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St. Sebald's Tomb at Nuremberg, by Vischer.
in virtue of these he was reckoned by contemporaries as next to Albert Durer. Little is known of his life. His sons were also distinguished as sculptors and workers in bronze.
Viscidity. Property of a viscous fluid in virtue of which it can, like melted glass, be drawn out into fine threads; e.g., fluid from which a spider spins his web.
Vlsconti. Lombard house, long supreme in Milan. OtTONE, or OTHO, 1208-1295, became Abp. 1263: his nephew, Matteo, 1250-1322, was Viscount 1311-22.—Galeazzo I., 12771328, formed an imperial alliance and defeated a papal army. —galeazzo II., 1320-1378, founded the Univ. of Pavia and patronized Petrarch.—His son, Gian. 1347-1402, ruled 13781402, became Duke, and enlarged his dominions. The male line ended 1447: the Sforzas succeeded.
Vlsconti, Giaubattista, 1722-1784. Prefect of antiquities at Rome from 1768; curator of the museum founded by Clement XIV.—Hisson.ENNio QuiRINO, 1751-1818, prof. Paris from 1799, pub. Iconographie Grecque, 1808, and Iconographie Romaine, 1818-20. Opere tutte, 21 vols., 1824.—His son, Louis TULLIUS JOACHIM, 1791-1853, was an architect in Paris.
Vlsconti Venosta, Emilio. b.1829. Italian Foreign Minister 1863-64, 1866-67, and 1869-76; Senator 1886.
Viscosil J . When a fluid is subjected to a deforming force, the strain produced is proportional to the time the force acts. The resistance to this continuous change of form, depending on the velocity of the change, is called viscosity. It varies in amount from that of tar or sealing-wax to that of ether or hydrogen. This term is sometimes applied to an elastic solid, capable of vibrating, to explain the fact that in time the motion ceases, the energy of vibration being converted into heat. This viscosity or imperfect elasticity makes it impracticable to employ lead or zinc in the construction of tuning-forks. Superlicial viscosity is the property of the surface films of liquids on account of which frothing may result from agitation, providing the surface tension be not too great. A fluid with infinite viscosity would not differ from a rigid solid (see Coefficient Of Viscosity). The discovery of the viscosity of fluids in general is due to Prof. Stokes.
Viscount. In Britain, rank between earl and baron; first bestowed 1440, on John Beaumont.
Vise. Spiral staircase, in the Norman style, with the steps resting upon a continuous spiral vault; subsequently, each step was a single stone, the outer end inserted in the wall, the other end resting upon and forming part of the newel.
Vi§hllU. Preserver; middle deity of the Hindu Triad.
The worship rendered to him in his many avatars or incarnations is the principal form of Hinduism, and is often licentious,
Vishnu as Narayana.
but less gloomy and cruel than that of Siva, the Destroyer. V. is generally represented as a dark-blue man with four arms. His most ardent worshipers are of the middle classes.
Visible Speech. System of symbols designed to represent every possible articulate utterance of the organs of speech, It was devised by Alex. M. Bell and first printed in 1867. The symbols are to a certain extent pictorial of the action of the organs which produce the sound. Consonants are represented by curves which have the outline of the organs they symbolize, and a straight line is the basis of all vowel symbols. With these, the curve and straight line, and their combinations, symbols for all the sounds are made.
Visigoths. See Goths.
Vision. Process that permits one to take cognizance of an object through the organ of sight: it involves the transmission of light from the object to the eye, its refraction by the dioptric apparatus of the eye, the exciting of nervous energy by the resulting1 image, which is conveyed to the brain and is there transformed into a sensation. See SIGHT, SensaTions Of.
Vision, Defects Of. Anything that interferes with any factor in the complex process of vision will cause a defect. The media of the eye may not be transparent, there may be disease of the coats of the eye, of the optic nerve, or of the visual centers in the brain, and vision would be deficient for some organic cause; again the dioptric curves may be abnormal, or the muscular apparatus governing either the accommodation or convergence of the eyes may be deficient, and a defect of vision would result from a functional cause.
Vision. In Scripture, presentation, commonly in symbolic form, to the mind of a prophet or seer, of some spiritual truth: usually affecting the sight and hearing, but sometimes only the inner sense.
Visitation, Feast Of. In R.C. Ch., July 2, commemorating the visit of the Virgin Mary to Elizabeth.
Visitation, Nuns Of The. Order founded 1610 by St. Francis de Sales and Mme. de Chantal. It became monastic 1618, and spread rapidly, as later in America.
Visitation and Search. See Search.
Visiting Cards. The origin of these can be traced directly in China, where the custom of exchanging cards is universal at New Year. Chinese cards are oblong strips of red paper, inscribed with the name of an individual or shop company. They are carefully preserved and pasted in a conspicuous place in the shop or dwelling through the year, forming a kind of pledge from friend or clansman. It may be inferred from their name that they were originally made of bamboo, and from their resemblance to the message arrow of China that they originated with the latter in the arrow marked with the name or symbol of its owner.
Vlsp. Village of Vaud. where Swiss peasants defeated the Earl of Savoy 1388.
Vistula. River of Europe, which heads in the Carpathian Mts. of Austro-Hungary, and flows mainly n. across parts of Poland and Prussia to the Gulf of Dantzig, in the Baltic Sea. Length 696 m.. drainage area 69,309 sq. m.
Visual Angle. See Optic Axis.
Visualization. Act of calling up a mental picture with such distinctness as to simulate more or less completely an
neumon (Herpestes), domesticated in Egypt, which lives on snakes, liz;irds, crocodile eggs, etc.. and the Mongoos of India, celebrated for killing poisonous snakes. The Cryptoprocta of Madagascar belongs to a special subfamily, as does Proteles, the Aard-wolf of S. Africa, about as large as a fox, with feet as in dogs, a body like the hyena, and dentition truly viverrine.
Vlvcs, Juan Luis, 1493-1540. Spanish humanist, tutor to Princess Mary of England 1523-28: teacher at Bruges from 1529; Latin writer on Aristotle, Virgil, and St. Augustine. Linyuce Latinoz Exercitatio, 1539. Works, 8 vols., 1782.
Vivlanl, Domenico. 1772-1840. Prof, of Botany in Genoa. Annali di Botanica, 1802; Flora: Corsica;, 1824-30.
Vivianite. Fe,P208-|-8H,0. Hydrous mineral, sometimes called blue iron earth, containing iron and phosphorus; product of mineral alteration, and, when associated with iron ores, an objectionable impurity on account of the phosphorus.
Vivien de St. Martin, Louis, 1802-1897. French writer on geography and history.
Vivier, Jacques Du, 1720-1793. French botanist, long iu Peru. Nova genera et species plantarum, 1788-90; Sertum Peruvinum, 1792.
Viviparous. 1. Giving birth to developed young; as opposed to Oviparous (q.v.). All animals reproduce by means of eggs which, in viviparous forms, hatch within the mother. 2. Plants whose seeds or bulblets begin to grow before separation from the parent plant.
Vivisection. In Physiology, the employment of living animals to assist in solving problems relating to the performance of the normal functions of an organ, the nature and effects of diseased conditions, or the effects of remedies. Animal experimentation has aided in making many valuable discoveries for the benefit of mankind.
Vizcaino, Sebastian, ab. 1550-1615. Spanish seaman, who explored the coast of California and Oregon 1602-3, and went to the Philippines and Japan 1610.
Vizier. Mohammedan dignitary; usually, since 752, chief minister of a sovereign. The Grand Vizier was head of the Sultan's councilors 1327-1878.
Vladikavkaz. Russian town, n. of the Caucasus, commanding the pass s. to Tiflis. Pop., 1892, 46,345.
Vladimir. Old town of Russia, 120 ra. n.e. of Moscow. Its Kremlin and Golden Gate date from ab.1150-60. Pop. 18,305.
Vladivostok. Town of s.e. Siberia, on the Japan Sea; founded 1861. It has a fine harbor, and is of naval importance. Pop. ab. 15.000.
Vocal Music. Generally, all music written to be sung by the human voice; strictly, it does not include mixed forms, as songs, cantatas, oratorios, masses, and operas, in which the voices are accompanied by instruments. Its most perfect tvpe is the so-called a capella music of the church, which readied its culmination in Palestrina.
Vocliiptaceae. Natural order of flowering plants, of the class Angioxperviai. subclass Dicotyledons, and series Polypetahe, comprising 7 genera and ab. 130 species, distributed through the tropical regions of America as far as Panama.
Voelius, GYSBERTUS, 1588-1676. Prof. Utrecht 1634; severe theologian, who wrote much against the Arminians or Remonstrants.
Vogdes, Israel, U.S.A.. 1816-1889. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862-66. serving in Fla., S. 0., and Va.
Vogcl, Alfred, 1829-1890. Prof. Dorpat 1866, and Munich 1886; writer on pathology. Kinderkrankheiten, 1860.
Vogel, Eduard, 1829-1856. German explorer in n. central Africa from 1853; murdered in Wadai.
Vosel, Julius, b.1835. English official in Australia 1852-69. and New Zealand 1869-88.
Vogel wcide. See Walther Um Wooelweide.
Voghera. Ancient town of n.w. Italy, 16 m. s.w. of Pavia. Pop. ab. 13,000.
Vogler, Georo Joseph, 1749-1814. German musician and teacher, celebrated in one of Browning's noblest poems, AM Vogler, 1864. He elaborated a new system of fingering, con
Georg Joseph Vogler.
holm and Darmstadt. Weber and Myerbeer were among his pupils. He excelled in the department of harmony.
Vogt, Carl, 1817-1895. Prof, of Geology at Geneva from 1852. Lectures on Man, tr. 1864.
Vogue, Charles Jean Melchior, Marquis De. b.1829. French Orientalist; Academician 1868: envoy to Turkey 1871, and to Austria 1873.—His relative, Eugene Marie Melchior. Vicomte, b.1848, is prominent as a critic and in the Neo-Christian movement. Le Roman Russe, 1886; Russian Portraits, tr. 1896.
Vogue, Jean Pierre De, 1570-1630. Flemish soldier, treasure-hunter in the wilds of Brazil.
Voice. Appreciable sound produced by the air, when driven from the lungs, throwing the inferior ligaments of the glottis into vibration. See SINGING, Sound, and Timbre.
Voice, Loss Of. See Aphonia.
Volglit, Friedrich Siegmund. 1781-1850. Prof. Jena. Botanischen Kunstspraclie, 1803; Praktischen Botanik, 1850.
Voir Dire. Preliminary examination of a proposed witness to determine his competency.
Volsln, Francois Philippe, b.1821. French engineer, director Suez Canal 1861-70; prof. Paris 1873-81. Ports de Mer, 1883; Travaux a VEmbouchure du Danube, 1893.
Volsln, Pierre Joseph, 1759-1821. French writer on Guiana.
Voiture, Nicolas Auguste. ab. 1764-1821. Chilian-French writer ou Patagonia 1812-14; literarv historian of S. America 1818.
Voiture, Vincent. 1598-1648. French author of lvrics and epistles. Works. 1650; Lettres, 1880.
Vokcs, Rosina (mrs. C. Clay), 1854-1894. English actress, often in the U. S.
Volapuk. Universal language, invented 1879 by J. M. Schleyer, a German priest of Baden. It has 37 letters, each having always the same sound. It is simple and uniform in structure and arrangement, and easily learned. A grammar and dictionary were pub. 1880. It has been used in many books. Though received with some enthusiasm at first, interest in it seems to have declined.
Volatile Oils. Vegetable oils which boil without decomposition, as oil of turpentine. They may be hydrocarbons or compounds of more complicated nature.
Volcano. To the modern geologist, opening extending down into the earth and providing a way for the escape of molten and gaseous matter from below. The outbreak is in all probability caused by the access to heated rock of water, which, being suddenly converted into steam, develops enormous explosive force and produces an eruption. The lava forced up from below soon opens a way through the porous side of the crater and flows down, while vast quantities of the same material are violently blown from the crater, and, being
except at the ends. The difference of potential developed at the terminals in both these cases is proportional to the number of pairs. See Ritter's Pile.
Voltaire, Francois Marie Arouet, 1694-1778. French philosopher, poet, dramatist, critic, essayist, letter-writer, and novelist. His most noted work of fiction is Candide, 1759; of history, Charles XII., 1731. Among- his tragedies Zaire, 1732, and Merope, 1743, were most highly regarded.
His mock-heroic poem, La Pueelle, 1730-39, is a travesty of everything sacred: the Henriade, 1728, is in another vein. His correspondence is most voluminous, and universal in its topics. He was the acknowledged head of European literature in his later years, and wielded enormous influence, which he used nobly in defense of freedom, as in the cases of Calas and Sirven. His character was a strnnge mixture of virtues and vices: his hatred of priests, of supernaturalism, and apparently of all forms of visible religion, freely displayed in his Diet, phil /sophique, 176i, and elsewhere, and formulated in the watchword, Ecrasez Vinfame, earned much posthumous no less than contemporary obloquy. He was imprisoned 1716— 17 and 1726, in England 1726-29, atCirey in Champagne 1734-49, in Russia 1750-53, and at Ferney near Geneva from 1758, till shortly before his death, when he received an almost idolatrous ovation in Paris.
Voltameter. Instrument for measuring the strength of an electric current by means of certain electrolytic effects which it produces. If the current be passed through acidulated water between two platinum electrodes so arranged that the gases resulting from the decomposition of the water are collected and measured, the current strength is proportional
Bust of Voltaire, by Houdon.
dex which moves over an empirically graduated scale. Voltmeters have been devised by Thomson, Ayrton and Perry, Deprez, and Carpentier.
Volume. Limited space in three dimensions, as subject to measurement, or result of such measure. The primary unit of volume is a cube whose edge is a linear unit.
Volumenometer, Volumometer, or Stereometer. Instrument for measuring volumes; e.g., that of an irregular solid. It consists of two glass tubes placed vertically against two scales. The tubes are joined at the bottom by a pipe with a tap in it. One of them is open at the top; the top of the other is bent at right angles, and to it is attached a small spherical flask; at the bottom of this tube is a second tap. The tubes are partly filled with mercury, the height of which may be regulated by the taps at the bottom. The volume of the flask and that of the tube down to a certain mark must first be found, then, by introducing the solid into the flask and repeating the experiment, the volume of the solid is known. This method is appli- Volumenometer, cable for finding the true volume of the material of a porous substance, as a piece of wood; thus the real density of wood may be found. This instrument may be used also for experimentally verifying the law of Boyle.
Volumetric Analysis. Branch of quantitative chemical analysis, in which the quantity of a constituent present in a compound is found by running in a known amount of some substance, in form of a standardized solution, which will convert the constituent into some other form. The end of the reaction is usually shown by a change in color or the deposition of a precipitate.
Voluntary Conveyance. Transfer of property without a valuable consideration. It may be set aside as fraudulent against creditors of the grantor.
Voluntaryism. Separation of Ch. and State, and support of clergy and services by free-will offerings of their adherents: svstem prevalent in the U. S., and urged or desired by British Nonconformists.
Volunteers. Term applied to a portion of the military forces of the U. S. employed during the Civil "War: so called