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(except Australia, Madagascar, and Egypt), are known. A common European genus is Dendrocopus, Great Spotted Woodpecker; the most common in U. S. is Melanerpes. M. Carolinus is the Red-bellied, M. erythrocephala the Red-headed, Woodpecker. Colaptes auratus is the Golden-winged Woodpecker or "Flicker." The Pileated Woodpecker is black with scarlet crest, and is 18 in. long, of which the tail measures 7 in. (see SapSucker). The Woodpecker is a shy, usually solitary, brightly colored bird, frequenting heavy woods, running up trees, tapping them with its strong, sharp beak; by means of a long, extensible tongue having barked filaments at the tip, it extracts insects from their holes. The hyoid bone has greatly lengthened thyrohyal cornua that arch over the skull. M. formicivorus of Gal. has the curious habit of making the bark of pines full of holes, into which it hammers acorns and sometimes pebbles. See Picidje.

Wood Preserving. See Preservation Of Timber.

Wood-Iluls. See Rats.

Wood row, James, D.D., b.1838. Prof. Columbia, S. C, Theol. Sem. 1861-84. and S. C. Univ. 1880-91; pres. S. C. Coll. from 1891; ed. Southern Presbyterian from 1865.

Woodruff, Hiram, 1817-1867. American horse-trainer. Trotting-Horse, 1869.

Woodruff, Wilford, b.1807. Mormon apostle 1839, pres. 1887.

Woods, Katherine Pearson, b.1853. American novelist. Metzerott, Shoemaker, 1890.

Woods, Leonard, D.D., 1774-1854. Prof. Andover 1808-46; controversialist. Letters to Unitarians, 1820; Works, 5 vols., 1849-50.—His son, Leonard, D.D., LL.D., 1807-1878, was pres. Bowdoin 1839-66.—His nephew. Alva, D.D., 1794-1887,was prof. Brown Univ. 1824-28, pres. Transylvania, Ky., 1828-31, and Univ. Ala. 1831-37.

Woods, Mrs. Margaret. English novelist. A Village Tragedy, 1894; Vagabonds, 1895; Weeping Ferry, 1897.

Woods, Virua, b. 1864. Novelist of Cal. A Modem Magdalen, 1894; Jason HildreWs Identity, 1896.

Woods, William Burnham, 1824-1887. Col. Ohio Vols. 1861-65, serving in the West; Brig.-gen. 1865-66; Chancellor of Ala. 1868; U. S. Judfje 1869; Justice U. S. Supreme Court 1880. —His brother, Charles Robert, U.S.A., 1827-1885, was Brig.gen. U. S. Vols. 1863-66.

Woods and Forests. Source of British revenue, administered since 1810 by commissioners.

Wood's Halfpence. Copper pieces minted 1722-23 for Ireland by Wm. Wood; made unpopular by Swift's Drapier's Letters, and the privilege withdrawn.

Wood's IIoil. Hamlet on Buzzard's Bay, Mass., site of an important station of U. S. Fish Commission.

Wood's Metal. Fusible alloy, consisting of bismuth 4 parts, lead 2 parts.tin 1 part, cadmium 1 part. It melts at 60.5° C.

Wood-Sorrel. Showy-flowered herbs of the genus Oxalis, natural family Oxalidaceai, of wide geographical distribution.

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and cuckoo-bread, and is held by some to be the original Irish shamrock. The fresh plant contains 0.75 percent of potassium binoxalate.

Wood-Spirit. See Methyl Alcohol.

Woody Nightshade. See Bittersweet.

Wood-Thrush (turdus Mustelinus). Exquisite songster of e. U. S., living in thick woods on hillsides near watercourses. Length 8 in., tail 3 in.; color cinnamon brown, shading to olive on rump. Large dusky spots on breast. It feeds on insects, and nests in May, raising two broods.

Wood Tin. See Tin.

Woodville, Richard Caton, 1825-1855. American genre painter.

Woodville, Elizabeth. Queen of Edward IV. 1464. This marriage offended the Earl of Warwick, who forced Edward to flee from England 1469.

Woodward, Bernard Bolingbroke, 1816-1869. English author and translator. Hist. Wales, 1850-52; Hist. U. S., 1855; Chronology, 1872.

Woodward, George Washington, 1809-1875. Judge Pa. Superior Court 1852-67; M.C. 1867-73.

Woodward, Joseph Janvier. M.D., 1833-1884. Surgeon U.S.A.; microscopist. Medical Hist. Rebellion, 1870-79.

Woodward, Robert Simpson, b.1849. Prof. Columbia 1893; writer on mathematics and astronomy.

Woodworth, Samuel, 1785-1842. American editor, poet, and playwright, author of '"The Old Oaken Bucket."

Wool. Hair-like, wavy covering of certain animals, used for the manufacture of fabrics. The wool of the sheep is mostly employed, while that of the alpaca, llama, camel, Cashmere and Angora goat is also used. Under the microscope, wool is seen to consist of wavy threads or fibers, each of which is covered with scales attached only by their bases; and to the interlocking of these scales is due the readiness with which the wool can be

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compacted into fabrics. The greater part of the wool of commerce is fleece wool, clipped from the living sheep; pulled wool is obtained from the skins of dead sheep. In 1896 the U. S. produced 272,474,708 lbs. of wool, imported 230.911.473 lbs., exported of domestic wool 6,945,981 lbs., exported of foreign wool 6.028.236 lbs., retained for home consumption 490.939,256 lbs. The estimated product of the world in 1896 was.in lbs., Great Britain 135.000.000, European Continent 611,978.500, North America 289.474.708. Australasia 643.000.000, Ca|>e of Good Hope 93.000,000. River Platte 329,000,000, other countries 345.649,792. See 8UINT.

Wool, John Ellis, U.S.A., 1784-1869. Captain 1812, Col. 1816, Brig.-gen. 1841; prominent under Taylor at Buena Vista 1847; Major-gen. 1862. He saved Fort Monroe Va., 1861.

Woolen Manufactures. Weaving of woolen fabrics was one of the earliest industries. Before the Reformation it was mostly domestic, employing the large spinning-wheel, reel and hand loom. The teasel for combing the nap is of an

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William Wordsworth.

noblest in the language. They are marked by deep love of nature and humanity, and by the "energetic and profound treatment of moral ideas." He had no sense of humor, no capability of lightness: no poet is more unequal. Popular recognition came to him slowly; but his influence on literature has been great, and chiefly in the way of liberation and uplifting.—His gifted sister, DOROTHY, 1771-1855, was an important element in his life, and a model of S3,mpathy and devotion. Journal in Scotland, 1874.

Work. Result of producing someeffect upon a body which is the subject of an applied force. As no effect is produced unless the point of application of the force moves, the work done is proportional not only to the magnitude of the force but to the distance through which it moves, or W—Fs. When work is done upon a body, it imparts to it an amount of energy which is exactly equal to the work done. The units of work are then the same as those of energy; viz., the foot-pound, footpoundal, gram-centimeter, and erg.

Work, Henry Clay, 1832-1884. Conn, writer of war songs and other popular lyrics.

Working Stress. Stress that can be safely put on a member of a structure; equal to the ultimate strength divided by the assumed factor of safety. Thus, for timber in tension the ultimate strength is 10,000 lbs. per sq. in., but the working stress should be only ab. ^ of this.

Work In Machines. Product of a force acting through a space. If the force acts through no path, as when a weight is supported, no work is done. The work is the same, if the product of path and force is constant, whether the force is large and path small, or the force small and path large. In any machine, the work of power and resistances are always equal to each other, over extended intervals.

Works, Advanced. See Advanced Works.

Works, Detached. See Advanced Works.

Works, Field. See Field Works.

Workshop Aets. See Factory Laws.

World. See Earth, Sea, and Universe.

World, Population Of The. Ernest Behm estimated this at 1,350,000.000 in 1866; 1,456,000,000 in 1880; 1,434,000.000 in 1882. This apparent loss of 22,000,000 in two years was due to greater accuracy in statistics. In connection with Herman Wagner, Behm edited Population of the Earth, 1872, and seven successive editions. In 1891 the eighth edition was prepared bv Wagner and A. Supan, which estimates the population at 1.479.729,000, showing an increase of 45,729,000 since 1882, for which reasonably exact figures were obtained for 57 percent. In 1880 actual census returns were obtained for only 44 per

cent. Owing to the difficulties of obtaining accurate statistics the estimate may be 75,000,000 at variance with the truth.

Europe (without Nova Zembla, Iceland and Atlantic Islands) . .

Asia (without the Polar islands) .

Africa (without Madagascar and other islands)

America (without the Polar regions)

Australia (with Tasmania) . . .

Oceanic Islands

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121.713,000 8 3.230.000 1 7,420,000 10 80.000

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Polar Regions 1.73(1.810

52,821,684 1,479,729,000

World's Fairs. The chief international exhibitions have been those of London 1851 and 1862, Paris 1855,1867, and 1878, Vienna 1873, Philadelphia 1876, Paris 1889, and Chicago 1893. See Expositions, International.

Wormeley, Katharine Prescott. b. 1832 in England. American translator of Balsac, 1886-97, and of Moliere, 1895.

Worm ley, Theodore! George. M.D.. LL.D., 1826-1 1897. Prof. Columbus, O., 1852-77; Univ. Pa. 1877; writer on chemistry and toxi- \ cology.

Worms. Ancient town of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the i Rhine; destroyed by Attila j ab. 450; taken and burned I by the French 1689, its cathedral, rebuilt ab. 1100, escaping. Many diets met here, especially that which heard Luther 1521; and here a treaty was signed Sept. 23, 1743^ between England, Austria, and Sardinia.

Worms. See Vermes.

Wormsecd. Chenopodi- | um anthelminticum. Strong smelling herb of the natural family Clienopodiacea}, native of tropical America, widely distributed as a weed in temperate regions.

Wormseed Mustard. See Mustard, Treacle.

Worm-Wheel. See Screw-gearing.

Wormwood. Artemisia absinthium. Bitter and am. matic perennial herb of the Composite family, native of Europe, cultivated and naturalized in waste grounds in America. The liqueur Absinthe (q.v.) is derived from it.

Wormwood, Roman. See Hoo Weed.

Worn Ii in, Ralph Nicholson, 1812-1877. English art critic, Keeper and Sec. National Gallery from 1853. Hist. Painting, 1846; Ornament. 1856; Epoch of Painting, 1864; Holbein, 1867.

Worsaae,Jens Jacob Asmussen, 1821-1885. Prof. Copenhagen 1854; Minister of Education 1874-75. Antiquities of Denmark, 1843, tr. 1849; Danes in England, 1851, tr. 1852; Primitive History of the North, 1881, tr. 1886.

Worship. Honor paid to a divine being; with Jews and heathens, largely in the form of sacrifices'; amongChristians, prayer and praise, spoken or sung, accompanied by Scripture-readings and sermons, and Eucfiarist.

Worsley, Philip Stanhope, 1832-1866. Homer 1861-65.

Worsted. Thread spun of wool, which has been combed, and which, in spinning, has been twisted harder than ordinary. It is used for knitting and weaving.

WOrth. Village of Alsace; scene of defeat of the French under MacMahon by the Germans under the Crown Prince after a desperate and bloody battle lasting seven hours, Aug.

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Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium).

culminating in the English poet: tr.

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Wright, Arthur Williams, b.1836. Prof, of Physics at Yale 1872; author of many papers.

Wright, BENJAMIN, 1770-1842. Engineer of Erie and other canals.

Wright, Benjamin Hall, 1801-1881. American engineer, long in Cuba; introducer of steam on canal boats.

Wright, Carroll Davidson, b.1840. U. S. Commissioner of Labor 1885; prof. R. C. Univ., Washington, 1895. Reports Mass. Bureau of Statistics of Labor. 15 vols.. 1873-88; Census of Mass. 1887-88; Strikes, 1887; Industrial Evolution, 1895.

Wright, Charles Henry Hamilton, D.D., b.1836. Dublin pastor; prolific writer. Zachariah, 1879; Ecclesiastes, 1883; Introduction to O. T.. 1891.

Wright, Chauncey, 1830-1875. Mathematician of Cambridge. Mass., eminent in metaphysics. Philosophical Discussions. 1877.

Wright, Ei.izur. 1804-1885. American journalist, reformer, and writer on insurance. Tr. La Fontaine's Fables 1841.

Wright, Fanny. 1795-1852. Scottish-American lecturer and philanthropist; founder of a negro colony at Memphis, Tenn., 1827. She became Mine. d'Arusi'nont 1838. Society in America, 1821; Free Inquiry, 1829.

Wright, George, U.S.A., 1803-1865. Active in the Seminole and Mexican wars; Captain 1848. Col. 1855; Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861, commanding on the Pacific.

Wright, George Frederick. D.D.. LL.D.. b.1838. Prof. Oberlin since 1881: assistant 1881 on Pa. Geological Survey, where he traced the terminal moraine, as later through Ohio. His later work has been chiefly on Glacial Geology.

Wright, Hendrick Bradley, 1808-1881. M.C. from Pa. ia5355.1861-63, and 1877-81. Labor, 1871.—His nephew, Harrison, 1850-1885, was of note as an antiquarian.

Wright, Henry Clarke. 1797-1870. American lecturer and writer against war and slavery.

Wright, Horatio Governeur, U.S.A., b.1820. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861. Mnjor-gen. 1862-66. serving chiefly in Va.; Brig.-gen. and Chief of Engineers 1879-84.

Wright, Sir James, ab.1714-1785. Chief-justice of S.C. 1760; Gov. of Ga. 1764-75 and 1779-83; Baronet 1772.

Wright, Joseph ("of Derby"), 1734-1797. English painter, mostly of portraits; noted for his use of artificial lights.

Wright, Joseph Albert. 1810-1867. M.C. 1843-45; Gov. of Ind. 1849-57; U. S. Minister to Prussia 1857-61 and from 1865; Senator 1862-63.

Wright, Joseph Jefferson Burr, M.D.,1800-1878. Surgeon U.S.A. 1833-76; active in the Mexican war, and in organizing hospitals 1861-62.

Wright, Marcus Joseph, b.1831 in Tenn. Brig.-gen. C.S. A. 1862-65.

Wright, Robert, ab.1765-1826. U. S. Senator 1801-6; Gov. of Md. 1806-9; M.C. 1810-17 and 1821-23.

Wright, Robert Emmet, 1810-1886. Writer and editor of law-books. Pa. Reports, 14 vols.. 1861-66.

Wright, Silas. 1795-1847. M.C. 1827-29; Comptroller of N. Y. 1829-33; U. S. Senator 1833-44; Democratic leader. As Gov. of N. Y., 1811 46, he suppressed the anti-rent disturbances.

Wright,Thomas, 1809-1884. Scottish paleontologist, active near Cheltenham, Eng.; describer of the Jurassic and Cretaceous Echinoderniata.

Wright, Thomas, 1810-1877. English antiquarian; editor of old texts, and prolific historical writer. Biographia Literaria, 1842-46; Hist. Ireland, 1848-52; Uriconium, 1872.

Wright, William, 1794-1866. M. C. from N. J. 1843-47; U. S. Senator 1853-59 and from 1863.

Wright, William, LL.D., 1830-1889. Prof. Dublin 1856, Cambridge 1870; editor of Arabic works.

Wright, William Aldis, b. ab.1836. English editor of Shakespeare, Bacon, and other texts.

Wrist. See Carpus.

Wristdrop. Paralysis of the muscles of the forearm induced by lead poisoning. Writ. Written mandate from a court to an officer. Writer's Cramp. See Neurosis.

Writers to the Signet. Corporation of Scottish lawyers, who alone can draw up crown writs. Their privileges were formerly more extensive.

Writing. Art of recording ideas by the means of letters and characters formed on paper, parchment, stone, or other material. Pictures are considered to be the first essay toward writing. The most ancient remains of writing are upon hard substances, such as stones and metals, used by the ancients for

edicts and matters of public notoriety. Hermes is said to have written a history of the Egyptians, and to have been the author of the hieroglyphics 2112 B.C. It is said to have been taught to the Latins by Europa 1494 B.C. Cadmus brought the Phoenician letters into Greece 1493 B.C. The commandments were written upon two tablets of stone 1491 B.C., according: to Usher. The Greeks and Romans used wax table-books long before papyrus was known. See Alphabet, Cuneiform WritIng, Diplomatics, Hieroglyphics, Inscriptions. Papyrus ami Runes.

Writing Machines. See Telegraph and Typewriter.

Wrongs. Violations or infractions of another's rights.

Wronsklan. Determinant, based upon n functions of a single variable, whose elements are these functions and their successive differentials. E:ich column comprises one function and its successive differential coefficients: each row comprises the differential coefficients of the n functions of the same order.

Wrought-iron Pipe. One foot in length, having its interior diameter d inches and its exterior diameter D inches, will weigh 0 2614 (D—dXD+d) lbs. For steel pipe add two per cent.

Wrought-Iron, Strength Of. In both tension and compression, the average ultimate strength is ab. 50,000 lbs. per sq. inch. See Strength Of Materials.

Wrj'-Xeek (JYNX). Bird of the Woodpecker family, but having soft tail feathers and nostrils partly hid by membrane. J. torquilla is widely distributed in the Old World; it is a little

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Wry-Neck (Jynx torquilla).

larger than a sparrow, resembles a woodcock in coloration, feeds on ants, lays 6 to 10 eggs in holes in trees, and if these are taken will lay more up to 40. It is named from its habit of twisting its head and neck snake-like when alarmed.

Willi n. Chinese treaty port since 1876, 55 m. s. e. of Nanking on an affluent of the Yang-tse-kiang, ab. 4 m. from the main stream. It is noted throughout China for its red cord: also for cutlery and other articles in steel. Pop. 100,000.

Wulfeillte. PbMoOi Natural lead molybdate, tetragonal in crystallization, usually yellow, and found in association with other ores of lead.

Wulfrani, St., 650-720. Missionary to Frisia ab.684-6.*9: Bp. of Sens 682.

Wulfrtan, ab.1007-1095. Bp. of Worcester 1062: only prelate not displaced by William the Conqueror. Supposed author of part (from 1034) of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

Wiindt, Wilhelm Max, b.1832. Prof. Leipzig 1874; writer on physiology and psychology.

Wlipper. River of Prussia, flowing past Barmen and Elberfeld and entering the Rhine below Cologne; not navigable: length 40 m.

Wurmser, Dagobert Sigmund, Graf Von, 1724-1797. Austrian general, defeated by Bonaparte in Italy 1796.

Wurtcmbiirg. Kingdom of s.w. Germany, between Bavaria and Baden: area 7.529 sq.m.; held by Rome ab. 85-210; governed by counts 760-1495. then by dukes; much injured in the Thirty Years' War, and by French invasion 1688-92; made a kingdom by Napoleon 1806. It received a constitution 1819. sided with Austria 1866. bore part against France 1870j and became a portion of the German Empire. Capital. Stuttgart; pop., 1890, 2.036,522, mostly Protestants.

Wurtz, Charles Adolphe, 1817-1884. Prof. Paris 1854; Senator 1881. Chemical Philosophy, tr. 1867; Diet, de Chimie, 5 vols., 1868-78; Atomic Theory, tr. 1880.

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