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41; Judge N. Y. Superior Court 1842-50.—His nephew, Aaron J., LL.1X, 1825-1887, was prominent at the New York bar.

Van der Stticken, Frank, b.1858 in Texas. Conductor Breslau Theater 1881-82, Mannergesangverein Arion, New York, 1884-95, and Cincinnati Orchestra 1895; composer of an opera, Vlasda, music for Shakespeare's Tempest, overture to Heine's Ratcliff, etc.

Van de Velde, Willem. 1610-1693. Dutch marine painter, in England from 1675.—His son, Willem, 1633-1707, followed in his steps with still greater success.—His brother, ADRIAAN, 1639-1672, painted landscapes and animals.

Van Dlemen's Land. See Tasmania.

Van Dorn, Earl, 1820-1863. Major U.S.A. 1860; Majorgen. C.S.A. 1861; defeated at Pea Ridge, Ark., and Corinth, Miss., 1862.

Van Dyck,or Van Dyke, Sir Anthony, 1599-1641. Flemish painter, in England from 1632; pupil of Rubens, and superior to him in color, but not in strength of conception. The sentiment of his religious paintings is rather weak: in portraits he is at his best, and a master of the first rank. The Children

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of Charles 1. in Dresden, similar paintings in Amsterdam, in Turin, and at Windsor, and the portrait of Charles I. in the Louvre, are among his greatest works. The Antwerp Gallery is especially rich in fine specimens. Several are in the Metropolitan Museum of New York.

Van Dyke, Henry, D.D.. b.1852. Presb. pastor in New York since 1882. Poetry of Tennyson, 1889-94; Christ-Child in Art, 1894; Little Rivers. 1895; Age of Doubt, 1896.—His father, Henry Jackson, D.D.. 1822-1891, pastor in Brooklyn from 1853, pub. Tlie Church, 1890.

Van Dyke, John. 1807-1878. M.C. 1847-51; Judge N. J. Supreme Court 1859-66; Judge in Minn. 1868.—Of his sons. Theodore Strong, b.1842, has written on Cal., and John Charles, b.1856, prof, of Art, Rutgers, 1891.

Van Dyke, Nicholas, 1738-1789. Delegate to Congress 1777-83; Pres. of Delaware 1783-86.—His son, Nicholas, 17691826, was M.C. 1807-11, and U. S. Senator from 1817.

Vane. Plate of metal turning on a vertical spindle to show the direction of the wind, fixed to the tops of spires and pinnacles; often in the form of a cock, hence called a weathercock. They were in use by the Saxons, sometimes heraldic devices. In the Perpendicular and Elizabethan styles figures supported the vanes in elevated situations.

Vane (of Feathers). See Vexillum.

Vane, Charles W. See Londonderry, Marquis Of.

Vane, Sir Henry. 1612-1662. English Puritan, in Mass. 1685-87; Gov. 1636; M.P., knight, and treasurer of the navy 1640; Republican leader, active in public affairs till 1653; opposed to Cromwell as Protector; imprisoned 1656 and from 1(560; executed for alleged high-treason. His writings are mystical and millenarian.

Van Eyck. See Eyck.

Van ffclmont, Jan Baptista, 1577-1644. Dutch iatrochemist. Pharmacopolium ac Dispensatorium Modemum; Ortus Medicince, vel Opera Omnia, 1648.

Vanilla. Vanilla planifolia. Epiphyte of the Orchid family, native of tropical America. Its fruit is collected in quantity and furnishes the well-known flavoring substance. The fruit is a pulpy pod ab. 6 to 12 in. long and £ in. thick, containing many black seeds. The best conies from Mexico,

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Vanllla-Plant. Trilisia odoratissima. Tall herb of the Composite family, bearing purple flowers and foliage with the odor of vanilla; native of the s.e. U. S.

Vanillin. C,H, • OH,OCH„CHO. Compound at once aldehyde and phenol, derived from benzene; beautiful needles of vanilla odor; mpt. 81°C; present in the vanilla bean, from which it is prepared, and in numerous other plants; also prepared by the oxidation of coniferin.

Vnninl, Lucilio, 1585-1619. Italian rationalist, falsely accused of atheism and burned at Toulouse. Amphitheatrum wternai Providential, 1615; De AdmirandisNatura Arcanis,1616.

Vanishing Fraction. One having for some value of its

o x2—a2

variable the indeterminate form -; as • in which, if x—a,

o x—a

each term of the fraction becomes zero. Such fractions may, in some cases, be evaluated algebraically by dividing both terms by a common factor: in other cases the differential calculus is required.

Vanity. Readiness to believe that one is admired, and elation of spirit accompanying such belief.

Van Laun, Henry, 1820-1896. Dutch scholar in Great Britain from ab. 1845; teacher in Edinburgh; tr. of Taine's Hist. English Literature, 1872-73, of Moliere, 1875-76, and of Gil Bias. 1885-86. Hist. French Literature, 3 vols., 1876-77; French Revolutionary Epoch, 1774-1870, 1879.

Van Lennep, Henry John, D.D., 1815-1889. American missionary in Turkey 1839-69. Travels in Asia Minor, 1870; Bible Lands, 1875.

Van Lennep, Jacob. See Lennep, J.

Van Loo, Charles Andre, 1705-1765. French decadence painter.—His brother, Jean Baptiste. 1684-1745, gained eminence by his portraits in Italy, London, and Paris, and was admitted to the French Academy 1731.

Van Marcke, Emile, 1827-1890. French painter.

Van Milder!, William, D.D., 1765-1836. Prof. Oxford 1813: Dean of St. Paul's 1820; Bp. of Llandaff 1819. and of Durham 1826. Historical View of Infidelity, 1806; Scripture Interpretation, 1815.

Vanner. Ore-testing or ore-dressing apparatus on which the ore, in the shape of a fine sand or pulp, is agitated with water in such a way as to wash off the lighter and less valu

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1592

VAX XOSTRAND—VARIABLE

N. Y. from 1812.—His cousin, William W., 1776-1826, was Justice N. Y. Supreme Court 1807-22.

Van .\o*t rand, David, 1811-1886. Publisher of scientific books in New York; founder Engineering Mag. 1869.

Vannueci. See Perugino.

Vannuclli. Family name of Sarto (q.v.).

Van Oostcrzee, Jan. See Oosterzee, Jan.

Van Ostade. See Ostade.

Van Rensselaer, Henry Killian, 1744-1816. Great-greatgrandson of Killian; Col. of N. Y. troops; distinguished in battles with Burgoyne 1777.—His son, Solomon, 1774-1832, served with distinction in Wayne's Ohio campaign 1794, and at Queenston 1812. He was M.C. from N. Y. 1819-22.

Van Rensselaer, Mariana (griswold), b.1851, m.1874. American writer on art and architecture.

Van Rensselaer, Stephen, 1765-1839. Eighth patroon; inheritor of the American estates of Killian Van Rensselaer (1595-1644) of Amsterdam, who bought 1630 a tract on both sides of the Hudson, 24 by 48 m., including Albany and Rensselaer counties; Lieut.-gov. 1795; Major-gen. 1801; member of Constitutional Convention 1821; M.C. 1823-29; pres. of the boards in control of Erie and Champlain canals 1811-25; founder of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy 1824.—His son. STEPHEN, 1789-1868," was the last patroon. The anti-rent movement began 1839, and soon led to riot and bloodshed. In 184748 it formed an important issue in State politics: but was quieted by a decision of the Court of Appeals 1852, which favored the recusant tenants.

Van Santvoord, George, 1819-1863. N. Y. lawyer. Pleading in Civil Actions, 1852-54; Lives of Chief Justices, 1854; Equity Actions, 1860-62.

Van Schaack, Peter, LL.D., 1747-1832. Lawyer of Kinderhook, N. Y. Laws of N. Y., 1773; Conductor Qeneralis, 1788.

Van Schooten, Frank, 1620-1661. Prof. Leyden; ed. Descartes' Geometry and Vieta's works.

Vansittart, Henry, R.N., 1779-1844. Rear-admiral 1830.

Vansittart, Nicholas, 1766-1851. M.P. 1796; diplomatist; Chancellor of the Exchequer 1812; Baron Bexley 1823.

Van Tronip. See Tromp.

Van Twlller, Wouter, ab.1580-ab.1650. Gov. of New Netherlands 1633-37; involved in difficulties with Mass.; noted for lavish expenditures.

Vanuxein, Lardner, 1792-1848. Prof. S. C. Coll. 1820-26; geologist of 3d district of N. Y. 1836^11; author of a Report on the same 1842.

Vanuxeinite. Clayey product of the decomposition of some of the zinc ores in n.w. N. J.

Van Valkenbnrg, Robert Bruce, 1821-1888. M.C. from N. Y. 1861-65; U. S. Minister to Japan 1866-69; Justice Fla. Supreme Court from 1872.

Van Veen, Octavio, 1558-1629. Dutch historical and por

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good poet and scholar, publishing several books, which lit illustrated himself. He is known by various names; the nam* Van Veen being sometimes given to HEEMSKERK (q.v.).

Vanvitclli, Luigi, 1700-1773. Neapolitan architect of Dutch parentage.

Van Winkle, Peter G., 1808-1872. U. S. Senator from W. Va. 1863-69.

Van Winkle, Rip. See Rip Van Winkle.

Van Wyck, Charles Henry. 1824-1895. M.C. from X. Y 1859-63 and 1867-71; U. S. Senator from Nnb. 1881-87.

Van Zandt, Marie, b.1861 in Tex. Opera singer.

Van Zilc, Edward S., b.1863. American novelist. Ifanhattaners, 1896.

Vapereau, Louis Gustave, b. 1819. French lexicographer and historian of literature. Annie litteraire et cframafioii. 11 vols., 1859-69.

Vapor. Gas near its liquefying point. If the gas be partly condensed or be just at the condensing point, it is called i saturated vapor; in general, a saturated vapor is one in contact with its liquid. The term vapor is often used in a muni wider sense: all gases are frequently called unsaturated vapors.

Vaporization. Process of changing a liquid into a vapor. See Evaporation and Ebullition.

Vapor Tension. Pressure exerted by a vapor on thsurface of its liquid and the walls of the containing vessel; better called vapor pressure. It is different for the different vapors, and proportional to the temperature. Carefully prepared tables give the results of numerous experiments for many different vapors and for the various temperatures.

Varahran. See Bahram.

Varangians. Scandinavian invaders of Russia, who settled at Novgorod in 862 and became the ruling class; so named by Nestor.

Varano, Alfonso, Marquis De. 1705-1788. Italian Dantesque poet.

Varas, Antonio. 1817-1886. Chilian jurist; Minister of Justice 1845-50; Premier 1850-56 and 1861.

Varolii, Benedetto. 1503-1565. Florentine poet, critic, and historian.

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exports salt and dried fish, whale and cod oil, guano, etc. It is one of the most northerly inhabited towns of Europe Pop. ab. 3,000.

Varela, Florencio, 1807-1848. Argentine author ana journalist, as is also his son, Hector Florencio. b. 1832.

Varela y Morales, Felix. 1788-1853. Cuban priest and author, in New York 1824-49. Filosofia, 1819.

Vargas, Jose Maria, 1786-1854. Venezuelan physician and legislator; rector Univ. of Caracas 1827: Pres. 1835-36; Senator 1838-46.

Vargas, Luis De. 1502-1568. Spanish painter, chiefly oi biblical scenes.

Vargas jr Ponce, Juan Jose. 1755-1821. Spanish geographer.

Variability. Changes above or below a normal condition: changeability or uncertainty of any phenomena: expressed by a Coefficient (q.v.) of variability. The relative variability of any climatic element at any two stations is determined bra comparison of the two coefficients.

Variable. Quantity which assumes in a discussion a serie> of consecutive values. A general variable passes through all values from zero to infinity. A limited variable passes throudi

1594

VASA EFFERENTIA-VAUCAKSO.V

tubules, posterior to the vasa efferentia in the male. They form the paro-ophoron in the female, which also includes part of the posterior portion of the Wolffian duct, present as the par-epididymis (paradidymis) in the male.

Vnsa Efferentia. Branches from the Wolffian tubules that enter the testes to convey the semen to the Wolffian duct; present as rudiments in some female vertebrates. In the male they form the head of the epididymis, the remainder being the coiled Wolffian duct.

Vasarhcly, Hod Mezo. Town of e. central Hungary, 20 m. n.e. of Szegedin. It has a good trade and a large cattlemarket. Pop., 1890, 55,483.

Vasarl, Giorgio, 1511-1574. Florentine painter of the decadence period, and architect of the Uffizi palace; famous for his history of Italian artists, 1550, tr. 1850, our main

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The Six Poets, by V asari.

original authority. Its value does not lie in its critical accuracy, but in its nearness to the life-time of the men described and substantial fidelity to the facts then known.

Vasco da Oama. See Gama.

Vasco Nunez. See Balboa.

Vasconcellos, Andres De. Portuguese seaman who sailed with De Soto 1538 and explored the Florida coast. His narrative appeared in a Spanish version 1545.

Vasconcellos, Joaqcim Antonio Fonseca De. b. 1849. Prof. Oporto 1883: historian of music and art.—His wife, Karolina Wilhelma (michaei.is). b.1851 in Berlin, m.1876, is an authority on old Spanish and Portuguese literature.

Vasconcellos, Simao De, 1599-1670. Historian of the Jesuits in Brazil. 16(53.

Vascular. Composed of vessels or ducts, either wholly or in part.

Vascular Cryptogam!*. See Pteridophyta.

Vascular Cylinder. That of woody tissue in herbaceous stems and young shoots of woody plants.

Vascular Pore. Opening in the anterior and ventral part of the body of nematode worms of the lateral line organs (segmental tubes).

Vascular System. Portions of a plant or one of its organs which are composed of vascular tissue, collectively considered.

Vasculose. Modification of cellulose, not readily soluble in sulphuric acid.

Vasculum. Metallic case used in the field for mailing botanical collections.

Vase. Large cup with handles; a kind of urn. Modern vuses are solely ornamental. Ancient vases were made of glass, earthenware, metal or stone. See Glass, Ancient.

Vaseline. Lubricant consisting of semi-solid and high boiling hydrocarbons present in petroleum; prepared usually by distilling off the volatile portions in vacuo and filtering the residuum, sometimes by dissolving paraffine in a heavy oil. It does not become rancid on standing.

Vasey, George, M.D., 1822-1893. Botanist of U. S. Dept. of Agriculture from 1872; writer on grasses.

Vashtl. Persian queen, wife of Ahasuerus (supposed to be Xerxes). He divorced her and married Esther, the Jewess.

Vasquez, Francisco, ab.1600-ab.1660. Historian of the conquest of Guatemala 1714-16.

Vasquez de Coronado, Francisco, ab.1500-ab.1543. Explorer of n. Mexico 1540-42.—His relative, Juan, 1525-1565, was an official and explorer in Central America.

Vassar, Matthew. 1792-1868. Brewer of Poughkeepsie, N. Y., founder of V. Coll.—His nephews, Matthew, 1809-1881, and JOHN Guy, 1811-1888, were benefactors of it and of other institutions.—Their cousin, John Ellison, 1813-1878, was noted as a lay evangelist.

Vassar College. For women; at Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; founded 1861, opened 1865. Its endowment is over $1,100,000, with buildings and collections worth as much. It has an astronomical observatory, with laboratories for the study of chemistry, physics, biology, mineralogy, and geology. It has (1897) 20 professors and 31 assistants of both sexes, 537 students, and a library of 25,000 volumes.

Vatcr, Johann Severin, 1771-1826. Prof. Jena 1796, Halle 1800-9 and from 1820, and Konigsberg 1809-20; author of Hebrew and other grammars, and of a commentarvon the Pentateuch, 1802-5. Tables of Ch. History, 1809, tr. 1831.

Vatiean Codex. Uncial manuscript of the Greek Bible in the Vatican Library, dating from the 4th century. Tischendorf considers it one of the 30 copies of the Scriptures which Eusebius had prepared by order of Constantine in 330. It contains the greater part of the O.T. and the new as far as Hebrews ix. 14. The first reproduction of it appeared 1857.

Vatican Council. Dec. 8, 1809-July 18, 1870; reckoned in R. C. Ch. the 21st Oecumenical Council. It defined the doctrinal infallibility and universal episcopate of the Pope, aDd led to the Old Catholic secession.

Vatican Palace. Usual residence of the popes since 1377; enlarged 1450 and later. It is 1.151 ft. long and 767 ft.

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Vatican Library.

wide, contains ab.l 1,000 rooms, and communicates with St. Peter's, which is the Vatican Basilica. Its collections of books. MSS., statuary, and antiquities are large and valuable.

Vatke, Johann Karl Wilhelm, 1806-1882. Prof. Berlin from 1837. His Religion des Alten Test., 1835, and other works, were of some importance in the early history of the higher criticism. Religionsphilosophie. 1888.

Vatry, Marc Axtoine Bourdon, Baron De, 1761-1828. French official and writer; Sec. to De Grasse 1780-82, and then to Vaudreuil; Sec. Navy 1798-1800; Minister to U. S. 1800; in office till 1815.

Vattel, Emmeric De. 1714-1767. Swiss jurist, Saxon envov I at Berne 1746-58. His Law of Nations, 1758, tr. 1760. had I great repute. Droit naturel, 1762.

Vattemarc, Alexandre, 1796-1864. French ventriloquist, advocate of international exchanges of books, maps, museum specimens, and art objects.

Vauban, Sebastien Le Prestre De, 1633-1707. French military engineer of highest rank. He created or perfected the bastioned system of fortification, invented parallels in sieges and the ricochet fire, conducted 53 sieges, bore part in 140 battles, built 33 fortresses, repaired ab. 100 others, and was made marshal of France 1703. His chief writings were reprinted 1796.

Vaucanson, Jacques De, 1709-1782. French inventor of

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