860. and received the income of Conn, "landgrant" college 1863-93. There are, 1897. 122 professors, 115 assistants, and 2.495 studeuts. of whom 227 are graduates, 1,237 in the college, proper, 553 in the scientific departments, 104 in divinity, 138 in medicine,and 213 in law: the library contains 200,000 vols., with special collections aggregating 45,000 more. Women are admitted to the courses for the Ph.D. degree, and to the school of tine arts, founded 1864.

Yam. Vines of the genus Dioxcorea, natural family Dioscoreaeete. natives of India, bearing large, starchy roots; much cultivated in tropical countries as food-plants. The N. American I), rilhtxii has also a large root.

Yania. Hindu god of the dead, and king of the infernal regions.

Yamagnta, Ahitomo. Marquis, b. 1838. Japanese general and reformer; Pivtuier 1889-91, Minister of Justice 891-93; Count 1894, Marquis 1895; prominent in the war of 1894-95.

Vamaji, Motoharu, b. ab.1840. Japanese general, active in the Satsuma rebellion 1*77: in command at Port Arthur 1894; Viscount 1895.

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Yam (IHvHcorea nativ a, a flower; 6, root.

Brome Like and emptying into Lai of the St. Lawrence. Length 100 m

1 ana. River of Siberia, e. of the Lena, flowing ab. 1,000 m., mostly n., to the Arctic Ocean. Yancey, William Lowndes. 1814-1863. M. C. from Ala.

1811 47; zealous promoter of secession; Commissioner to Euroro. 1861, Confederate Senator 1862. 1

Yangtse-Kiailg. Largest river of China. It heads in the Niu Shan Mountains in n. Tibet, and after a very circuitous course of 3,200 m. flows into the Pacific. Drainage area ab 090,000 sq. m.

Yankee. Inhabitant of New England; term now applied by Europeans to a resident of the U. S.

Yankee Doodle. English tune of uncertain origin, probably ab. 1750, popular in the U.S. since ab 1776; first printed in Samuel Arnold's Opera, Two to One. London. 1784. The words of the American song were written 1755 by Dr. Schuckburgh, a surgeon in the army of Gen. Amherst, in the French and Indian war. The etymology and history of the word Yankee are doubtful. See National Hymns.

Yantic River. Stream of Conn., affording large waterpower and uniting with the Shetucket at Norwich and forming the Thames.

Yapura. See Japura.

Yard. British standard of length or Imperial yard was fixed by act of Parliament 1855. It was enacted "that the straight line, or distance between the centers of the transverse lines, in the two gold plugs in the bronze bar deposited in the office of the Exchequer shall be the genuine standard yard at 62*F., and if lost it shall be replaced by means of its copies." This length is equal, as nearly as possible, to that of the best standards formerly used in England. Authorized copies have been deposited at the Royal Mint, under the care of the. Royal Society, at the Observatory at Greenwich, and at the New Palace at, Westminster. Should all these copies ever become unavailable, the standard yard can be reproduced from the length of a seconds pendulum which has been accurately determined at a station near London to be 99.413 cm., equal to 39.139 in. Tbe yard is subdivided into three feet, and the foot into twelve inches. The American standard yard is a copy of the British, and is preserved in the Coast Survey Office, Washington, D.C.

Yard-4>ra»». See Crab-grass.

Yards. Spars on which a vessel's sails are spread.

Yard's Off. Variety of Hide-and-Seek, in which the chaser stands at a certain spot where a stick is placed upon some support, and counts a certain number while the other players run off and conceal themselves. He then seeks them, and when he spies one calls out and runs to his yard. If he reaches it first, the player who has been discovered becomes a prisoner there; if the discovered one reaches it first, he throws it as far as he can and runs off again. The chaser must replace the stick or yard before he can resume his search for the others. At any time while he is searching, one of the hiders may rush in. and. reaching the yard, throw it, thus liberating all the prisoners who may have been caught. When all are discovered and made prisoners, the first one taken becomes the searcher.

Yarmouth. Town of Norfolk. Eng.. on the Yare, near the North Sea; important from its herring fisheries. The estuary of the Yare, bordered on both sides by quays with a total length

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berries mid quercitron bark are fugitive colors. Gamboge, and Indian yellow, prepared in India from camels' urine, are used in water-color painting, but have a tendency to fade. Ochers, cadmium yellow (cadmium sulphide), lemon yellow (barium chromate), and Naples yellow (basic lead antimoniate), are all permanent. All can be used as water-colors except the last named.

Yellow Prussiate of Potash. See Potassium Ferro


Yellow-Rattle. Yellow-flowered herbs of the genus Rhinanthus, natural family Scrophulariaceie, natives of cooler parts of n. temperate zone.

Yellow River. See Hoano-ho.

Yellow-Root, Shrubby. Xanthorhiza apiifolia. Low shrub of the natural family Ranuneulacea;, with pinnate leaves and a deep yellow root, native of e. and s.e. U. S.

Yellows. Disease of p?ach trees, communicable from tree to tree, by what means is not known. The foliage is yellowish green, the fruit is spotted red. the new shoots are stiff-leaved, and bunched growths appear on the larger branches. The tree dies in 3 to 6 years. The cause is not known and there is no cure. Some States require the diseased trees to be destroyed.

Yellow Sea. Arm of the Pacific, between China and Corea.

Yellowstone Lake. In the National Park; on the Yellowstone, near its head. Elevation 7,741 ft., area 130 sq. m.

Yellowstone National Park. Reservation in n.w. Wyo., which has been set apart from settlement by the U. S. government. Its area is 3.312 sq. m. It is a volcanic region, the

fires of which nave not \pt been entirely extinguished. It contains the most extensive colleci ion of hot springs (ab. :i,000) and geysers (71) in the known world. Its surface consists mainly of an elevated plateau ab.8,000 ft. above sea level. Along its e. border extends a rugged range of mountains, whose highest peaks exceed 11,000 ft. In the n.w. another range enters the Park, and within itsareaaretwogroups of mountains 9,000 to 10,0)0 ft. in height. Nine-tenths of its area is covered with forests. Within it heads the Snake, which flows to the Columbia, and the Madison, Gallatin, and Yellowstone,which flow to the Missouri. Many of its streams have cut gorges in the volcanic plateau, the greatest of which is that of the Yellowstone, which has a depth of from 600 to 1,200 ft. and a length of 24 m. As hunting is prohibited in this area, it is rapidly becoming stocked with buffalo, elk, antelope, deer, and other wild game. It was first thoroughly explored 1870, and set apart by Congress as a public pleasure-ground 1872. It has several hotels connected by good roads.

Yellowstone River. Right-hand branch of the Missouri. It heads in n.w.Wyo., flows n. into Mont., then e. and n.e. to the border of N. D. Length nb. 1,300 m., drainage area 71.747 sq. m. It is navigable for small vessels at highwater to Livingston. Mont.

Yellow-Wood. Cladrastis litlea. Large white-flowered tree of the natural family Leguminosoe, with pinnate leaves and yellow wood, native of the s.e. U. S.

Yemen. S.w. province of Arabia, on the Red Sea. Area ab. 75,000 sq. m.

Yencsei. River of Siberia. It heads in the mountains bordering n. Mongolia, and flows n. ab. 3,200 m. to the Arctic Ocean. Drainage area 1,041,000 sq. no.

Yciiesei, Gulf Of. Inlet fronl the Arctic Ocean, in n.w. Siberia.

Yenlkale, Straits Of. Bodj' of water connecting the Sea of Azov (q.v.) with the Black Sea. The s. part is called Strait of Kertch. Length 19 m., width 3 m.

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Yeo, Sir James Lucas, R.N., 1782-1819. Captain 1809; active on Lake Ontario 1813-15.

Yeoman. Small farmer in England during the Mediaval and early modern period, holding land from the lord of the manor in fee simple, on lease at a money rent, or by copyhold, i.e., at a customary rent with security of tenure.

Yeomanry. British volunteer force, formed 1797 as infantrv, but cavalry since 1815; liable for home duty. Thev number ab. 12,000.*

Yeomen of the Guard. Company of British veterans, formed 1485 as a bodyguard for the king or queen.

Yerkes Observatory. At Lake Geneva, Wis.: dedicated 1897 by C. T. Yerkes for Univ.Chicago. It possesses the largest refracting telescope in the world; object-glass 40 in. aperture, tube 624 ft. long, focal distance 61 ft., cost of lens $100,000. cost of the whole $500,000.

Yesdigcrd III., 617-651. Persian king 632. He was the last of the Sassanidae. He warred with the Mussulmans, and was defeated at Cadesiah 636, and at Nehavend 641.

Yesso. See Yezo.

Yew. Taxus baccata. Evergreen shrub or tree of the Pine family, bearing red berry-like cones; native of the n. hemisphere. The east American yew is a low straggling bush, commonly called Ground Hemlock.

Yezd. Town of Persia 165 m. e.s.e. of Ispahan, situated in an oasis of mulberries in a sandy plain between two ranges of heights. The snow water from these hills is collected in underground reservoirs and used for irrigation. It is the center of the Persian silk industry, and contains nearlv all of the 9,000 or so adherents of Zoroastrianism. Pop., 1870, 1,000,000.

Yezidis. Kurdish tribe near the Tigris, numbering some 200.000; worshipers of Satan, whom they regard as once chief in the creation, and to be hereafter restored.

Yezo, or Yesso. Second in size of the islands of Japan, lying n. of Nippon. Its surface is mountainous, and in the interior imperfectly known. Area ab. 30,000 sq. m.; pop., 1894, 339,445. including the remnant of the Ainos.

Yggdrasll. Ash-tree under which the Norse gods meet in council. Its three roots reach to Asgard, Niflheim, and the realm of Hela; beneath them springs up Mimir's Well, the well of wisdom.

Y Level, or Wye-level. Leveling instrument in which the telescope with its attached bubble rests in Y bearings, out


Y Level.

of which it can be lifted and reversed. The telescope can be rotated at pleasure. It has been superseded to a certain extent by the Dumpy-level (q.v.). Yoga Philosophy. See Yogi.

Yogi. Hindu ascetic who practices the Yoga philosophy, one of the six orthodox systems of India. Such persons are believed to acquire supernatural powers and knowledge which leads to salvation. They live a mendicant life, professing absolute indifference to the world of sense, and devoted to contemplation.

Yokohama. Seaport of Japan, on the e. coast of Nippon: of recent development; headquarters of foreign commerce. Pop. ab. 165,000.

Yolk, or Yelk. Food material stored up in the form of granules in egg cells, to feed the cells of the developing embryo. Hence the size of the egg is in relation to the amount of yolk, and this is in proportion to the complexity and size of the embryo at the time of hatching. The yolk itself is transformed chromatin granules, derived either from the egg nucleus or the nuclei of follicle cells. It is simply formed or plastic

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