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V. Term applied by Abercromby 1881 to that formation of isobars in which two curves form a cusp or sharp junction, usually between two areas of low pressure, or attending a line squall.

Vaal. River of S. Africa rising in the Drakenberg Mts. and emptying into the Orange River, after flowing 600 m. in a w.s.w. direction. It forms the northern boundary of the Orange Free State.

Vaca, Alvar Nunez Cabeza De. 1507-1564. Spanish explorer in Mexico 1528-36, and Paraguay 1538-44. His narrative appeared 1542.

Vaca de Castro, Cristoval, 1492-1562. Viceroy of Peru 1540-44.

Vaccination. A century ago smallpox was the great destroyer of the human race. It was known that one attack prevented a second and many people were inoculated with the disease when in a state of health, and the disease could be better controlled, to render them immune. Dr. Edward Jenner (1749-1823). an English physician, had his attention called to the belief anions; the country people of Gloucestershire that an attack of cowpox rendered the person immune to smallpox. This was while he was a medical student, prior to 1770. He made a careful study of the subject after he entered upon practice and became convinced of its truth. He made his first vaccination in 1796. The value of his discovery was recognized, and as its employment became treneral, the number of cases of smallpox became fewer and its relative mortality became less. At the present time, many physicians after years of extended practice have never seen a case of smallpox. Cowpox (vaccinia) is a disease of the bovida?, manifesting itself in an eruption on the udder. The virus, secured from the developed reside on a heifer, is inoculated by removing a small area of the epidermis of the arm. or other portion of the body, and applying the vaccine lymph to the denuded part. This, when it "takes," induces a well-marked eruption, and the individual is rendered immune to smallpox: or, if not entirely immune, the resulting attack is much lighter and seldom fatal. The protection from vaccination is lost after a time, and it is well to be vaccinated from time to time, especially should there be an outbreak of smallpox in the vicinity.

Vacciniacere. Natural family of flowering plants of the class Angiospermce, subclass Dicotyledons, and series Oamopetaloe, comprising 27 genera and ab. 230 species, growing commonly in marshes and moors of the temperate and cold regions of the n. hemisphere, and abundantly in the tropics of Asia and America. The Cranberry and "Whortleberry are included here.

Vacuoles. Clear spaces or cavities in the protoplasm of cells.—In Protozoa, they are usually either food vacuoles containing food in some stage of digestion, or contractile vacuoles (see Contractile Vesicle).—In plant cells they are sap spaces.

Vacuum. Any portion of space void of matter. A perfect vacuum cannot be obtained with the air-pump. The Torricellian vacuum is nearly perfect, but contains the vapor of mercury. The air-pump reduces the pressure to atm.; the Sprengel pump to -njimnni atm-! Dv removing the vapors the pressure has been reduced to yinnjiinniiT atmVacuum-Brake. See Brake, Vacuum. Vacuum-Chamber. See Air-chamber. Vacuum-Pan. Apparatus for evaporating liquids at low temperatures, invented by Howard, an Englishman, 1813. In sugar refineries the pan is made of copper, with a hemispherical top and bottom, connected with a cylinder. The bottom is sometimes double, steam circulating in the space between the two bottoms. Within the pan are several series of copper steam pipes. Connected with the top of the pan is a condenser, an iron box, with series of cold water pipes, by which

the spray of sweet water from the pan is condensed. Connected with the latter is the condenser, a large iron box. where a shower of water condenses the steam, and, by its long tail pipe, assists in maintaining the vacuum in the pan. Beyond the condenser is the vacuum-pump which completes the vacuum. The sugar solution is evaporated by the heat of the steam in the steam-pipes and jacket at a temperature of 150° F.. with a vacuum of 27 in., thus avoiding- the risk of decomposing the sugar. These pans are used for condensing milk, glycerin, and other organic liquids.

Vacuum Process. Method of sinking foundations by exhausting the air from a hollow cylinder, in order to sink it in soft soil.

Vadantes. Wading or swimming legs of birds. They have unfeathered tibial regions.

Vadlmonian Lake. In Umbria. Italy. Near it the Etruscans were totally defeated by Fabius 309 B.C., and l>v Dolabella 283 B.C.

Vaenius, Otho. See Van Veen.

Vaga, Perino Del. 1500-1547. Florentine painter, one of Raphael's assistants, but. influenced by Michelangelo in his later work, as shown by his frescoes, much injured, in the Doria Palace at Genoa.

Vagabtiudae. Spid ers that make no webs, but wander about seeking prey. See Citi

Gradje.

Vaginites, or GoliArds. Wandering clerks of the Middle Ages. They flourished mostly in France and England during the 12th and 13th centuries. They became the terror of the com-j munity into which theyj came. They produced profane Latin poetry.

Vagina. See Sheath.

Vagrants and Vagrant*)'. Vagrants are persons belonging to either of the classes who, by reason of having no fixed home or subsistence, and pursuing courses which tend toward crime, may by statute be confined and" disciplined. These statutes give lists of various descriptions of persons who may be treated as v.igrants. An act of Pa., passed 1879, distinguished a tramp from a vagrant, as being any person going from place to place, begging, asking, or subsisting upon charity, wot nave no fixed place of residence or lawful occupat" city or county in which he shall be arrested.

Vagus Nerve. See Pneumooastric Nerve.

Vahl, Martin. 1749-1804. Prof, of Botany in Copenhagen. Symbokebotanieat, 1790-94: Eclogoz Americana. 1796-1807: En%meratio plant arum, 1804-6.

Vahlen, Johannes, b.1830. Prof. Vienna 1858, and Berlin 1874; editor of Aristotle's Poetics and other classics.

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Holv Conversation (Bor| by Vaga.

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VAM ESHIKA PHILOSOPHY—VALETTA

1587

Vaiccshika Philo§oph)~. One of the systems of Brahmanical philosophy.

Vail. Alfred, 1807-1859. N. J. inventor, associated with Morse in developing the electric telegraph. — His brother, George, 1809-1875, was M.C. from N. J. 1853-57, and U. S. Consul at Glasgow 1858-61.

Vail, Thomas Hubbard. D.D., LL.D., 1812-1889. P. E. Bp. of Kansas 1864. Comprehensive Ch., 1841.

Vaillant, Le. See Levaillant, F.

Vaislinai as. Worshipers of Vishnu in Hindustan.

Valals, or Wallis. S.w. Swiss canton. Area 2,027 sq. m.; pop., 1893, 103,236, chiefly R. C. and French; engaged in cattleraising and agriculture.

Valckenaer, Lodewyck Kaspar, 1715-1785. Prof. Franeker 1741, Leyden 1766; editor of sundry Greek texts. Opuscula critica, 1809; Selecta, 1817.

Valdcs, Antonio Jose, 1770-1824. Cuban historian.

Valdes, ARMANDO PALACIO. Spanish novelist; Marquis of Pefialta 1886. Maximina. tr. 1888. His Origin of Thought, tr. 1894. is a cumbrous satire.

Valdes, Gabriel De La Conception, 1809-1844. Cuban poet of color, executed for alleged conspiracy.

Valdes, Juan De, 1500-1541. Spanish reformer, at Naples from 1533. He aimed to work within the R. C. Ch.. not by withdrawal from it. Some of his books were tr. 1860-82.—His twin brother, Alonzo, 1500-1532, pub. a satire, Lactantius, 1527, and lived at Brussels. Both escaped the Inquisition.

Val-dc-Travers. Valley in Switzerland, in which isTravers, in Neuchatel. Here are asphalt mines.

Valdez Melendez. See Melendez, Valdez Juan.

Valdlvia, Pedro De, ab.1500-1554. Spanish adventurer, companion of Pizarro; conqueror of Chili; founder of Santiago; killed by Araucanians.

Valdlvleso, Jose De, 16th cent. Spanish priest, author of biblical and allegorical plays, collected 1622.

Vale. In Scandinavian Mythology, son of Odin and Rind; also son of Loke and Sigyn.

Valence. That property of an element by virtue of which its atom has the power of holding a definite number of other atoms in combination. When hydrogen and chlorine unite, it is believed that one atom of each enter into combination: these elements are called univalent. If an element has the power to hold two hydrogen or two chlorine atoms in combination it is bivalent; e.g., oxygen and calcium. Nitrogen is trivalent in NH3, pentavalent in NH,C1. The highest valence is VIII.; e.g., OsO,. Valence is variable according to the conditions; thus nitrogen forms five different compounds with oxygen.

Valencia. City of Venezuela, on Lake Tacarigua. Pop. ab. 39,000.

Valencia. Seaport of e. Spain, on the Mediterranean at

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silks and velvets, and exports grain and rice. It has a large commerce, and contains a university and a cathedral, in which are many noted works of art. Pop. ab. 170,000.

Valencia, Duke Of. See Narvaez, R. M.

Valenciennes. Ancient town of n. France, on the Scheldt; part of Hainault till 1678; formerly noted for its lace. Froissart and Watteau were born here. Pop., 1891, 24,520.

Valenclenne§, Achille, 1794-1865. Prof. Paris 1830: coworker with Cuvier. Poissons, 22 vols., 1829-49; Mollusques. 1833.

Valens, Flavius, ab.328-378. Emperor of the East from 364, brother of Valentinian; defeated and slain by Huns at Adrianople.

Valentine, Basil, ab. 1500. German alchemist. Triumphwagen des Antimonii; Letztes Testament.

Valentine, David Thomas, 1801-1869. Clerk of New York Common Council from 1837, and its historian. His Mamial appeared annually from 1843.

Valentine, Milton. D.D., LL.D., b.1825. Pres. Pa. Coll., Gettysburg, 1868-84; prof, theol. sem. there since 1884; writer on religious topics.

Valentine, St. Roman presbyter, martyred 270. His day, Feb. 14, owes its peculiar observance to the festival Lupercalia (q.v.).

Valentines. Love-tokens accompanied by amatory verses, exchanged Feb. 14. They were formerly drawn, the names of , boys and girls being written on slips. The origin of the custom is traced to usage among the Romans at the Lupercalia.

Valentinian I., 321-375. Emperor of the West from 364. —II., 371-392, his younger son and successor.—III., ab.419-455; son of Constantius III. and grandson of Theodosius; Emperor of the West from 425.

Valentinlans. Followers of Valentinus, an Alexandrian Gnostic, at Rome ab. 140-160.

Valentinite. See Senarmontite.

Valentinois, Duchess Of. See Diana De Poitiers.

Valera y Alcala-Galiano, Juan, b.1824. Spanish novelist, poet, critic, diplomatist, and minister of state. Estudios criticos, 1864-88; Pepita Jiminez, 1874, tr. 1891; Dofia Luz, 1878; Cuentos, 1882.

Valerian. Herbs of the genus Valeriana, natural family Valerianacea, bearingsmall flowersin panicles and strong-scented roots; of wide geographical distribution: cultivated for their medicinal properties and for ornament. . faxjfQ

Valerian, Greek. Herbs of the genus Polemonium, of the Phlox family, natives of the cooler portions of the n. hemisphere.

Valerlanacew. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermce, subclass Dicotyledons, and series Gamopetalm, comprising 9 genera and ab.275species, distributed throughout all parts of the earth except Australia; called the Valerian family.

Valerian us, Publius Licinius, ab.190-263. Roman emperor 253260; defeated and made prisoner by the Persians. The tales of his being used as a horseblock by Sapor, and his stuffed skin kept in a temple, are doubtful.

Valeric Acids. CsH10O2. Monobasic acids of the acetic acid series, existing in four forms. The common one is the isovaleric acid, which is found free and combined in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. The main sources are the valerian and the angelica root. It is a liquid with an unpleasant odor, bpt. 175° C, used in the manufacture of its compound ethers for flavors and perfumery. Ammonium valerate has a disgusting odor, and is used in medicine.

Valerius, Antias, 1st cent. B.C. Historian of Rome, who wrote its history down to Sulla in ab. 75 vols. He exaggerated largely.

Valerius, Maximus, 1st cent. Roman author of De Factis Dictisque Memorabilibus, in nine books, a collection of historical anecdotes.

Valerius, Probus. See Probus, M. A.

Valerius Flaccus, Gaius. See Flaccus, G. V.

Valetta. Capital of Malta; on n.e. coast; founded ab.1566. It has two good harbors, and is well fortified- The town is

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Valerian (Valeriana officinalis).

1588

VAEETTE—VALUE IN EXCHANGE

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of coal, and is the headquarters of the British fleet in the Mediterranean. It was occupied bv the French 1798 and passed to the English 1801. Pop., 1891," 37,350, or, with suburbs, 62.152.

Valette, Jean Parisot DE La, 1494-1568. Grandmaster Knights of St. John 1557; defender of Malta against the Turks May 18-Sept. 8, 1565.

Vulvitis Rufus, b.81 B.C. Roman author, in prose and verse, under Augustus; Consul 12 B.C.; friend of Horace.

Valhalla. Hall of immortality, in Scandinavian mythology, for heroes who fell in battle; described as situated in Oladsheim, large and resplendent with gold. The heroes pass their days there in feasting.

Valkyrie*. Maids sent by Odin to choose those who are to be slain, and carry them heroes to Valhalla, where they bear drink, take care of the drinking-horns, and serve the table.

Valla, Laurentius (lorenzo Della Valle), 1405-1457. Italian scholar, rationalist, and polemic, achief herald and promoter of the Renaissance; prof, at Rome 1450; translator of Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon: N. T. critic. De Donatione Constantini, 1440; Elegantive Latince, 1444.

Valladolid. Old city of n. Spain, on the Pisuerga; royal residence ab.1400-1560; held by the French 1808-10. Its univ..

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Vallauri, Tommaso, b.1805. Prof. Turin 1843; editor of Latin classics; writer on Piedmontese literature. Opuseula 1875.

Vallentiiic, Bf.njamin Bennaton, b.1843. Anglo-American journalist, satirist, and playwright.

Valleria, Alwina (lohmann), b.1848. American singer.

Valley. Internal angle formed by the meeting of the sides of a roof, where there is more than one ridge.—Space between the ridges of a vault as seen from above.

Valley Forge. Village 24 m. w. of Phila.; scene of Washington's encampment in the winter of 1777-78. His force of 11.000 men was ill supplied with food and clothing.

Valley Rains. Rain produced by hot moist air rising from valleys; term used by Abercromby.

Valleys. Depressions of the earth's surface generally with sloping sides. They have been formed by wrinkling of the earth's crust by internal forces; by volcanic eruptions; bv erosion of plateaus by water or ice.

Vallombrosa. Benedictine abbey in the Apennines, founded 1039: first to admit lay brothers; noticed by Ariosto anil Milton; suppressed 1869. and its fine buildings secularized,

Valniikl, ab.900 B.C. Epic poet of India.

V a I more. Marceline Felicite Josephe (desbordes), 17851859, m.1817. French singer, poet, and novelist.

Valmy. Village of n.e. France, 20 m. n.e. of Chalons. Here. Sept. 20, 1792, the French Republicans under Kellerman defeated the Prussian invaders, deciding the campaign.

Valmy, Francois Christophe Kellerman, Due De. 17351820. Bavarian general, in the French service; victor at Valmy 1792; imprisoned 1793-94; Duke 1804.— His son, FRANCOIS frriENNE. 1770—1835, was prominent at Marengo and Austerlitz.

Valois Dynasty, 1327-1589. Named from a portion of Isle de France (Oise). given by Philip III. to his youngest son Charles, 1270-1325. His son became king as Philip VI. 1327. The house is subdivided into (1) older Valois, direct line, 13271498, with 7 kings, ending with Charles VIII.; (2) Valois-Orleans, Louis XII., 1498-1515: (3) Valois-Angouleme, 1515-89. 5 kings, Francis I. to Henry III. The Valois claim to the throve was disputed by Edward III. of England, son of Isabella, daughter of Philip IV. of France: this claim occasioned the 100 Years' War. The marriage of Charles of Valois with Margaret of Anjou-Sicily brousrht a claim to t he Two Sicilies, which was pressed by Charles VIII. and his immediate successors, and involved Europe in numerous wars. The dynasty ended with the assassination of Henry III.

Valonla. Vegetable product rich in tannic acid and us«l by tanners. It is the acorn cup of a species of oak, Quenm oegilovs, found in Greece and Turkey.

Valparaiso. Principal seaport of Chili. 68 m. w.n.w. of Santiago; founded 1544: partly destroyed by earthquakes IS22

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opaque sublimate, made by heating a mixture of carbon and the sesquioxide in presence of bromine.

Van Bemmcl, Eugene. 1824-1880. Prof. Brussels 1849; critical and biographical writer.

Van Beneden, Pierre Joseph, 1801-1894. Prof. Louvain; writer on zoology, as is also his son. Edouard, b.1846, prof. Liege.

\ anbrugb, Sir John, ab. 1666-1726. English dramatist and architect, knighted 1714; builder of Blenheim palace. His comedies, The Relapse. 1697, Provoked Wife, 1698, Confederacy, 1705, and his last play, Journey to London, completed as Provoked Husband by Cibber, are vigorous, easy, and indecent.

Van Brunt, Gershom Jaques, U.S.N.. 1798-1863. Captain 1855, Commodore 1862; active on N. C. and Va. coast. —His son, Henry, b.1832, was the architect of Harvard Memorial Hall (with W. R. Ware), and of many other buildings.

Van Buren, Martin, 1782-1862. Eighth Pres. of the U. S.; U. S. Senator 1821-28; Gov. of N. Y. 1828; Sec. of State 1829-31; Minister to England 1831, but not conlirmed. He was VieePres. 1833-37; Pres. 1837-41. The country was in distressed

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financial condition during his administration, and his policy was unpopular with the masses. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the presidency 1840 and 1848.—His son, John (PRINCE John). 1810-1866, was a noted lawyer.

Van Buren, William Holme, M.D.. LL.D., 1819-1883. Prof. Univ. New York 1852, and Bellevue I860. Surgery, 1865.

Vance, Joseph, 1780-1852. M.C. 1823-35 and 1843-47; Gov. of Ohio 18:16-38.

Vance, Zebulon Baird. 1830-1894. M.C. 1858-61; Gov. of N. C. 1802-66 and 1876-78; U. S. Senator from 1879.

Van Cortlandl, Oloff Stevenke. 1600-1684. Dutch emigrant 1638; burgomaster of New York 1655-64.—His son, Stephanus, 1643-1700, was Mayor from 1677. and long a judge.—His grandson, Pierre, 1721-1814, was Lieut.-gov. of N. Y. from 1777.—His son, Philip, 1749-1821. was an officer in the Revolutionary War, and M.C. 1793-1809.

Vancouver. Capital of Clarke co., Wash., on Willamette River, 6 m. above mouth, 6 m. n. of Portland. Ore. Founded 1828; headquarters of military department of the Columbia. Products lumber, fruit and dairy. Pop., 1890, 3,545.

Vancouver. City of British Columbia. 85 m. n. by e. of Victoria, on Buzzard Inlet. It Is the terminus of the Canadian Pacilic R. R., and has a steamship service to China, Japan, San Francisco and Alaska. Pop., 1891. 13,685.

Vancouver, George. R.N., 1758-1798. Officer under Cook 1771-80; explorer of n. Pacific coasts 1791-94. Voyage of Discovery, 1798.

Vancouver Inland. Part of British Columbia: in the Pacific, lat. 48° 19'—50° 53' N.; discovered 1592 by Apostolos Valerianos, or Juan de Fuca, a Greek in the service of Spain.

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by the crown and in 1806 united with British Columbia. The industries are coal-mining, lumber, fishing and shipbuilding. Area ab.16,000 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 37,000.

Van Curler, or Van Corlear, Arendt, ab.1600-1667. Dutch emigrant 1630; founder of Schenectady, N. Y., 1661; of great influence with the Indians, and thus important in Colonial history.

Vandals. Gothic tribe, who moved s. from a region near the Baltic, and became Arians in Pannonia. They entered Gaul 406, Spain 409. and Africa 429; were victorious and destructive under Genseric. who sacked Rome 455; and were overthrown 533 near Carthage by Belisarius.

Vani Dam, Rip, ab.1662-ab.1738. Councilor of N. Y. from 1707; Acting-gov. 1731 and 1736.

Vandamme, Dominique Joseph, 1771-1830. French general 1793; active at Austerlitz and in Silesia; made Conite d'Huningen; in America 1815-24.

Vandegrift, Margaret. See Janvier.

VandenllolT, George, b.1820. Ansrlo-Ameriean actor, elocutionist and author.—His wife (makeath). m.1855, d.1883, was an actress of merit.

Van Depoele, Charles J., 1844-1892. Belgian-American inventor of trollev cars. The first line was established at South Bend. Ind., 1882.

Vanderbtlt, CORNELIUS, 1794-1877. Called '•Commodore1' from his boats plying on the Hudson and Long Island Sound. In 1863 he gave to the U. S. Government his finest steamer, the Vanderbilt. which had cost $800,000. He gained control successively of the N. Y. and Harlem. Hudson River, and N. Y. Central railroads, in 1869 consolidated these, and in 1873 controlled 2.000 miles of track. He left a fortune estimated at $100.000,000.—His son. William Henry, 1821-1885. and grandson, CORNELIUS, b. 1843, succeeded to the control of his roads.

Vanderbilt ITnli'eralt}'. At Nashville. Tenn.; founded 1872. under control of the M. E. Ch. South. C. Vanderbilt gave it $1,000,000; his son and grandson added $500,000. It is co-educational, and has 70 instructors and ab.700 students. It maintains, besides the academic courses, schools of law, medicine, theology, and engineering.

Vanderdccken. See Flying Dutchman.

Van dcr Goes, Hugo. ab. 1405-1482. Flemish painter.

Vanderheyden, Dirk. ab.1680-1738. Grantee of the site of Troy. N. Y., 1720. His house, built 1725, was described by Irving in Bracebridge Hall.

Van dcr He) den, Jan. 1637-1712. Dutch painter.

Van der Hoevcu, Jan, 1801-1868. Prof. Leyden 1826; writer on zoology.

Vandcrlyn, John, 1776-1852. American painter of superior talent. Few accessible works of his are extant.

Van der Meer, Jan. ab.1625-ab.1685. Dutch landscape and marine painter, as was also his son, Jan, ab. 1660-ab. 1704. ^

Van der Mculcn, Antoine Francois, 1634-1690. BelgianFrench historical painter. Vandcrpool, Aaron, 1799-1871. M.C. 1833-37 and 1839

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