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Walker, Alexander, b.1819. Journalist of New Orleaus; biographical and historical writer.

Walker, Amasa, LL.D., 1799-1875. Lecturer on Political Economy at Oberliu 1842-48, anil Amherst 1859-69: M.C. from Mass. 1862-63. Money, 1857; Science of Wealth. 1866.—His son, Francis Amasa. LL.D., 1840-1897, was Adjutant-gen. in Va. 1862-65, Supt. of U. S. Census 1870 and 1880, prof. Yale 1873-81, chief of Bureau of Awards at U. S. Centennial Exhibition 1876, and pres. Mass. Institute of Technology from 1881. Wages. 1876; Money, 1878-79; Land and its Rent. 1883; Political Economy, 1883; Hist. 2d Army Corps. 1886; Life of Gen. Hancock; 1N94: Making of the Nation, 1895; Double Taxation in U. S., 1896.

Walker, Clement, d.1651. M.P. 1640; imprisoned from 1649. Hist. Independency, 1646-60.

Walker, Frederick, A.R.A., 1840-1875. English painter.

Walker, George, D.D., d.1690. Defender of Londonderry 1689; made its bishop: killed at the Boyne.

Walker, Gilbert Carlton. 1832-1885. Gov. of Va. 187074; M.C. 1875-79.

Walker, SIR Hovenden. R.N., ab. 1660-1726. Rear-admiral 1709: knighted 1711. He Tailed in an attack on Canada 1711, lost his ship by explosion 1715, and was dismissed.

Walker, James, D.D.. LL.D.. 1794-1874. Ed. Christian Examiner 1831-39; prof. Harvard 1839-53. pres. 1853-60; ed. Reid and Dugald Stewart. Memoir of Josiah Quincy, 1867.

Walker, Jamesbarr, D.D., 1805-1887. American journalist and lecturer, whose philosophy of the Plan of Salvation, 1855, was widely read and translated. Doctrine of the Spirit, 1870.

Walker, John, d. ab.1730. Rector at Exeter, Eng. His noted book, Sufferings of the Clergy sequestered in the Rebellion. 1714, called forth answers from Calamy and others.

Walker, John, 1732-1807. English elocutionist and lexicographer. His Rhyming Dictionary, 1775, is still printed; his Pronouncing Dictionary, 1791, was in use 1850 or later.

Walker, John, 1770-1831. English antiquarian and compiler. Oxoniana, 4 vols.

Walker, John Grimes. U.S.N., b.1835. Lieutenant 1858; active on the Mississippi 1862-63, and on the Atlantic coast 1864-65; Commander 1866, Captain 1877, Commodore 1889, Rear-admiral 1895.

Walker, Joseph Reddeford. 1798-1876. Frontiersman; guide of several parties to Cal. from 1833; discoverer of the Yosemite.

Walker, Leroy Pope, 1817-1884. Judge in Ala. 1850-53;

Walker, William Sidney. 1795-1846. English poet and

Shakespearian critic.

Walker, Lake. In w. Nevada; sink of W. River; dscovered 1833 by Joseph R. Walker. Area 110 sq. m.

Walker-Martinez, Carlos, b.1842. Chilian poet.

Walking- Means of locomotion in which the knees are alternately straightened and the heel of one foot is on the ground before the toe of the other leaves it; sometimes called "fair heel and toe." Track contests are usually under this rule, but long-distance and six-day walking are more generally "go-as-you-please" matches, wherein the contestants may walk, run, hop, or make their progress in any way they desire, but without any adventitious aids. See Running.

The records are as follows: Greatest distance walked in one hour, bv an amateur 8 m. 1.487| vd.. bv a professional 8 m. 302 vd.;* 2 h., A., 13 m. 900 yd, P.. 15 m. 824 vd.; 3 h.. A.,19 m. 1,685 yd.. P., 22 m. 456J vd.; 4 h.. A., 25 tn. 1.070 vds.. P.. 27 m. 440 yd.; 24 h.. A., 120 m", P., 127 m. 1,201 yd. Distance walking: | m.. A.. 3 min. 2| sec; 1 m.,P., 6 min. 23 sec., A., 6 min. 29| sec; 2 m., P., 13 min. 14 sec. A., 13 min. 33 sec: 3 m.. P.. 20 min. 314 see . A., 21 min. 91 sec; 10 m., P.. 1 h. 14 min. 45 sec. A., 1 h. 17 min. 40f sec; 20 m., P., 2 h. 29 min. 57 sec, A., 2 h. 47 min. 52 sec; 50 m., P., 7 h. 54 min. 16 sec, A., 8 h. 25 min. ) sec; 100 m., P., 18 h. 8 min. 15 sec, A., 19 h. 41 min. 50 sec. The following by professionals: 200 m., 40 h. 46 min. 30 sec; 300 m., 66 h. 30 min.: 400 m.. 96 h. 51 min. 3 sec; 500 m., 130 h. 34 min.; 531 m., 138 h. 49 min. 8 sec.

Walking-Beam. See Beam. Walking, and Beam EnGine.

Walking-Leaf. Camptosorus rhizophyllus. Fern which has the habit of rooting at the tips of its leaves, thus producing new plants; native of e. N. America.

Walking-Leaf. Orthopterous insect of the e. Indian region, having its wings and the expanded joints of its legs developed to imitate leaves in appearance.

Walking-Stick (stick Insect). Orthopterous insect with elongated slender body and rudimentary wings. It resembles a leafless twig. Diapheromera is the common American genus, of family Phasmidce.

Walkyries. See Valkyries.

Wall. See Antonine, Wall Of. Buttress. Fortification, Offa, and Wall, Hadrian's.

Wall, Hadrian's, or Roman Wall. Stone wall and other works erected in 1st century in the n. of England by the Romans, between the Sol way and the Tyne. On the English side of the border we find a stone wall with a ditch on its n.

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Sec. of War, C.S.A., 1801-62.—His rather. John Williams. 1789-1823, was U. S. Senator from Ala. 1819-20.

Walker, Robert James, 1801-1869, b. in Pa. U. S. Senator from Miss. 1836-45; Sec. Treasurv 1845-49; author of the tariff of 1846; Gov. of Kan. 1857-58;" Unionist: U. S. financial agent in Europe 1863-64.

Walker, Srars Cook, 1805-1853. Builder of the Observatory at Phila. High School 1837: prof. Washington Observatory 1845^7; connected with the U. S. Coast Survey from 1817. Neptune. 1850-52.—His brother, Timothy, LL.D., 1806-1856. was prof. Cincinnati Law School 1833-44. and founder Western Law Journal. 1843. Introduction to American Law, 1837.

Walker, Thomas, 1784-1835. English lawyer. Pauperism, 1826; The Original, 1835.

Walker, William. 1824-1860. American filibuster. He attacked Sonora, n.w. Mexico. 1854; descended on Nicaragua 1855. assumed the presidency, and was expelled 1857; was frustrated in two more attempts 1857-58; landed in Honduras June 1860, and was arrested and executed. War in Nicaragua, 1860.

Walker, William H. T., 1816-1864. Officer U.S.A. "184060; distinguished in Mexico; Major-gen. C.S.A. 1862: killed at Decatur. Ga.

Walker, William Mccreary. U.S.N.. 1813-1H66. Captain 1862; active in blockading. Screw Propulsion, 1861.

side. Attached to it are stationary camps, mile-castles, and turrets for the accommodation of the soldiery who manned it. To the s. of the stone wall are a series of rampart6. Considerable traces of the wall yet remain in Northumberland.

Wall, William. D.D.. 1646-1728. Vicar of Shorehatn. Kent, from 1676. His large History of Infant Baptism, 1705. was tr. into Latin, and reprinted 1862.

Wallace, Alfred Russel, LL.D., b.1822. English naturalist, pensioned 1881. The Amazon. 1853: Malay Archipelago, 1869; Natural Selection, 1870: Miracles and Modern Spiritualism, 1875: Distribution of Animals, 1876; Island Life, 1880; Land Naturalization. 1882; Bad Times, 1885; Darwinism, 1889; Australia. 1893.

Wallace, Sir James. R.N.. ab.1730-1803. Post-captain 1771; in America 1774-83: Rear-admiral 1794. He burned Kingston, N. Y., and did much damage on the Hudson Oct. 1777.

Wallace, John William. 1815-1884. Reporter of TJ. S. Supreme Court 1863-76. Cases. 23 vols., 1864-76.—His brother. Horace Binney. 1817-1852. pub. Stanley, 1838, and, w ith J. L C. Hare, edited American Leading Cases. 1847. Papers, 1855-56.

Wallace, Lewis, b. 1827. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861: Major-gen. 1862-65; prominent at Fort Donelson, Shiloti. and the Monocacy; Gov. Utah 1878-81; U. S. Minister to Turkey

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root is a useful cathartic. The Japanese Walnut. J. sieboldiana, bears fruit in long- clusters. All are esteemed for their nuts.

Walpers, Wilhelm Ge'rhard, 1816-1853. German botanist. Repertorium botanices systematica, 1842-48; Annates botanices systematica, 1848-68.

Walpole, Horace, 1717-1797. M.P. 1741-68: 4th Earl of Oxford 1791. His house, Strawberry Hill, near Twickenham, contained notable collections and a private press. Castle of Otranto. 1764; Letters, 9 vols., 1857-59.—His father, Sir RobErt, 1676-1745, M.P. from 1701. Whig: leader, was expelled and imprisoned 1712, made Privy Councilor 1714. Premier 1715-17 and 1721^12; Lord Oxford 1742. Ruling by bribes, he was long the most powerful man in England.

Walpole, Spencer. LL.D., b.1839. Biographer of Lord John Russell, 1889. Hist, of England from 1815, 5 vols., 1878-86.

Walpurga, St., d.779. English abbess of Heidenheim, Wurtemberg; sister of St. Willibald. Her day. May 1, follows Walpurgis Night, when witches were supposed to hold high revel.

Walpurgis Night. Eve of May-day. A special time of revelry for witches at certain places; the Brocken in German}' is the favorite.

Walrus (trichechus or Rosmarus). Marine seal-like carnivore of Arctic regions, formerly more widely distributed. T. rosmaras, the Atlantic Walrus, is found about Davis Straits and northward, and about Spitzbergen. T. obesa, of the Pacific, is restricted to the coasts of Kamchatka, Alaska, and Walrus Island, among the Pribylof Isles. Walruses have a rudimentary tail: the hind feet turn forward. Their adult dentition is IJ C| Iff, but the other teeth have been lost during growth. The upper canines are developed as long tusks,

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projecting downward, and used for digging up clams, which form their chief food. They live in herds, are timid, and keep a sentinel on watch. Their chief enemy, besides Man, is the Polar Bear. They courageously unite to defend a wounded comrade. The female bears one or two young in May, covered with short brownish-yellow hair, which nearly all disappears with age. The males, larger than the females, may attain a length of 12 ft., and weight of more than 2,000 lbs. They are valued for their oil, hides, flesh, and ivory, and are in danger of extinction.

Walsall. Borough of Staffordshire. 8 m. n.n.w. of Birmingham. It has extensive iron works. Pop., 1891, 71,791.

Walsh, Benjamin Dann, 1808-1869. Entomologist of 111.

Walsh, Robert, 1784-1859. Founder and editor American Review, 1811-13 and 1827-37, and Phila. Gazette. 1819-36; in Paris from 1837. French Government. 1810; Russia. 1813; Didactics, 1830.—His grandson. William Shepard. b.1854. edited Lippincotfs Mag. 1886-90. Faust, 1887: Paradoxes. 1888.

Walsh, William, 1663-1707. English poet, once called "the Propertius of the Restoration."

Walsh, William Pakenham, D.D., b.1820. Dean of Cashel 1873; Bp. of Ossory 1878; writer on missions.

Walsingham, Sir Francis, ab.1536-1590. English envoy to France 1570-73 and 1581; knight and Sec. of State 1573: introducer of an elaborate system of espionage; enemy and judge of Mary Stuart.

Walsingham, Thomas, ab.1400. Monk of St. Albans; chronicler.

Walter, John, 1739-1812. Founder of the London Times, 1788, and its owner, as were his son and grandson till 1894.

Walter, Thomas, ab.1745-ab.1800. Anglo-American botanist. Flora Caroliniana, 1788.

Walter, Thomas Ustick, LL.D., 1804-1887. Architect of Girard Coll., Phila., finished 1847. of the enlarged U. S. Capitol 1851-65, and other buildings at Washington.

Walters, Lucy, 1630-1683. Mistress of Charles II. and mother of James, Duke of Monmouth.

Walthall, Edward Cary, b.1831. Brig.-gen. C.S.A. 1862, Major-gen. 1864, serving in the West; U. S. Senator from Miss. 1885-95.

Walthaill. City of Middlesex co.. Mass., on the Charles, 10 m. w. of Boston: chartered 1737 and 1884; noted for its machine-made watches. It has also extensive cotton manufactories. Pop., 1890, 18,707.

Waltham. Town of Essex. Eng., 13 m. n.e. of London: called also W. Abbey and W. Holy Cross. Here the Lee is diverted into several channels forming a network of islands, on which are four srunpowder mills belonging to the govern

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ment: nearby there are small-arms and cordite factories. It retains the nave and lady chapel of the famous old abbey, of which the church was founded in the time of Canute. Pop. 6,100.

Waltham Forest. See Epping Forest.

Walther, Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm. D.D., 1811-1887. Leader of Saxon immigrants to Mo. 1839; founder of Lutheran Synod of Mo. 1846, and of its publications; pres. of its theol. I sem. from 1849. Pastoral Tlieologie, 1872.

Walther, Von Der Vooelweide, ab.l 165-ab.l230. German poet, the greatest of his time. His works are amatory, satiric, political, religious, and didactic, and have repeatedly 1 been collected.

Waltner, Claude Albers. b.1846 in Paris. Etcher, especially fine in nude figures. No other is so successful in handling flesh, the most difficult thing to represent adequately with the needle on copper: his touch gives the feeling- i~t color in his modeling. His Angelus. after Millet, and Dans la Rosee, after Duran, are highly prized.

Walton, Brian, D.D., 1600-1661. Prebendarv of St. Pauls 1639; deprived of his living 1642; Bp. of Chester 1660; editor of an important polyglot Bible in 6 vols, folio. 1654-57.

Walton, George. 1740-1804. Delegate to Congress 177681: signer Declaration of Independence; Gov. of Ga. 1779 and 1789; Chief-justice 1783; U. S. Senator 1795-96.

Walton, Isaak. 1593-1683. English biographer of Herbert. Hooker, Donne, and others, frequently reprinted. Still more famous is his Compleat Angler, 1653.

Waltz. Round dance in f time, the most popular of the century. Its unquestioned history does not extend back of 1775, and it did not become fashionable until after 1800. When introduced in England it was called the German Waltz, and was probably developed out of a popular dance in Bohemia. Bavaria, or Austria. Originally its music consisted of two sections of eight measures each in triple time; but it has

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W. Beecher, and many others, are of later date.—His brother, Edgar Melville, b.1889, is a painter. N.A. 1883.

Ward, Julius Hammond, 1837-1897. Biographer of J. G. Percival, 1860. and Bp. White, 1891.

Ward, Lester Frank, b.1841. Assistant on U. S. Geological Survey 1881; Curator of Fossil Botany in the National Museum since 1888. His investigations have added largely to our knowledge of American fossil floras. Dynamic Sociology. 1883; Psychic Factors of Civilization, 1893.

Ward, Marcus Lawrence, 1813-1884. Gov. of N. J. 186568; M.C. 1873-75.

Ward, Mary Augusta (mrs. Humphry), b.1851 in Tasmania. English novelist; granddaughter of Dr. Thomas Arnold; m.1872. Her chief works. Robert Elsmere, 1888, David Grieve, 1891, Marcella, 1894, and Sir George Tressady, 1896, are full of thought and knowledge. In genius, in earnestness, and in mental freedom, she may be called the successor of George Eliot.

Ward, Mrs. Humphry. See Ward, Mary A.

Ward, Nathaniel, ab.1579-1652. Pastor at Ipswich, Mass., 1634-37; author of the first code of New England laws, 1641. Simple Cobbler of Agatcam, 1647.

Ward, Richard, 1689-1763. Gov. of R. I. 1740-43.—His son, Samuel, 1725-1776, was Chief-justice of R. I. 1761, Gov. 1763 and 1765-66, and delegate to Congress 1774-76.—His greatgrandson, Samuel. 1814-1884, noted for accomplishments and world-wide acquaintance, pub. Lyrical Recreations, 1865.—One of his sisters is Mrs. Julia Ward Howe; another became the wife of Crawford the sculptor, and mother of F. Marion Crawford, the novelist.

Ward, Richard Halsted, M.D., b.1837. American inventor of improvements in microscopy.

Ward, Robert Plumeb, 1765-1846. English official, juristic writer and novelist; M.P. 1802-20: pensioned 1831. Law of Nations, 1795; Belligerents and Neutral Powers. 1801; Tremaine, 1825; De Vere, 1827; Revolution of 16S8, 1838.—His son, Sir Henry George, ab.1796-1860, was M.P. 1832-49, and Gov. of Ceylon 1856. Mexico, 1828-29.

Ward, William. 1769-1823. English Baptist, missionary at Serampore, India, from 1799. Writings, Religion, and Manners of the Hindus, 4 vols., 1811.

Ward, William Hayes, D.D., LL.D., b.1835. Ed. New York Independent since 1870; Assyriologist; explorer in Babylonia 1884.

Ward, William Thomas, 1808-1878. M.C. from Kv. 185153; Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861-65, serving chiefly in Tenn. and Ga.

Warden. Name given to various officers; as the warden of a prison, church warden, and others. A keeper; a guardian.

Warden, David Bailme, 1778-1845. U. S. Consul in Paris from 1805. His Account of U. S., 1819. was tr. into French and German. Bibliotheca Americana, 1820-31.

War Department of U. S. This has charge of all duties connected with the army, fortifications, the distribution and movement of troops, purchase, issue, and care of warlike stores, munitions of war, supplies, transportation, payments to troops, etc.: the head of this department is the Secretary of War, who is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. He is a member of the President's Cabinet.

Wardiail Case*. Nearly air-tight glass cases for growing plants, which thus live in an atmosphere saturated with moisture: invented by Nathaniel B. Ward (1791-1868).'

Ward law, Lady Elizabeth (halkett). 1677-1727; ni.1696. Scottish author of Hardyknute, 1719; doubtfully credited with other ballads, probably much older.

Wardlaw, Ralph. D.D.. 1779-1853. Scottish Congregationalist: pastor in Glasgow from 1803, prof, from 1811; prolific theologicnl writer. Wardian Case. ~ Ware, HENRY. D.D.. 1764

1845. Divinity prof, at Harvard 1805-40. Letter* to Trinitarians. 1820.—His son, Henry, D.D., 1794-1843, prof. Cambridge Divinity School 1830-42. wrote much in prose and verse.—His brother, William, 1797-1852. ed. Christian Examiner 1839-44. pub. three brilliant classical romances, Zenobia, 1837, -4firelian, 1838, and Julian. 1841.

Ware, Mary Greene (chandler), b. 1818. American writer. Elements of Character, 1818; Thoughts in my Garden, 1862: Death and Life. 1804.


Ware, William Robert, b.1833. Prof. Architecture Inst. Tech. 1865, Columbia Univ. 1881.

Warehouseman. Bailee of goods which he stores for a compensation. Statutes regulating his charges have been held constitutional, when his business has been considered to be concerned with a public interest. He may give receipts, the indorsement and delivery of which will operate as a transfer of the goods therein described; but sucii documents are only quasi negotiable.

Warehouse Receipts. See Warehouseman.

Warehouse System. Statutory provisions allowing owners of goods, subject to tariff or internal revenue duties, to deposit them in government warehouses for a time, without paying the duties until the goods are withdrawn.

Warfield, Benjamin Breckenridge, D.D., LL.D., b.1851 in Ky. Prof. Allegany, Pa., 1879-87, and Princeton Theol. Sem. since 1887; theological writer.—His brother. Ethelbert Dudley, LL.D., b.1861, pres. Miami Univ., Ohio, 1888. and Lafayette Coll. since 1891, has pub. Ky. Resolutions of 1708, 1887.

Warfield, Catharine Ann, 1816-1877. Daughter of Nathaniel A. Ware (1780-1854); scholar, traveler, and author; m.1833 in Kv.: novelist and poet, as was her sister, Eleanor Percy (mrs.* Lee). 1820-1849.

Warfield, William, b.1827. American breeder. Shorthorn Cattle, 1884; Hist. Cattle Breeding, 1889.

Warham, William, ab. 1450-1532. Bp. of London 1503; Lord Chancellor 1503-15; Abp. of Canterbury from 1503.

Waring, Anna Ljetitia, b.1820. English author of a few hvmns of great beauty.—Her uncle, Samuel Miller, 17921827, pub. Sacred Melodies. 1826.

Waring, George E., b. 1838. Col. U. S. Vols. 1861-65; sanitary engineer and author; Street Commissioner of New York 1895-97. Whip mid Spur. 1875; Tyrol, 1879; Sewerage, 1888.

Warm-Blooded Animals. Those having a complete circulation of the blood, and its aeration through the medium of lungs at each revolution. Birds and mammals are the only warm-blooded animals.

Warming. Provisions for heating buildings in cold weather. This can be done by open fires or stoves in each room, by hotair furnaces, by steam direct or indirect, and by hot water, heated by fire or by friction. Open (ires heat objects by radiation only, but do not heat the air of a room, except as it is warmed by contact with the warmed objects. Hence rooms to accommodate large numbers cannot be made comfortable in this way, though they ventilate admirably. Stoves do not ventilate, but are very efficient to heat air in rooms by contact. Hot-air furnaces supply fresh air. are easily attended to in a basement area, and are cleanly. Hot water and steam act in the same way. circulating in radiators, and conveying heat to the points at which it is to be radiated (see Steam Heating). Water has been heated, where mechanical power which costs nothing is wasted, by means of friction of surfaces in the water which is thus heated and circulated. See Ventilation.

Warneck, Gustav, b.1834. German writer on missions.

Warner, Charles Dudley, b.1829. American descriptive writer, humorist and novelist, connected with Harper's Magazine since 1884. Backlog Studies, 1872: Baddeek. 1874; Being a Boy, 1877; Irving. 1881; Tlieir Pilgrimage, 1886: A Little Journey in the World. 1892; The Golden House, 1894. With "Mark Twain" he wrote The Gilded Age, 1873.

Warner, Hiram. 1802-1881. Judge Ga. Supreme Court 1845-53; M.C. 18-55-57; Chief-justice 1872.

Warner, Levi. 1844-1896. American sculptor.

Warner, Seth. 1743-1784. Officer of Vt. troops 1775-82, distinguished at Crown Point, Ticonderoga, and Bennington.

Warner, Susan ("elizabeth Wetherell*'). 1819-1885. American novelist. The Wide, Wide World. 1850, had an immense popular success. Queechy, 1852; Hills of the Shatemuc, 1856; Daisy. 1868.—Her sister. Anna Bartlett. b.1820, wrote Say and Seal, 1859, and other novels, alone or jointly with Susan, and pub. Hymns of the Ch. Militant, 1858. and Wayfaring Hymns, 1869.

Warner, William, ab. 1558-1609. English poet. Albion's England, 1586.

War of 1812. Between the U. S. and Gt. Britain, growing out of a series of wrongs inflicted by Britain, chiefly the search of American vessels for supposed British deserters and their impressment into British service, and the prohibition of American commerce with France, with whom Eng-land was at war. The war lasted two years on land and and was concluded with the treaty of Ghent in 1814.

Warped SurfHce. One which, if rigid, cannot be wrapped upon a plane.

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