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St. Sebald's Tomb at Nuremberg, by Vischer.

in virtue of these he was reckoned by contemporaries as next to Albert Durer. Little is known of his life. His sons were also distinguished as sculptors and workers in bronze.

Viscidity. Property of a viscous fluid in virtue of which it can, like melted glass, be drawn out into fine threads; e.g., fluid from which a spider spins his web.

Vlsconti. Lombard house, long supreme in Milan. OtTONE, or OTHO, 1208-1295, became Abp. 1263: his nephew, Matteo, 1250-1322, was Viscount 1311-22.—Galeazzo I., 12771328, formed an imperial alliance and defeated a papal army. —galeazzo II., 1320-1378, founded the Univ. of Pavia and patronized Petrarch.—His son, Gian. 1347-1402, ruled 13781402, became Duke, and enlarged his dominions. The male line ended 1447: the Sforzas succeeded.

Vlsconti, Giaubattista, 1722-1784. Prefect of antiquities at Rome from 1768; curator of the museum founded by Clement XIV.—Hisson.ENNio QuiRINO, 1751-1818, prof. Paris from 1799, pub. Iconographie Grecque, 1808, and Iconographie Romaine, 1818-20. Opere tutte, 21 vols., 1824.—His son, Louis TULLIUS JOACHIM, 1791-1853, was an architect in Paris.

Vlsconti Venosta, Emilio. b.1829. Italian Foreign Minister 1863-64, 1866-67, and 1869-76; Senator 1886.

Viscosil J . When a fluid is subjected to a deforming force, the strain produced is proportional to the time the force acts. The resistance to this continuous change of form, depending on the velocity of the change, is called viscosity. It varies in amount from that of tar or sealing-wax to that of ether or hydrogen. This term is sometimes applied to an elastic solid, capable of vibrating, to explain the fact that in time the motion ceases, the energy of vibration being converted into heat. This viscosity or imperfect elasticity makes it impracticable to employ lead or zinc in the construction of tuning-forks. Superlicial viscosity is the property of the surface films of liquids on account of which frothing may result from agitation, providing the surface tension be not too great. A fluid with infinite viscosity would not differ from a rigid solid (see Coefficient Of Viscosity). The discovery of the viscosity of fluids in general is due to Prof. Stokes.

Viscount. In Britain, rank between earl and baron; first bestowed 1440, on John Beaumont.

Vise. Spiral staircase, in the Norman style, with the steps resting upon a continuous spiral vault; subsequently, each step was a single stone, the outer end inserted in the wall, the other end resting upon and forming part of the newel.

Vi§hllU. Preserver; middle deity of the Hindu Triad.

The worship rendered to him in his many avatars or incarnations is the principal form of Hinduism, and is often licentious,


Vishnu as Narayana.

but less gloomy and cruel than that of Siva, the Destroyer. V. is generally represented as a dark-blue man with four arms. His most ardent worshipers are of the middle classes.

Visible Speech. System of symbols designed to represent every possible articulate utterance of the organs of speech, It was devised by Alex. M. Bell and first printed in 1867. The symbols are to a certain extent pictorial of the action of the organs which produce the sound. Consonants are represented by curves which have the outline of the organs they symbolize, and a straight line is the basis of all vowel symbols. With these, the curve and straight line, and their combinations, symbols for all the sounds are made.

Visigoths. See Goths.

Vision. Process that permits one to take cognizance of an object through the organ of sight: it involves the transmission of light from the object to the eye, its refraction by the dioptric apparatus of the eye, the exciting of nervous energy by the resulting1 image, which is conveyed to the brain and is there transformed into a sensation. See SIGHT, SensaTions Of.

Vision, Defects Of. Anything that interferes with any factor in the complex process of vision will cause a defect. The media of the eye may not be transparent, there may be disease of the coats of the eye, of the optic nerve, or of the visual centers in the brain, and vision would be deficient for some organic cause; again the dioptric curves may be abnormal, or the muscular apparatus governing either the accommodation or convergence of the eyes may be deficient, and a defect of vision would result from a functional cause.

Vision. In Scripture, presentation, commonly in symbolic form, to the mind of a prophet or seer, of some spiritual truth: usually affecting the sight and hearing, but sometimes only the inner sense.

Visitation, Feast Of. In R.C. Ch., July 2, commemorating the visit of the Virgin Mary to Elizabeth.

Visitation, Nuns Of The. Order founded 1610 by St. Francis de Sales and Mme. de Chantal. It became monastic 1618, and spread rapidly, as later in America.

Visitation and Search. See Search.

Visiting Cards. The origin of these can be traced directly in China, where the custom of exchanging cards is universal at New Year. Chinese cards are oblong strips of red paper, inscribed with the name of an individual or shop company. They are carefully preserved and pasted in a conspicuous place in the shop or dwelling through the year, forming a kind of pledge from friend or clansman. It may be inferred from their name that they were originally made of bamboo, and from their resemblance to the message arrow of China that they originated with the latter in the arrow marked with the name or symbol of its owner.

Vlsp. Village of Vaud. where Swiss peasants defeated the Earl of Savoy 1388.

Vistula. River of Europe, which heads in the Carpathian Mts. of Austro-Hungary, and flows mainly n. across parts of Poland and Prussia to the Gulf of Dantzig, in the Baltic Sea. Length 696 m.. drainage area 69,309 sq. m.

Visual Angle. See Optic Axis.

Visualization. Act of calling up a mental picture with such distinctness as to simulate more or less completely an

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