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of Charity, and of the Lazarists or Priests of the Missions; canonized 1737. His day is July 19.
Vfncentlans. Secular R.C. priests, not under a monastic rule, but under obligations to hear confession and preach among the poor.
Vincent of Beauvais, d. ab.1264. French Dominican. Speculum majus, pub. 1478.
Vincent of Eerlns,5th cent. Author of Commonitorium, a semi-Pelagian work of repute.
Vinci, Leonardo Da, 1452-1519. Florentine painter. His Last Supper at Milan, finished ab.1498, was an epoch-making work, having no even remotely equal predecessor and no following superior. In all things he was the forerunner, founder, and spiritual father of the greatest Italian art. His works are rare: several ascribed to him are known to be by scholars. His most accessible authentic oil paintings are the Mono, Lisa portrait and Hie Virgin and St. Anne of the Louvre. His car
toon of Hie, Battle of the Standard, designed for a fresco in Florence which was never executed, survives iii an old engraving of one of its groups. He was a talented sculptor, but no works of his survive. He was also musician, poet, military and civil engineer, expert in gunnery and irrigation, author, and scientist of wide attainments. He was prominent at Milan till 1498, then served for some years as engineer to Cesare Borgia. He left Italy for France 1516. See Lord's Supper.
Vinci§, Pktrus. See Peter De Vincis.
Vinculum. Straight line placed above an expression to show that it is taken as one quantity and subject to one or more operations. Its most common use is in connection with the radical sign.
Vine. Grapes have been cultivated and wine has been made from them from the earliest times. The vines of Europe came from Asia by the Mediterranean. They were carried to England by the Romans early in the Christian era; in Gaul 270. Madeira received its vines from Cyprus 1420; to America they were indigenous. The best wines are obtained from grapes grown on clayey, sandy, and slaty soil, of indifferent value for the growth of cereals. The volcanic soil of Madeira produces rich wines, but would hardly support other vegetation. The soil affects the quality of the wine. The higher the average temperature the larger the quantity of wine and the higher the percentage of alcohol. The quality, however, will not be proportionate to the quantity. The vines are generally kept to a height of 8 ft., so that the grapes are exposed to the sun and the reflection from the ground. In the Burgundy wine district, the ground is laid out in ditches 5 ft. apart and li ft. deep, partly filled with manure. Vine-cuttings li ft. long are placed in these, i foot apart, bending toward the ridge; they are covered with earth, with two buds above it. The first, and second years they are hoed two or three times. In the latter year they are pruned to two buds and manured. The third year they are pruned to two branches, each with two buds, and furnished with a stake of 4 ft. length. In the 4th or 5th year ditches are made from the vine to the middle of the rows and the vine is drawn into this
ditch, one branch remaining with the root and the other beinc bent to the middle of the row. Thus the rows of vines are about 2| ft. apart. Each vine has one stem and begins to bear in the fifth or sixth year. When the vine has grown too high, it is laid down in a ditch and the yearling branch is bent upward and pruned to three buds. About fa are so laid yearly, so that the vineyard is renewed every ten years. A variety of grapes are grown here, the Pineau and the Gamav being the chief ones. The Pineau bear up to ti lbs. of grapes, the Gamay three times as much. Small proprietors sell their grapes to wine-dealers, or make an inferior wine. Tlie larger growers make their wines. In the U. S. the vines are often trained to a wire trellis, 5 to 6 ft. high, with 2 or 3 wires. The vines are planted 6 to 8 ft. apart. The U. S. has 500 varieties of indigenous grapes; of these 25 are valuable. In 1890 there were 51,000 acres of vineyards in N. Y. region; 42,633 in Ohio-Illinois region; 17,306 in Kansas-Missouri region; 17,092 in Virginia-Georgia region; 213.230 in Pacific region; elsewhere in the U. S. 60,000: total, 401,261 acres. The diseases of the vine are the European mildew, Oidium, which is cured bv dusting with sulphur; downy mildew, Peronospora vitkolii. which is treated with ammonio-carbonate of copper solution. These two affect the leaves. The black rot, Lcestadia bidvstUii, causes shriveling and decay of the grapes, and is treated as the last. Of insects are the thrip or leaf-hopper, which is sprayed with petroleum emulsion; and the Phylloxera (q.v.), which attacks the roots; for this, coal-tar and sulpho-carbonate of lime have been used. This last pest was carried from the U. S. to Europe. Many American vines resist this disease, and a large acreage of land in France has been planted with these vines as stocks on which to graft the French vines.
Vine. Properly, the grape; in America, any climbing plant.
Vine, Sir John Richard Somers, b.1847. London official, knighted 1886. Municipal Institutions, 1878.
Vinegar. The best vinegar is made from cider in which the fermentation has proceeded till acetic acid is formed. Of late acetic acid is so easily and cheaply made from the destructive distillation of wood that the manufacture of vinegar from apples is seldom profitable. It is also made by the acetic fermentation of wine, solution of malt, and dilute alcohol, by action of the vinegar plant. It contains 2.5 to 4.6 per cent of acetic acid.
Vinegar, Aromatic. Dilute solution of acetic acid flavored with oils of lavender, rosemary, juniper, peppermint, cinnamon, lemon, and cloves; or flavored with rose-geranium and oil of cloves.
Vinegar Eel. See Anouillida.
Vinegar Plant. Saecharomyce mycoderma. Minute plant of the subkingdom Protophyta, causing the acetous fermentation of alcoholic solutions.
Vinegar Hill. In s.e. Ireland; scene of defeat of rebels by British troops June 21, 1798.
Vine Mildew. See Oidium.
Vlner, Charles, 1680-1756. Benefactor of Oxford. Genera? Abridgment of Late and Equity, 24 vols., 1741-51.
Vines, Richard, ab.1585-1651. Agent of Sir F. Gorges in Me. 1616-17; founder of Saco, Me.
Vines, Sydney Howard, F.R.S., b.1849. Prof, of Botanv at Oxford 1888. Physiology of Plants. 1886.
Vlnet, Alexandre Rudolphe, D.D., 1797-1847. Swiss Reformed theologian, prof. Lausanne 1837-45; eminent as a literary critic. Pastoral Theology, tr. 1852; Homiletics, tr. 1853; Hist. French Literature in 18th Century, tr. 1854; Studies in Pascal, tr. 1859; Outlines of Philosophy, tr. 1865.
Vlngt-Un. Game of cards, played by any number of persons, with pack of 52 cards; aces counting 1 or 11, others according to the spots, face cards 10. After the stakes are made, one card is dealt face down to each player, beginning at the left and this repeated; sometimes the first card is examined before the stake is made and the dealer may require the players to double their stakes, after seeing his first card. The players then examine their hands; if one has a natural Vingt-un. an ace and a face card or 10, he declares it and receives double his stake. The dealer deals to the players successively as many cards as requested, face up. If the hand amounts to more than 21, the player bursts and pays his stake to the dealer. When all have played, the dealer turns his cards and stands, or draws cards. If he bursts he pays those remaining in; if he does not burst, he pays those nearer 21 and stands off ties; he receives from those lower, and if he has a natural he receives double.
Vining, John. 1758-1802. Delegate to Congress 1784-86; M.C. from Del. 1789-93; U. S. Senator 1793-98.