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Voyaey, CHARLES, b.1828. English vicar, tried for heresy 1868, deprived of his living 1871.

Vries, Adriaan De, 1601-1643. Dutch portrait painter.

Vriese, Wellem Hendrick De, 1807-1862. Prof, of Botany in Leyden. Plantenkunde voor Apothekers en Artsen, 1835-38: Hortus Spaarn-Rergensi.i. 1839: Agave. Americana, 1847; De Kinaboom mit Zuid-America. 1855; Tuiubouw-Flora van Xederland, 1855-56.

Vroom, Peter Dumont, LL.D., 1791-1873. Gov. of N. J. 1829-31 and 1833-36: M.C. 1839-41: U. S. Minister to Prussia 18.53-57. His Reports of X. J. Supreme Court, 1866-73, were continued by his son, Garret Dorset Wall, b.1843.

Vug. Small cavity in a mineral vein, lined with crystals; resembling a Geode (q.v.) in general appearance, though formed under different conditions.

Vuillefoy, Dominique Felix De, b.1841. French painter.

Vulcan. Roman god of (ire, identified by poets with the Greek Hephaestus.

Vulcan. Hypothetical planet, believed by Leverrier to revolve about the sun within the orbit of Mercury.

Vulcanite. See Caoutchouc and Ebonite.

Vulcanology. Science which considers volcanoes. This, like Seismology, has been closely studied in Italy and Japan. Its field of work is the volcano, both static and dynamic.

Vulgate. Latin version of the Bible, used in R. C. Ch. The O. T., except the Psalms, was tr. from the Hebrew by St. Jerome 390-405. and in time displaced an earlier rendering: the N. T. he reviseil from one of unknown origin.

Yulpes. See Cynoidea.

Vlllpfnite. Variety of the mineral ANHYDRATE(q. v.), found at Vulpino in n. Italy. It takes a good polish and is sometimes used for decorative purposes.

Vulplus, Christian August. 1762-1827. German romancer and playwright. Rinaldo Rinaldini, 1797.—His sister, Johanna Christians Sophie, 1765-1816, was Goethe's wife from 1806.

Vultures. Large carrion-eating birds of prey. Those of the Old World differ from those in the New in several particulars; thus, the hind toe of the former is on the level with the other toes; the partition between the nostrils is not perforated as in American Vultures; the tarsi are shorter; and they carry food to their young in their claws and not in their beaks. They constitute a subfamily (Vulturino?) of the Falconidat, while the American Vulture forms the family CathartidxE.

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interest in the thing assured, and could not sustain any loss by the event insured against if he had not made such wager.

Wages. That share of the general product of industry which goes to laborers as remuneration for their services.

Wages, Law Of. Statement of the economic reason for the prevailing rate of wages. None is generally accepted now, but numerous such generalizations have been proposed and received with favor: as the wage-fund tlv.ory, the "iron law" of wages of Ricardo, and the residual theory.

Wagner, Adolf, b.1835. Political economist, prof. Dorpat 1864, Freiburg 1868, and Berlin 1870; at lirst a free-trader, later a leading State socialist. Die Geld und Kredit Theorie der Peelschen Bankakte, 1862; System, der deutschenZettelbankgesetzgelmng, 1870; Lehrbuch der Politischen Oekonomie, 1871.

Wagner, JOHN, M.D.. 1791-1841. Surgeon of Charleston. Eminent as an operator: prof. S. C. Medical Coll. from 1829.

Wagner, Moritz Fuiedrich. 1813-1887. Bavarian traveler and author, prof. Munich 1800. Persia, tr. 1854.—His brother,

Rudolf. 1805-1864, prof. Erhmgen 1833, and Gottingen 1840. Anatomie, 1834, tr. 1845; Physiologic 4 vols., 1842-53.

Wagner, Webster. 1817-1882. American inventorof sleeping cars 1857-58, and drawing-room or palace cars 1867.

Wagner, Wilhelm Richard, 1813-1883. German dramatist, philosopher and musician, reformer of the opera, or regenerator of the lyric drama; one of the most striking figures in modern artistic history. He had no thorough academic training. He began his career 1832 with an incomplete opera. Die Hochzeit. While chorus-master at Wurzburg, 1833. he wrote Die Feen, which was revived at Munich 1888. In Magdeburg he composed and brought forward Das Liebesverbot 1834, an opera based on Shakespeare's Measure for Measure.

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He now married, went to Konigsberg as conductor, and to Riga 1837. In Paris, where he lived 1839-42. he finished Rienzi and The Flying Dutchman, the production of which in Dresden 1842-43 established his fame and won the conductorship of the opera. This he retained until forced to become a political refugee by his participation in the uprising of May 1849. He lived in Paris and Zurich till 1864. when Ludwig II. of Bavaria secured his amnesty and provided the means to carry out his stupendous plans, which culminated in the erection of a theater for the production of his Ring of the Nibelung at Bayreuth 1876, the Bayreuth festivals. Besides the operas mentioned and the tetralogy composing Hie Ring of the Nibelung (Das Rheingold, Die Walkilre. Siegfried, and DieGotterddmmerung), W. wrote words and music of Tannhduser, Lohengrin, Tristan und Isolde, Die Meistersinger, and Parsifal. His principal literary works, written to make propaganda for his artistic system, were gathered in 9 vols. 1871-83, again, 10 vols., 1888, and partly tr. by W. A. Ellis 1892-96.

Wagner, William. 1796-1885. Founder and pres. W. Free Institute of Science in Phila. 1855.

Wagner, Fort. In Charleston Harbor, S. C; assaulted unsuccessfully by the Union troops July 17-18, 1863.

Wagon Boiler. Generator of steam, introduced bv Boulton and Watt, but now no longer made; named from the shape, which, from the end, resembled a canvas-topped wagon of Conestoga type. It had a Hat or concave bottom, straight or inclined sides, and cylindrical top. Gases passed back under the bottom, and forward on one side to the front and backward on the other side to the chimney. This was the wheel-draft. These boilers had automatic damper regulator and automatic feed devices, but were for low pressures only.

Wagon Vault. See Vault.

Wagram. Village 12 m. n.e. of Vienna; site of Napoleon's victory over Archduke Charles July 5-6, 1809. The French took 20,000 Austrians prisoners: each side lost ah. 25.000 men. The battle resulted in the treaty of Schonbrunn Oct. 14.

Wagtail. See Dentirostres.

Wah. See Panda.

Wahabecs. Austere sect of Mohammedan Puritans, founded in Arabia ab.1760. They' made conquests, were overthrown 1812-18, but are still powerful in Nejd, and have offshoots in India.

Waliienberg, Goran George. 1780-1851. Prof. Upsala. Flora Lapponica, 1812: De vegetatione et climate in Helvetia, 1813: Flora Carpatorum principaliutn, 1814; Flora suecica, 1824-26.

Wall watch Mts. See Wasatch Mts.

Waihu Island. See Easter Island.

Walnwright, Jonathan Mayhew, D.D., D.C.L., 17921854. P.E. Bp. of N. Y. 1852; musical and liturgical compiler. Land of Bondage, 1852.

Wait, William, 1821-1880. Lawyer of Fulton co., N. Y, Law and Practice in Justices' Courts, 1865: Actions at Law and in Equity, 7 vols., 1877-79.

Walte, Morrison Remick, LL.D., 1816-1888. Ohio lawyer; counsel in Geneva Arbitration 1871-72; Chief-justice U! S. Supreme Court from 1874.—His father, Henry Matson.ll.d., 1787-1869, was long Judge of Conn, courts, and Chief-justice 1854.

Waits. English singers of carols at Christmas; originally watchmen with horns to mark the hours of night.

Waltz, Georo. 1813-1886. Prof. Kiel 1842, and Gottinjren 1849-75; ed. Mohumenta Qermaniw Historica. 1875. Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, 8 vols.. 1843-78; Grundzuge dei Politik, 1862.

Waltz, Theodor, 1821-1864. Prof. Marburg 1848. Psychologie, 1846-49; Anthropologic der Naturvolker, 6 vols., 1859-71.

Waiver. Voluntary giving up of a legal right. In certain cases one may waive his right to sue another for a tort, and proceed as though the defendant's obligation were imposed bj contract. See Quasi Contract.

Wake. Watch over a corpse till burial: once practiced in Scotland, and still common among the Irish; not seldom attended with drunkenness and disorder. Candles were usually placed at the head and foot of the coffin, and spirits and food provided for the watchers. It is probably a survival from heathen times, and in its original sense a vigil. In early days in England a vigil used to be observed on the eve of the anniversary of the consecration of a church, or of the birthday of the saint to whom it was dedicated, the morrow being a holiday. These holidays came at last to be fairs and scenes of merry-making; so wake came to signify any festive gathering.

Wake, William, D.D., 1657-1737. Bp. of Lincoln 1705. Abp. of Canterbury 1716. His tr. Epistles of Apostolic Fathers, 1693. is still valued.

Wakefield. Town of Yorkshire, on the Cnlder, 9 tu. s.s.e. of Leeds. Here the Duke of York was defeated and slain with 3.000 men by Queen Margaret's army, Dec. 31,1640. Manufactures still important, although the cloth trade has declined. Pop., 1891, 37.269.

Wakefield, Edward Gibbon, 1796-1862. English student of colonial questions, prominent in the organization of New Zealand.

Wakefield, Gilbert, 1756-1801. English controversialist, attacking with equal zeal Bp. Horsley, Paine, and Wilberforce; ed. Horace, Virgil, and Lucretius; imprisoned 1798-1801. Tr. JV. r., 1791; Silva Critica, 1789-95; Memoirs, 1792.

Wakc-Robln. Several showy-flowered herbs of the genus Trillium, natural family Liliacea, natives of N. America.

Waklcy, Thomas, 1795-1862. English medical reformer;

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