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built mainly on a rocky peninsula and the ground is so uneven Vallauri, TOMMASO, b.1805. Prof. Turin 1843; editor of that the streets are connected by stairs. It has a large depot | Latin classics; writer on Piedmontese literature. Opuscula,


Vallentine, BENJAMIN BENNATON, b.1843. Anglo-Ameri. can journalist, satirist, and playwright.

Valleria, ALWINA (LOHMANN), b.1848. American singer.

Valley. Internal angle formed by the meeting of the sides of a roof, where there is more than one ridge.-Space between the ridges of a vault as seen from above.

Valley Forge. Village 24 m. w. of Phila.; scene of Washington's encampment in the winter of 177778. His force of 11,000 men was ill supplied with food and clothing.

Valley Rains. Rain produced by hot moist air rising from valleys; term used by Abercromby.

Valleys. Depressions of the earth's surface generally with sloping sides. They have been formed by wrinkling of the earth's crust by internal forces; by volcanic eruptions; by

erosion of plateaus by water or ice. Valetta, Malta.

Vallombrosa. Benedictine abbey in the Apennines, of coal, and is the headquarters of the British fleet in the Medi- founded 1039; first to admit lav brothers; noticed by Ariosto terranean. It was occupied by the French 1798 and passed to and Milton; suppressed 1869, and its fine buildings secularized. the English 1801. Pop., 1891, 37,350, or, with suburbs, 62,152.

Valmiki, ab.900 B.C. Epic poet of India.
Valette, JEAN PARISOT DE LA, 1494-1568. Grandmaster
Knights of St. John 1557; defender of Malta against the Turks


1859, m.1817. French singer, poet, and novelist. May 18-Sept. 8, 1565.

Valmy. Village of n.e. France, 20 m. n.e. of Chalons. Valgius Rufus, b.81 B.C. Roman author, in prose and

Here, Sept. 20, 1792, the French Republicans under Kellerman verse, under Augustus; Consul 12 B.C.; friend of Horace.

| defeated the Prussian invaders, deciding the campaign. Valhalla. Hall of immortality, in Scandinavian mythol

Valmy, FRANÇOIS CHRISTOPHE KELLERMAN, DUC DE. 1735– ogy, for heroes who fell in battle; described as situated in

1820. Bavarian general, in the French service; victor at Valmuy Gladsheim, large and resplendent with gold. The heroes pass

1792; imprisoned 1793–94; Duke 1804.-His son, FRANÇOIS ÉTitheir days there in feasting.

ENNE, 1770-1835, was prominent at Marengo and Austerlitz. Valkyries. Maids sent by Odin to choose those who are

Valois Dynasty, 1327–1589. Named from a portion of to be slain, and carry them heroes to Valhalla, where they

Isle de France (Oise), given by Philip III. to his youngest son bear drink, take care of the drinking-horns, and serve the

Charles, 1270-1325. His son became king as Philip VI. 1327. table.

The house is subdivided into (1) older Valois, direct line, 1327Valla, LAURENTIUS (LORENZO DELLA VALLE), 1405–1457. 1498, with a kings, ending with Charles VIII.; (2) Valois-OrItalian scholar, rationalist, and polemic, a chief herald and pro- leans, Louis XII., 1498-1515; (3) Valois-Angoulême, 1515-89, j moter of the Renaissance; prof. at Rome 1450; translator of kings, Francis I. to Henry III. The Valois claim to the throne Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon; N. T. critic. De Do was disputed by Edward III. of England, son of Isabella, nutione Constantini, 1440; Elegantice Latinæ, 1444.

daughter of Philip IV. of France: this claim occasioned the Valladolid. Old city of n. Spain, on the Pisuerga; royal

100 Years' War. The marriage of Charles of Valois with Mar

garet of Anjou-Sicily brought a claim to the Two Sicilies, which residence ab.1400–1560; held by the French 1808–10. Its univ.,

was pressed by Charles VIII. and his immediate successors, and involved Europe in numerous wars. The dynasty ended with the assassination of Henry III.

Valonia. Vegetable product rich in tannic acid and used by tanners. It is the acorn cup of a species of oak, Quercus ægilovs, found in Greece and Turkey.

Valparaiso. Principal seaport of Chili, 68 m. w.n.w. of Santiago; founded 1544; partly destroyed by earthquakes 1892

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House in Valladolid where Columbus died, 1506. founded 1346, has ab. 900 students. It has some manufactures of silk and wool and a fair grain trade. Pop. ab. 65,000.

Vallancey, CHARLES, LL.D., 1722–1812. English officer and antiquarian, writing on Ireland. De Rebus Hibernicis, 6 vols., 1770-1808.

Vallandigham, CLEMENT LAIRD, 1820-1871. M.C. from Obio 1857-63. He opposed the prosecution of the Civil War and attacked the government, was tried by court-martial and carried across the lines. After a stay in Canada, he was candidate for Gov. of Ohio 1864. He expended much ability and earnestness on a hopeless cause.

Valparaiso from the Hills southeast of the City. and 1851, by a Spanish fleet 1866, and by insurgents 1891. It has a fine harbor and a large foreign commerce. Pop. ab. 150,000.

Valpy, RICHARD, D.D., 1754-1838. Headmaster of Reading School, Eng., 1781-1830; author of widely used Greek and Latin grammars.-His brother, EDWARD, 1764-1832, headmaster at Norwich, edited the Greek Testament 1810, and pub, Elegantice Latinæ, 1803.—Their nephew, ABRAHAM JOHN, ab. 1787–1854. publisher in London, issued an extensive series of Latin authors, a Family Classical Library, and other important works.

Vasue in Exchange, Power which an article confers

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upon its possessor of commanding the labor, or the products resting. They make the blood flow by shaving off the skin of the labor, of others. Value alone should be equivalent to surface sufficiently, by means of a pair of sharp, projecting this, though it is sometimes confused with utility.

upper incisors. Their molars are rudimentary. They are reValue in Use. Equivalent of utility; power which any

lated to the Phyllostomidæ, like them having a nose-leaf, article possesses of satisfying some human want.

Valvate. Manner of æstivation, where the margins of the sepals merely touch without overlapping, as in the Hollyhock.

Valve. In Botany, one of the separating parts of a dehiscing capsule.-In Zoology, one of the parts of a diatomshell.

Valverde, VICENTE, ab, 1490–1543. Spanish Dominican, in Peru ab. 1530–34, and from 1536 as Bp. of Cuzco. He attempted the conversion of Inca Atahualpa, and caused his arrest and execution 1532-33. As inquisitor and Protector of the Indians he cruelly oppressed the natives, who rose in despair and slew him.

Valves, Means of closure of openings in pipes through which fluids move. Valves list or slide, and are automatic or are opened from outside. Automatic lifting valves are represented by all pump and check-valves (see CHECK, CORNISH and POPPET VALVES); non-automatic are the usual globe valves, in which the spindle of the valve is fitted with a screw, and by turning that spindle the valve rises from its seat. The stem has a STUFFING-Box (q.v.) to keep it tight. Sliding valves are represented by the engine SLIDE-VALVE (q.v.), plug-cock, and gate-valves. Cocks are conical frusta with a hole through them, which fit a taper casing in which are openings from the

Vampire (Phyllostoma spectrum). pipe. The cock opens when the holes in the frustrum slide op- | Their stomach is very slender, but bears a long cardiac cæcum posite to those in the seat. Such cocks may be 3-way. The for storing blood. The false Vampires are large, frugivorous, taper is ab. 1 in 32, and is given so that the fit may be ground phyllostomine bats, as Vampyrus spectrum of S. America: alanew as it becomes unequally worn, owing to unequal wearing lied species exist in the Old World. False Vampires are areas. Gate or straight-way valves have disks which slide in harmless. guides across the section of the casing, and when withdrawn open the entire area of the pipe. The gate is made double, and

Vampyrella. Animalcule, one of the Lepomonera. It is forced tight to its two seats by the wedging action, which

lives upon confervoid Algae by piercing the cell-wall and suckmay be caused as the spindle is crowded down after the disks

ing out the contents. have bottomed. Throttle valves are usually poppet or slide Vampyrelleæ. Order of Myxomycetes. valves: sometimes in steamboat practice a simple disk pivoted on a diameter is made to fit a seat in the section of the

Van. Armenian-Turkish town, 145 m. s.e. of Erzerum, on pipe. Angle valves have one outlet at bottom and one at side.

Lake Van, which is brackish, and in area ab.1,200 sq. m. It A cross valve opens an inlet from the bottom to two outlets

has some manufactures. Pop. ab.35,000. at the sides, by lifting the disk with screw-spindle and hand Vanadates. Salts of vanadic acid. wheel. Valves operate by right-handed screws usually; a few large ones use left-screws.

Vanadic Acid. HVO,. Not known in free condition. Valves, MITRAL. Pair of membranous folds in the left

Vanadic Acid, META. HVOz. Beautiful golden-yellow ventricle of the heart, at the opening from Ithe left auricle.

compound, obtained by boiling copper vanadate with sulphurWhen the blood flowing from the auricle fills the ventricle ous acid; used as a substitute for gold bronze. and it contracts, it forces the blood into these folds, causing Vanadic Anhydride. V,05. Vanadium Pentoxide. them to close the opening, preventing the return of the blood | Found in three forms, yellow, red, and crystalline; made by into the auricle, enabling it to be forced through the aorta

heating ammonium vanadate. into the circulatory system. Sometimes through disease these valves do not properly close, permitting a leakage, causing

Vanadinite. 3Pb, V,0. + PbCl,. Mineral lead vanadate what is known as a mitral regurgitant murmur.

and chloride, found in very small quantity in several locali

ties, and relatively abundant in Arizona and New Mexico. Valves of the Heart. The heart as a hydraulic apparatus receives and pumps the blood into the arteries, and

Vanadite. Same as DESCLOIZITE (q.v.). the mechanisms preventing the back flow are known as the Vanadium. V. At. wt. 51.4, sp. gr. 5.5, valence III.-V. valves of the heart. The venous blood enters the right au Rare element, discovered by Del Rio 1801; found in nature ricle, whence it flows into the empty right ventricle. When

principally as lead and copper salts of vanadic acid and in the ventricle contracts to force the blood into the pulmonary

some iron ores; obtained from its ores by treating with hyartery, it presses against three membranous folds, situated on drochloric acid and evaporating in presence of an excess of the ventricle side of the opening from the auricle, which close

ammonium chloride. The ammonium metavanadate thus obthe opening and prevent the return of the blood; these are

tained is converted into the pentoxide, which is then reduced called the tricuspid valves. In the same way the blood from by hydrogen. It is a light, whitish-gray powder, oxidizing the left ventricle is prevented from flowing back into the left slowly in the air, soluble in hydrofluoric acid. It forms five auricle by the mitral valve, consisting of two membranous | oxides, similar to those of nitrogen. folds. The blood cannot flow back from the pulmonary artery or the aorta into the dilating ventricles, because of the semi

Vanadium Chlorides. VC14. Tetrachloride; dark, brownlunar valves, three membranous folds found in the arteries at

ish red, thick liquid; bpt. 154° C., sp. gr. 1.85; made by treating their insertion into the heart Disease frequently produces a the metal with chlorine. There are also a di- and trichloride. condition causing a leakage of the valves, which is recognized Vanadium Oxides. These are represented by V.0, V.0.. by the production of a peculiar murmur, known as a regurgi- V.03. V.O. and V.O.. They are all rare. The pentoxide is tant murmur.

the most important: it crystallizes in yellowish-red rhonbic Vambéry, ARMINIUS, b.1832 in Hungary. Traveler in cen- prisms, and is prepared from mottramite. tral Asia; prof. Pesth 1865; prolific writer on Oriental ethnol

Vanadium Oxychloride. VOC1z. Yellow fuming liquid, ogy and philology. His Travels and Adventures, 1864, described

made by passing chlorine over a heated mixture of vanadium regions previously unvisited by Europeans.

pentoxide and charcoal. Vampire. Supposititious monster, usually a witch, sui

Vanadium Sulphides. Disulphide. V,S,. Brownish cide, or person excommunicated, who rose from the grave to

black powder; sp. gr. 4.2 to 4.4; not acted upon by boiling feed on human blood. This hideous superstition prevailed in

hydrochloric acid; made by treating the trisulphide with hythe Dark Ages, and was revived in e, and central Europe ab.

drogen.—Trisulphide. V,Sg. Black leaflets or gray powder; 1710.

| made by heating the trioxide in a stream of hydrogen sulVampire Bats. True Vampires are small bats of the phide.- Pentasulphide. V.S. Black powder, made by heating family Desmodontidæ of S. and Central America, which sub the trisulphide with sulphur; soluble in ammonium sulphide. sist solely by sucking the blood of mammals while asleep or Vanadium Tribromide. V Brz. Grayish, amorphous,




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opaque sublimate, made by heating a mixture of carbon and the sesquioxide in presence of bromine.

Van Bemmel, EUGÈNE, 1824–1880. Prof. Brussels 1849; critical and biographical writer.

Van Beneden, PIERRE JOSEPH, 1801-1894. Prof. Louvain; writer on zoölogy, as is also his son, EDOUARD, b.1846, prof. Liège.

Vanbrugb, Sir John, ab. 1666–1726. English dramatist and architect, knighted 1714; builder of Blenheim palace. His comedies, The Relapse, 1697, Provoked Wife, 1699, Confederacy, 1705, and his last play, Journey to London, completed as Provoked Husband by Cibber, are vigorous, easy, and indecent.

Van Brunt, GERSHOM JAQUES, U.S.N.. 1798–1863. Captain 1855, Commodore 1862; active on N. C. and Va. coast. -His son, HENRY, b.1832, was the architect of Harvard Memorial Hall (with W. R. Ware), and of many other buildings.

Van Buren, MARTIN, 1782-1862. Eighth Pres, of the U.S.; U.S. Senator 1821–28; Gov. of N. Y. 1828; Sec. of State 1829-31; Minister to England 1831, but not confirmed. He was VicePres. 1833–37; Pres. 1837-41. The country was in distressed

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Vancouver Island. by the crown and in 1866 united with British Columbia. The industries are coal-mining, lumber, fishing and shipbuilding. Area ab.16,000 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 37,000.

Van Curler, or Van Corlear, ARENDT, ab.1600-1667. Dutch emigrant 1630; founder of Schenectady, N. Y., 1661; of great influence with the Indians, and thus important in Colonial history.

Vandals. Gothic tribe, who moved s. from a region near the Baltic, and became Arians in Pannonia. They entered Gaul 406, Spain 409, and Africa 429; were victorious and destructive under Genseric, who sacked Rome 455; and were overthrown 533 near Carthage by Belisarius.

Vam Dam, RIP, ab. 1662–ab.1738. Councilor of N. Y. from 1707; Acting-gov. 1731 and 1736.

Vandamme, DOMINIQUE JOSEPH, 1771-1830. French general 1793; active at Austerlitz and in Silesia; made Comte d'Huningen; in America 1815–24.

Vandegrift, MARGARET. See JANVIER.

Vandenhoff, GEORGE, b.1820. Anglo-American actor, elocutionist and author.-His wife (MAKEATH), m.1855, d. 1883, was an actress of merit.

Van Depoele, CHARLES J., 1844–1892. Belgian-American inventor of trolley cars. The first line was established at

South Bend, Ind., 1882.
Martin Van Buren.

Vanderbilt, CORNELIU'S, 1794–1877. Called "Commodore'

from his boats plying on the Hudson and Long Island Sound. financial condition during his administration, and his policy

In 1863 he gave to the U. S. Government his finest steamer, was unpopular with the masses. He was an unsuccessful can

the Vanderbilt, which had cost $800,000. He gained control didate for the presidency 1840 and 1848.-His son, JOHN (PRINCE

successively of the N. Y. and Harlem, Hudson River, and John), 1810-1866, was a noted lawyer.

N. Y. Central railroads, in 1869 consolidated these, and in Van Buren, WILLIAM HOLME, M.D., LL.D., 1819-1883. 1873 controlled 2.000 miles of track. He left a fortune estiProf. Univ. New York 1852, and Bellevue 1866. Surgery, mated at $100,000,000.-His son, WILLIAM HENRY, 1821-1885,

and grandson, CORNELIUS, b. 1843, succeeded to the control Vance, JOSEPH, 1786-1852. M.C. 1823-35 and 1843-47; Gov. of his roads. of Ohio 18:36–38.

Vanderbilt University. At Nashville, Tenn.; founded Vance, ZEBULON BAIRD, 1830-1894. M.C. 1858–61; Gov. of 1872, under control of the M. E. Ch. South. C. Vanderbilt gave it N. C. 1862–66 and 1876–78; U. S. Senator from 1879.

$1,000,000; his son and grandson added $500,000. It is co-eduVan Cortlandt, OLOFF STEVENSE, 1600–1684. Dutch emi

cational, and has 70 instructors and ab. 700 students. It maingrant 1638; burgomaster of New York 1655–64.–His son,

tains, besides the academic courses, schools of law, medicine, STEPHANUS, 1643–1700, was Mavor from 1677, and long a

theology, and engineering judge.-His grandson, PIERRE, 1721-1814, was Lieut.-gov. of

Vanderdecken. See FLYING DUTCHMAN. N. Y. from 1777.-His son, PHILIP, 1749–1821, was an officer | Van der Goes, Hugo, ab. 1405–1482. Flemish painter. in the Revolutionary War, and M.C. 1793–1809.

Vanderheyden, DIRK, ab.1680–1738. Grantee of the site Vancouver. Capital of Clarke co., Wash., on Willamette of Troy, N. Y., 1720. His house, built 1725, was described by River, 6 m. above mouth, 6 m. n. of Portland, Ore. Founded Irving in Bracebridge Hall. 1828; headquarters of military department of the Columbia.

Van der Heyden, JAN, 1637-1712. Dutch painter. Products lumber, fruit and dairy. Pop., 1890, 3,545.

Van der Hoeven, Jan, 1801-1868. Prof. Leyden 1826; Vancouver, City of British Columbia, 85 m. n. by e. of

writer on zoölogy. Victoria, on Buzzard Inlet. It is the terminus of the Canadian

Vanderlyn, John, 1776-1852. American painter of supePacific R. R., and has a steamship service to China, Japan,

rior talent. Few accessible works of his are extant. San Francisco and Alaska. Pop., 1891, 13,685.

Van der Meer, Jan, ab. 1625-ab.1685. Dutch landscape Vancouver, GEORGE, R.N., 1758–1798. Officer under Cook 1771–80; explorer of n. Pacific coasts 1791–94. Voyage of Dis

and marine painter, as was also his son, Jan, ab. 1660-ab.

1704. covery, 1798. Vancouver Island. Part of British Columbia; in the

Van der Meulen, ANTOINE FRANÇOIS, 1634-1690. BelgianPacific, lat. 48° 19'—50° 53' N.; discovered 1592 by Apostolos French historical painter. Valerianos, or Juan de Fuca, a Greek in the service of Spain. Vanderpool, AARON, 1799–1871. M.C. 1833-37 and 1839




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41; Judge N. Y. Superior Court 1842-50.-His nephew, AARON and contains from 1.7 to 2 per cent vanillin. Sweetened J., LL.D., 1825–1887, was prominent at the New York bar. tincture of the dried fruit in alcohol is used for flavoring.

Van der Stucken, FRANK, b.1858 in Texas. Conductor Breslau Theater 1881-82, Männergesangverein Arion, New York, 1884–95, and Cincinnati Orchestra 1895; composer of an opera, Vlasda, music for Shakespeare's Tempest, overture to Heine's Ratcliff, etc.

Van de Velde, WILLEM, 1610–1693. Dutch marine painter, in England from 1675.-His son, WILLEM, 1633–1707, followed in his steps with still greater success.-His brother, ADRIAAN, 1639-1672, painted landscapes and animals.

Van Diemen's Land. See TASMANIA.

Van Dorn, EARL, 1820-1863. Major U.S.A. 1860; Majorgen. C.S.A. 1861; defeated at Pea Ridge, Ark., and Corinth, Miss., 1862.

Van Dyck, or Van Dyke, SIR ANTHONY, 1599-1641. Flemish painter, in England from 1632; pupil of Rubens, and superior to him in color, but not in strength of conception. The sentiment of his religious paintings is rather weak: in portraits he is at his best, and a master of the first rank. The Children

Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).
Vanilla-Plant. Trilisia odoratissimu. Tall herb of the
Composite family, bearing purple flowers and foliage with the
odor of vanilla; native of the s.e. U. S.

Vanillin. C,H, : OH,OCH,,CHO. Compound at once aldehyde and phenol, derived from benzene; beautiful needles of vanilla odor; mpt. 81°C.; present in the vanilla bean, from which it is prepared, and in numerous other plants; also prepared by the oxidation of coniferin.

Vanini, LUCILIO, 1585–1619. Italian rationalist, falsely accused of atheism and burned at Toulouse. Amphitheatrum æternæ Providentice, 1615; De Admirandis Naturce Arcanis, 1616. Vanishing Fraction. One having for some value of its

O x2-a? variable the indeterminate form ; as , in which, if x=a,

o'" x-a " each term of the fraction becomes zero. Such fractions may, in some cases, be evaluated algebraically by dividing both terms by a common factor: in other cases the differential calculus is required.

Vanity. Readiness to believe that one is admired, and elation of spirit accompanying such belief.

Van Laun, HENRY, 1820-1896. Dutch scholar in Great Children of Charles I., by Van Dyck.

Britain from ab. 1845; teacher in Edinburgh; tr. of Taine's of Charles 1. in Dresden, similar paintings in Amsterdam, in

Hist. English Literature, 1872–73, of Molière, 1875–76, and of Turin, and at Windsor, and the portrait of Charles I. in the

Gil Blas, 1885–86. Hist. French Literature, 3 vols., 1876-77; Louvre, are among his greatest works. The Antwerp Gallery

French Revolutionary Epoch, 17741870, 1879. is especially rich in fine specimens. Several are in the Metro Van Lennep, HENRY JOHN, D.D., 1815-1889. American politan Museum of New York.

missionary in Turkey 1839-69. Travels in Asia Minor, 1870; Van Dyke, HENRY, D.D., b.1852. Presb. pastor in New

Bible Lands, 1875. York since 1882. Poetry of Tennyson, 1889-94; Christ-Child Van Lennep, JACOB. See LENNEP, J. in Art, 1894; Little Rivers, 1895; Age of Doubt, 1896.-His Van Loo, CHARLES ANDRÉ, 1705-1765. French decadence father, HENRY JACKSON, D.D., 1822–1891, pastor in Brooklyn painter.-His brother, JEAN BAPTISTE, 1684-1745, gained emifrom 1853, pub. The Church, 1890.

nence by his portraits in Italy, London, and Paris, and was Van Dyke, JOHN, 1807-1878. M.C. 1847-51; Judge N. J. admitted to the French Academy 1731. Supreme Court 1859–66; Judge in Minn. 1868.–Of his sons, Van Marcke, ÉMILE, 1827-1890. French painter. THEODORE STRONG, b.1842, has written on Cal., and JOHN

Van Mildert, WILLIAM, D.D., 1765–1836. Prof. Oxford CHARLES, b.1856, prof. of Art, Rutgers, 1891.

1813; Dean of St. Paul's 1820; Bp. of Llandaff 1819, and of Van Dyke, NICHOLAS, 1738-1789. Delegate to Congress | Durbam 1826. Historical View of Infidelity, 1806; Scripture 1777-83; Pres. of Delaware 1783-86.-His son, NICHOLAS, 1769– Interpretation, 1815. 1826, was M.C. 1807-11, and U. S. Senator from 1817.

Vanner. Ore-testing or ore-dressing apparatus on which Vane. Plate of metal turning on a vertical spindle to show the ore, in the shape of a fine sand or pulp, is agitated with the direction of the wind, fixed to the tops of spires and pin- water in such a way as to wash off the lighter and less valunacles; often in the form of a cock, hence called a weathercock. They were in use by the Saxons, sometimes heraldic devices. In the Perpendicular and Elizabethan styles figures supported the vanes in elevated situations.


Vane, SIR HENRY, 1612–1662. English Puritan, in Mass.
1635–37; Gov. 1636; M.P., knight, and treasurer of the navy
1640; Republican leader, active in public affairs till 1653; op-
posed to Cromwell as Protector; imprisoned 1656 and from
1660; executed for alleged high-treason. His writings are
m ystical and millenarian.
Van Eyck. See EYCK.

Vanner. Van Helmont, Jan BAPTISTA, 1577-1644. Dutch iatro- able portions and to collect the richer grains by themselves. chemist. Pharmacopolium ac Dispensatorium Modernum ; In hand-vanning a shovel is used, to which a peculiar jerky Ortus Medicince, vel Opera Omnia, 1648.

and rotary motion, to be learned only by practice, is given. Vanilla. Vanilla planifolia. Epiphyte of the Orchid fam Many machines of this general type are in use. ily, native of tropical America. Its fruit is collected in quan Van Ness, CORNELIUS PETER, LL.D., 1782-1852. Chieftity and furnishes the well-known flavoring substance. The justice of Vt. 1821–23; Gov. 1823–29; U. S. Minister to Spain fruit is a pulpy pod ab. 6 to 12 in. long and 1 in. thick, 1829–37.-His brother, WILLIAM PETER, 1778–1826, was Burr's containing many black seeds. The best comes from Mexico, second in the duel with Hamilton 1804, and U. S. judge for s.




N. Y. from 1812.-His consin, WILLIAM W., 1776-1826, was good poet and scholar, publishing several books, which he Justice N. Y. Supreme Court 1807–22.

illustrated himself. He is known by various names; the name Van Nostrand, DAVID, 1811-1886. Publisher of scientific

Van Veen being sometimes given to HEEMSKERK (q.v.). books in New York; founder Engineering Mag. 1869.

Vanvitelli, LUIGI, 1700–1773. Neapolitan architect of Dutch Vannucci. See PERUGINO.

parentage. Vannuchi. Family name of SARTO (q.v.).

Van Winkle, PETER G., 1808-1872. U. S. Senator fron)

W. Va. 1863–69. Van Oosterzee, JAN. See OOSTERZEE, JAN.

Van Winkle, RIP. See RIP VAN WINKLE. Van Ostade. See OSTADE.

Van Wyck, CHARLES HENRY, 1824-1895. M.C. from X. Y. Van Rensselaer, HENRY KILLIAN, 1744-1816. Great-great

| 1859–63 and 1867-71; U. S. Senator from Neb. 1881–87. grandson of Killian; Col. of N. Y. troops; distinguished in battles with Burgoyne 1777.-His son, SOLOMON, 1774–1852,

Van Zandt, MARIE, b.1861 in Tex. Opera singer. served with distinction in Wayne's Ohio campaign 1794, and at Van Zile, EDWARD S., b.1863. American novelist. Man. Queenston 1812. He was M.C. from N. Y. 1819–22.

hattaners, 1896. Van Rensselaer, MARIANA (GRISWOLD), b.1851, m.1874. Vapereau, Louis GUSTAVE, b.1819. French lexicographer American writer on art and architecture.

and historian of literature. Année littéraire et dramatique, Van Rensselaer, STEPHEN, 1765–1839. Eighth patroon;

11 vols., 1859–69. inheritor of the American estates of Killian Van Rensselaer

Vapor Gas near its liquefying point. If the gas be partly (1595-1644) of Amsterdam, who bought 1630 a tract on both condensed or be just at the condensing point, it is called a sides of the Hudson, 24 by 48 m., including Albany and Rensse saturated vapor; in general, a saturated vapor is one in conlaer counties; Lieut.-gov, 1795; Major-gen. 1801; member of Con tact with its liquid. The term vapor is often used in a much stitutional Convention 1821; M.C. 1823–29; pres, of the boards wider sense: all gases are frequently called unsaturated vapors. in control of Erie and Champlain canals 1811–25; founder of Vaporization. Process of changing a liquid into a vapor. the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy 1824. –His son,

See EVAPORATION and EBULLITION. STEPHEN, 1789-1868, was the last patroon. The anti-rent move

Vapor Tension. Pressure exerted by a vapor on the ment began 1839, and soon led to riot and bloodshed. In 1847–

surface of its liquid and the walls of the containing vessel: 48 it formed an important issue in State politics; but was quieted

better called vapor pressure. It is different for the different by a decision of the Court of Appeals 1852, which favored the

vapors, and proportional to the temperature. Carefully prerecusant tenants.

pared tables give the results of numerous experiments for Van Santvoord, GEORGE, 1819–1863. N. Y. lawyer.

many different vapors and for the various temperatures. Pleading in Civil Actions, 1852-54; Lives of Chief Justices,

Varahran. See BAHRAM. 1854; Equity Actions, 1860–62.

Varangians, Scandinavian invaders of Russia, who setVan Schaack, PETER, LL.D., 1747–1832. Lawyer of Kin

tled at Novgorod in 862 and became the ruling class; so named derhook, N. Y. Laws of N. Y., 1773; Conductor Generalis, 1788. |

by Nestor. Van Schooten, FRANK, 1620-1661. Prof. Leyden; ed.

Varano, ALFONSO, MARQUIS DE, 1705-1788. Italian Dan. Descartes' Geometry and Vieta's works.

tesque poet. Vansittart, HENRY, R.N., 1779–1844. Rear-admiral 1830.

Varas, ANTONIO, 1817-1886. Chilian jurist; Minister of Vansittart, NICHOLAS, 1766-1851. M.P. 1796; diplomatist; | Justice 1845–50; Premier 1850-56 and 1861. Chancellor of the Exchequer 1812; Baron Bexley 1823.

Varchi, BENEDETTO, 1503-1565. Florentine poet, critic, Van Tromp. See TROMP.

| and historian. Van Twiller, WOUTER, ab.1580-ab. 1650. Gov. of New Vardö. Island of Norway, in the Arctic Ocean, in lat. Netherlands 1633–37; involved in difficulties with Mass.; noted | 70° 20' N., long. 31° 10' E., 175 m. e.s.e. of Hammerfest. It for lavish expenditures.

contains a town and fort, the latter being built in 1310, and Vanuxem, LARDNER, 1792-1848. Prof. S. C. Coll. 1820-26; geologist of 3ú district of N. Y. 1836-41; author of a Report on the same 1842.

Vanuxemite. Clayey product of the decomposition of some of the zinc ores in n.w. N. J.

Van Valkenburg, ROBERT BRUCE, 1821-1888. M.C. from
N. Y. 1861–65; U. S. Minister to Japan 1866–69; Justice Fla.

ey Supreme Court from 1872.

Van Veen, OCTAVIO, 1558-1629. Dutch historical and por

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Vardo in 1591. exports salt and dried fish, whale and cod oil, guano, etc. It is one of the most northerly inhabited towns of Europe, Pop. ab. 3,000.

Varela, FLORENCIO, 1807-1848. Argentine author and journalist, as is also his son, HECTOR FLORENCIO, b. 1832.

Varela y Morales, FÉLIX, 1788–1853. Cuban priest and author, in New York 18:24–49. Filosofia, 1819.

Vargas, JOSÉ MARIA, 1786-1854. Venezuelan physician and legislator; rector Univ. of Caracas 1827; Pres. 1835–36; Senator 1838–46.

Vargas, LUIS DE, 1502–1568. Spanish painter, chiefly of biblical scenes.

Vargas y Ponce, JUAN JOSÉ, 1755–1821. Spanish geos rapher.

Variability. Changes above or below a normal condition: changeability or uncertainty of any phenomena; expressed by a COEFFICIENT (q.v.) of variability. The relative variability of any climatic element at any two stations is determined by 3

comparison of the two coefficients. Nothing lasts so that everything may last, by Van Veen.

Variable. Quantity which assumes in a discussion a series trait painter of the Flemish school. At Antwerp he painted | of consecutive values. A general variable passes through all for the churches and had Rubens for his pupil. He was a values from zero to infinity. A limited variable passes through

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