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Urodteum. Middle portion of the cloaca, into which the urinogenital organs open.

Urodela (saurobatrachia, Sozura, Ichthyomorpha, CauData). Elongated, naked-skinned Amphibia, having a persistent tail and two pairs of short limbs. External gills are present, at least in the early stages. Two suborders are included, Ichthyoidea and Salamakdrina (q.v.).

Urogenital Sinus. Sort of cloaca into which the urinary anil genital ducts open, the intestinal opening being shut on by itself. Better Urinogenital Sinus.

Uropeltidse. See Colubriformia.

I'ropods (swimmerets). Hindmost pair of abdominal appendages in Crustacea, particularly in Macroura.

Uropygial Gland. Oil gland in the pygostyle of birds.

I'rosty le. Long central bone which forms the hinder portion of the vertebral column in frogs and toads. It is formed from the two anterior caudal vertebra;.

L'rpetllite. Natural hydrocarbon compound, brownish in color and very soft, allied to ozokerite.

Urquhart, David, 1805-1877. Scottish writer on Russia and Asia. Spirit of the East, 1838; Progress of Russia, 1853.

Urquliarl, Sir Thomas, 1605-1660. Scottish royalist, translator of Rabelais 1653-61. Epigrams, 1461; Works, 1834.

Urquiza, Justo Jose De. 1800-1870. Argentine general and despot, ally of Rosas till 1851, then his foe and conqueror; Pres. 1853-59; slain by malcontents.

Urrutla, Ignacio De, 1730-1798. Cuban historian 1795.

I'riR Major And Minor. Two constellations, known to the ancients; so named by Ptolemy. The former includes the Dipper, the latter the Pole Star. In Ursa Major, the seven

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Ursa Major.

principal stars are arranged as shown in the figure, and are known as the Plow or Charles's Wain in England. The two brightest stars, a and ft, are termed the pointers, because they always point to the Pole Star.

Urslda*. Family of Arctoidea. including the Bears (q.v.), characterized among Carnivora by possessing short tails, elongated muzzle, long but non-retractile claws fitted for digging, circular pupil, short ears, smooth tongue, and teeth partly vegetarian in character, the carnassial teeth having tuberculated crowns. None exist in Australia and Africa. S.America has but one species, the Spectacled Bear of Peru.

Ursinus, Zacharias, 1534-1583. Prof. Heidelberg 1561-68; framer, with Olevianus, of the Heidelberg: Catechism. He wrote against the Lutheran Formula Concordia;.

Ursinus College. At Collegeville, Pa.; incorporated 1869; controlled by Reformed Ch. It maintains collegiate, preparatory, and theological departments. Teaching staff, 33: students, 24 theological, 80 collegiate, total 213.

Urana, or Orsua, Pedro De, ab.1510-1561. Spanish soldier and explorer in S. America; murdered on the Amazon.

Ursula, St. Legendary daughter of a British chief, slain by Huns near Cologne, with her "11,000 virgins," while returning from a pilgrimage to Rome, in the 3d, 4th, or 5th century.

Ursulines. Order of nuns, founded 1537 in Italy, confirmed 1544. They are engaged in teaching and charitable work, and have spread widely.

Urtlcaceffi. Natural order of flowering plants, of the class Angiosperma, subclass Dicotyledons, and series Apetala?, comprising 110 genera and ab.1,560 species, widely distributed

throughout the temperate and warm regions of the globe; called the Nettle family.

Urticaria. See Hives.

Urtlcatlng Cells. See Nettle Cells.

Uruguay. Branch of the Rio de la Plata, heading in s. Brazil, and flowing s.w. and s., forming the boundary between Brazil and U. on the e., and the Argentine Republic on the w. Length 1,020 m.

Uruguay. Republic of S. America, s. of Brazil and e. of Argentina; area 72,170 sq. m. Near the coast the surface-is low, level and open: it becomes more undulating inland, gradually rising to forest-clad hills in the interior. The raising of horses and cattle constitute the principal industry. The capital is Montevideo. It was first explored 1512 by Solis. who found it occupied by the Charruas and other tribes. Unsuccessful attempts to subdue the natives were made through a series of years. The Spaniards were finally established ab. 1729. After a long struggle between Brazil and the revolutionists in Buenos Ayres for supremacy in U., it was declared independent 1828; but for years its history was filled with invasions from without and financial and political disasters from within. Pop., 1892, 728,447.

Urumiah, or Urmia. Town of n.w. Persia, 75 m. s.w. of Tabriz; seat of important missions. Pop. ab. 35,000. The lake of the same name is 12 m. from the town; altitude 4.100 ft., area 1,600 sq. m., greatest depth 46 ft. It has no outlet. The water contains saline matter 8.5 times that in ocean water.

Urumtsl. City of Zungaria, w. China, n. of Tian-Skan Mts.; important commercially. Pop. ab. 40,000.

Uruft. Species of ox. now extinct, which lived in the forests of Europe, and was described by Caesar. It is said to have survived to the 16th century.

Usage. Business practice which has become habitual. If known to both parties to a contract, it may modify its written terms. It must be proved by the party who depends on its existence.

Usance of Wealth. Benefits derived by the owner; more than interest, which is only the money income arising from the use of that part of wealth known as capital.

Usbeks, or Uzbegs. Principal tribe of Turkestan, extending w. to the Caspian Sea. It consists of a union of heterogeneous Turkish and Mongolian elements, cowardly, though

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l'»ertc»&en. Names of three kings of the 12th Egyptian dynasty.

Uses. Equitable interests in land, the legal title to which is in another. They originated in the English Statute of Uses under Henry VIII., and are regulated to a great extent by

statute in America.

Utik. Beautiful river of s. Wales, celebrated for its salmon. It rises in the Black Mts. and flows 57 m. s.e. into the Bristol Channel,

U§Hhcr, or Unher, James, D.D., 1581-1656. Prof. Dublin 1607; Bp. of Meath 1621; Abp. of Armagh 1625; in England from 1640; acting Bp. of Carlisle; preacher at Lincoln's Inn 1647-55; respected by all parties for learning and moderation. The chronology of his Annales V. et A7. Test., 1650-54, tr. 1658, was long accepted.

I «l i I nut ■■ (':<-. Order of Fungi, of the subclass Zygomycetes, parasitic on flowering plants, causing the diseases of grasses commonly known as Rust and Smut.

Hit Urt. Desert plateau from 600 to 1,000 ft. high between the Caspian and Sea of Aral. Area ab. 92,000 sq. m.

Citufruct. Civil law term for the right of using and taking the fruits of any property of another, without, however, consuming or injuring it.

Ununiaclnta. River of Central America, formed by several branches, rising in the e. part of Guatemala, flowing n.w. 400 m. and joining the Tobasco or Grijalva.

Urnirj'. Originally, interest, payment for the use of money; in modern usage, excessive interest, higher than a certain maximum rate prescribed by law. Such laws are mostly retained in the U. S., though repealed 1854 in England. The Jews were forbidden to receive interest, except from foreigners.

Utah. One of the w. States, between Col. and Nev.; area 84,970 sq. m. It is divided into two parts by the Wasatch Mts. and by a line of high plateaus. Extending s.e. of this is a plateau region descending to the Col. and Green rivers; w. of it is the Great Basin, a region which has no outlet to either ocean, and consists of narrow mountain ranges, separated by broad desert valleys. The industries consist of agriculture, which is carried on universally by the aid of irrigation, with some stock-raising and mining. The capital is Salt Lake City, near the shore of Great Salt Lake. U. was a portion of the territory ceded by Mexico to the U. S. 1848. It was organized as a territory 1850, and then included the area covered by Nev., Col., and Wyo., which were subsequently set off and have become States. U. is the center of the Mormon Church; its settlement in the region of Salt Lake was begun under the leadership of Brigham Young 1847 (see Mormons and Nacvoo). U. was admitted Jan. 1896 as the 45th State. Pop., 1890. 207,905; estimated, 1895, 254,743.

Utah, University Of. At Salt Lake City; head of the school system; successor of the Univ. of Deseret, incorporated 1850; rechartered 1892 with the present name. It has 12 professors, 11 instructors, 65 collegiate students, 320 in the normal courses, and 520 in all.

Utah Lake. In n. central Utah, at w. base of the Wasatch Mts. It is drained into Great Salt Lake by Jordan River. Area 150 sq. tn.

Utah State Agricultural College. At Logan, founded 1888. It has 22 instructors, 129 students in college courses, and a total of 497.

Uterine Dlnea»e§. Uterus is liable to disease depending upon a pathological change in any of the tissues which enter into its composition; e.g., there may be a catarrh of its lining mucous membrane; upon a malposition, either in whole or in part of the organ itself, as retroversion or retroflexion; or upon an abnormal manifestation of its function, as metrorrhagia. Because of the large distribution of nerve tissue to the organ and its surrounding parts, uterine diseases often assume a seriousness far beyond the extent of the local lesion.

UterilD. In the Mammalia, the organ that receives and cares for the fecundated ovum, after conception, during the period of embryonic life, and expels it by the process of parturition at the expiration of the period of gestation. In woman the non-gravid uterus is pear shaped, ab. 3 in. in length, 2 in. broad at its upper and broader portion, 1 in. in thickness, and weighing from 1 oz. to 1| oz. During pregnancy it increases enormously in size, weighing from 1J lb. to 3 lbs.

I (<■•>. Utahs. including the Pah-utes, Gosh-utes, Pi-utes, etc.; ab. 15,000 Indians of Shoshone stock, inhabiting Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona; now on various reserva

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for its benevolent institutions and cotton mills. It is ab.500 ft. above sea level, and has 13 public parks and squares. A State asylum for the insane is here. Pop., 1890, 44,007.

Utica. Phoenician city of n. Africa, founded ab. 1100 B.C.. 20 m. n.w. of Carthage; capital of a Roman colony from 146 B.C.; held for the republicans by Cato, who killed himself here 46 B.C.; destroyed by Arabs ab.750. Its ruins are extensive.

Utica Shale. Thick bed overlying the Trenton Limestone in the Eastern States. See Ordovician.

Utilitarianism. Form of ethics and politics which judges the rightfulness or wrongfulness of all institutions and actions by their utility to society; opposed to idealism; advocated by Cumberland, Hume, Bentham. and Mill.

Utility. Quality of answering to some felt human want. It is to be carefully distinguished from value, which supposes a process of exchange as well as one of use.—In Ethics, either that which will be of ultimate advantage, as Hume uses the term, or that which gives immediate happiness, as Bentham uses it.

Utopia. 1. Latin political romance pub. by Sir Thomas More 1516; tr. 1551. 2. Any imaginary community with institutions supposed to be perfect.

Utraquinti. See Calixtikes.

Utrecht. Ancient city of the Netherlands, on the "Old" Rhine. It has important manufactures, a large trade, two

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V. Term applied by Abercromby 1881 to that formation of isobars in which two curves form a cusp or sharp junction, usually between two areas of low pressure, or attending a line squall.

Vaal. River of S. Africa rising in the Drakenberg Mts. and emptying into the Orange River, after flowing 600 m. in a w.s.w. direction. It forms the northern boundary of the Orange Free State.

Vaca, Alvar Nunez Cabeza De. 1507-1564. Spanish explorer in Mexico 1528-36, and Paraguay 1538-44. His narrative appeared 1542.

Vaca de Castro, Cristoval, 1492-1562. Viceroy of Peru 1540-44.

Vaccination. A century ago smallpox was the great destroyer of the human race. It was known that one attack prevented a second and many people were inoculated with the disease when in a state of health, and the disease could be better controlled, to render them immune. Dr. Edward Jenner (1749-1823). an English physician, had his attention called to the belief anions; the country people of Gloucestershire that an attack of cowpox rendered the person immune to smallpox. This was while he was a medical student, prior to 1770. He made a careful study of the subject after he entered upon practice and became convinced of its truth. He made his first vaccination in 1796. The value of his discovery was recognized, and as its employment became treneral, the number of cases of smallpox became fewer and its relative mortality became less. At the present time, many physicians after years of extended practice have never seen a case of smallpox. Cowpox (vaccinia) is a disease of the bovida?, manifesting itself in an eruption on the udder. The virus, secured from the developed reside on a heifer, is inoculated by removing a small area of the epidermis of the arm. or other portion of the body, and applying the vaccine lymph to the denuded part. This, when it "takes," induces a well-marked eruption, and the individual is rendered immune to smallpox: or, if not entirely immune, the resulting attack is much lighter and seldom fatal. The protection from vaccination is lost after a time, and it is well to be vaccinated from time to time, especially should there be an outbreak of smallpox in the vicinity.

Vacciniacere. Natural family of flowering plants of the class Angiospermce, subclass Dicotyledons, and series Oamopetaloe, comprising 27 genera and ab. 230 species, growing commonly in marshes and moors of the temperate and cold regions of the n. hemisphere, and abundantly in the tropics of Asia and America. The Cranberry and "Whortleberry are included here.

Vacuoles. Clear spaces or cavities in the protoplasm of cells.—In Protozoa, they are usually either food vacuoles containing food in some stage of digestion, or contractile vacuoles (see Contractile Vesicle).—In plant cells they are sap spaces.

Vacuum. Any portion of space void of matter. A perfect vacuum cannot be obtained with the air-pump. The Torricellian vacuum is nearly perfect, but contains the vapor of mercury. The air-pump reduces the pressure to atm.; the Sprengel pump to -njimnni atm-! Dv removing the vapors the pressure has been reduced to yinnjiinniiT atmVacuum-Brake. See Brake, Vacuum. Vacuum-Chamber. See Air-chamber. Vacuum-Pan. Apparatus for evaporating liquids at low temperatures, invented by Howard, an Englishman, 1813. In sugar refineries the pan is made of copper, with a hemispherical top and bottom, connected with a cylinder. The bottom is sometimes double, steam circulating in the space between the two bottoms. Within the pan are several series of copper steam pipes. Connected with the top of the pan is a condenser, an iron box, with series of cold water pipes, by which

the spray of sweet water from the pan is condensed. Connected with the latter is the condenser, a large iron box. where a shower of water condenses the steam, and, by its long tail pipe, assists in maintaining the vacuum in the pan. Beyond the condenser is the vacuum-pump which completes the vacuum. The sugar solution is evaporated by the heat of the steam in the steam-pipes and jacket at a temperature of 150° F.. with a vacuum of 27 in., thus avoiding- the risk of decomposing the sugar. These pans are used for condensing milk, glycerin, and other organic liquids.

Vacuum Process. Method of sinking foundations by exhausting the air from a hollow cylinder, in order to sink it in soft soil.

Vadantes. Wading or swimming legs of birds. They have unfeathered tibial regions.

Vadlmonian Lake. In Umbria. Italy. Near it the Etruscans were totally defeated by Fabius 309 B.C., and l>v Dolabella 283 B.C.

Vaenius, Otho. See Van Veen.

Vaga, Perino Del. 1500-1547. Florentine painter, one of Raphael's assistants, but. influenced by Michelangelo in his later work, as shown by his frescoes, much injured, in the Doria Palace at Genoa.

Vagabtiudae. Spid ers that make no webs, but wander about seeking prey. See Citi

Gradje.

Vaginites, or GoliArds. Wandering clerks of the Middle Ages. They flourished mostly in France and England during the 12th and 13th centuries. They became the terror of the com-j munity into which theyj came. They produced profane Latin poetry.

Vagina. See Sheath.

Vagrants and Vagrant*)'. Vagrants are persons belonging to either of the classes who, by reason of having no fixed home or subsistence, and pursuing courses which tend toward crime, may by statute be confined and" disciplined. These statutes give lists of various descriptions of persons who may be treated as v.igrants. An act of Pa., passed 1879, distinguished a tramp from a vagrant, as being any person going from place to place, begging, asking, or subsisting upon charity, wot nave no fixed place of residence or lawful occupat" city or county in which he shall be arrested.

Vagus Nerve. See Pneumooastric Nerve.

Vahl, Martin. 1749-1804. Prof, of Botany in Copenhagen. Symbokebotanieat, 1790-94: Eclogoz Americana. 1796-1807: En%meratio plant arum, 1804-6.

Vahlen, Johannes, b.1830. Prof. Vienna 1858, and Berlin 1874; editor of Aristotle's Poetics and other classics.

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Holv Conversation (Bor| by Vaga.

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VAM ESHIKA PHILOSOPHY—VALETTA

1587

Vaiccshika Philo§oph)~. One of the systems of Brahmanical philosophy.

Vail. Alfred, 1807-1859. N. J. inventor, associated with Morse in developing the electric telegraph. — His brother, George, 1809-1875, was M.C. from N. J. 1853-57, and U. S. Consul at Glasgow 1858-61.

Vail, Thomas Hubbard. D.D., LL.D., 1812-1889. P. E. Bp. of Kansas 1864. Comprehensive Ch., 1841.

Vaillant, Le. See Levaillant, F.

Vaislinai as. Worshipers of Vishnu in Hindustan.

Valals, or Wallis. S.w. Swiss canton. Area 2,027 sq. m.; pop., 1893, 103,236, chiefly R. C. and French; engaged in cattleraising and agriculture.

Valckenaer, Lodewyck Kaspar, 1715-1785. Prof. Franeker 1741, Leyden 1766; editor of sundry Greek texts. Opuscula critica, 1809; Selecta, 1817.

Valdcs, Antonio Jose, 1770-1824. Cuban historian.

Valdes, ARMANDO PALACIO. Spanish novelist; Marquis of Pefialta 1886. Maximina. tr. 1888. His Origin of Thought, tr. 1894. is a cumbrous satire.

Valdes, Gabriel De La Conception, 1809-1844. Cuban poet of color, executed for alleged conspiracy.

Valdes, Juan De, 1500-1541. Spanish reformer, at Naples from 1533. He aimed to work within the R. C. Ch.. not by withdrawal from it. Some of his books were tr. 1860-82.—His twin brother, Alonzo, 1500-1532, pub. a satire, Lactantius, 1527, and lived at Brussels. Both escaped the Inquisition.

Val-dc-Travers. Valley in Switzerland, in which isTravers, in Neuchatel. Here are asphalt mines.

Valdez Melendez. See Melendez, Valdez Juan.

Valdlvia, Pedro De, ab.1500-1554. Spanish adventurer, companion of Pizarro; conqueror of Chili; founder of Santiago; killed by Araucanians.

Valdlvleso, Jose De, 16th cent. Spanish priest, author of biblical and allegorical plays, collected 1622.

Vale. In Scandinavian Mythology, son of Odin and Rind; also son of Loke and Sigyn.

Valence. That property of an element by virtue of which its atom has the power of holding a definite number of other atoms in combination. When hydrogen and chlorine unite, it is believed that one atom of each enter into combination: these elements are called univalent. If an element has the power to hold two hydrogen or two chlorine atoms in combination it is bivalent; e.g., oxygen and calcium. Nitrogen is trivalent in NH3, pentavalent in NH,C1. The highest valence is VIII.; e.g., OsO,. Valence is variable according to the conditions; thus nitrogen forms five different compounds with oxygen.

Valencia. City of Venezuela, on Lake Tacarigua. Pop. ab. 39,000.

Valencia. Seaport of e. Spain, on the Mediterranean at

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silks and velvets, and exports grain and rice. It has a large commerce, and contains a university and a cathedral, in which are many noted works of art. Pop. ab. 170,000.

Valencia, Duke Of. See Narvaez, R. M.

Valenciennes. Ancient town of n. France, on the Scheldt; part of Hainault till 1678; formerly noted for its lace. Froissart and Watteau were born here. Pop., 1891, 24,520.

Valenclenne§, Achille, 1794-1865. Prof. Paris 1830: coworker with Cuvier. Poissons, 22 vols., 1829-49; Mollusques. 1833.

Valens, Flavius, ab.328-378. Emperor of the East from 364, brother of Valentinian; defeated and slain by Huns at Adrianople.

Valentine, Basil, ab. 1500. German alchemist. Triumphwagen des Antimonii; Letztes Testament.

Valentine, David Thomas, 1801-1869. Clerk of New York Common Council from 1837, and its historian. His Mamial appeared annually from 1843.

Valentine, Milton. D.D., LL.D., b.1825. Pres. Pa. Coll., Gettysburg, 1868-84; prof, theol. sem. there since 1884; writer on religious topics.

Valentine, St. Roman presbyter, martyred 270. His day, Feb. 14, owes its peculiar observance to the festival Lupercalia (q.v.).

Valentines. Love-tokens accompanied by amatory verses, exchanged Feb. 14. They were formerly drawn, the names of , boys and girls being written on slips. The origin of the custom is traced to usage among the Romans at the Lupercalia.

Valentinian I., 321-375. Emperor of the West from 364. —II., 371-392, his younger son and successor.—III., ab.419-455; son of Constantius III. and grandson of Theodosius; Emperor of the West from 425.

Valentinlans. Followers of Valentinus, an Alexandrian Gnostic, at Rome ab. 140-160.

Valentinite. See Senarmontite.

Valentinois, Duchess Of. See Diana De Poitiers.

Valera y Alcala-Galiano, Juan, b.1824. Spanish novelist, poet, critic, diplomatist, and minister of state. Estudios criticos, 1864-88; Pepita Jiminez, 1874, tr. 1891; Dofia Luz, 1878; Cuentos, 1882.

Valerian. Herbs of the genus Valeriana, natural family Valerianacea, bearingsmall flowersin panicles and strong-scented roots; of wide geographical distribution: cultivated for their medicinal properties and for ornament. . faxjfQ

Valerian, Greek. Herbs of the genus Polemonium, of the Phlox family, natives of the cooler portions of the n. hemisphere.

Valerlanacew. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermce, subclass Dicotyledons, and series Gamopetalm, comprising 9 genera and ab.275species, distributed throughout all parts of the earth except Australia; called the Valerian family.

Valerian us, Publius Licinius, ab.190-263. Roman emperor 253260; defeated and made prisoner by the Persians. The tales of his being used as a horseblock by Sapor, and his stuffed skin kept in a temple, are doubtful.

Valeric Acids. CsH10O2. Monobasic acids of the acetic acid series, existing in four forms. The common one is the isovaleric acid, which is found free and combined in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. The main sources are the valerian and the angelica root. It is a liquid with an unpleasant odor, bpt. 175° C, used in the manufacture of its compound ethers for flavors and perfumery. Ammonium valerate has a disgusting odor, and is used in medicine.

Valerius, Antias, 1st cent. B.C. Historian of Rome, who wrote its history down to Sulla in ab. 75 vols. He exaggerated largely.

Valerius, Maximus, 1st cent. Roman author of De Factis Dictisque Memorabilibus, in nine books, a collection of historical anecdotes.

Valerius, Probus. See Probus, M. A.

Valerius Flaccus, Gaius. See Flaccus, G. V.

Valetta. Capital of Malta; on n.e. coast; founded ab.1566. It has two good harbors, and is well fortified- The town is

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Valerian (Valeriana officinalis).

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