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Upanishads. Latest portions of the Vedantic literature, Upjohn, RICHARD, 1802–1878. Anglo-American architect; dating from ab.500 B.C. and later; foundation of modern designer of Trinity Ch., New York, and of many other notable pantheistic Hinduism, and earliest theological speculation buildings.-His son, RICHARD MICHELL, b. 1828, planned the of India.

capitol at Hartford, Conn., a cathedral at Fond du Lac, Wis.,

and many churches. Upas-Tree. Antiaris toxicaria. Tall tree of the natural family Urticacece, native of Java, where it grows to a height Upolu. One of the Samoan Islands, lat. 14° S., long. 1727 of 60 to 80 ft. before branching. Its juice is poisonous; the W.; pop. 25,000, two-thirds Christians.

Upper Klamath Lake. In s. Oregon, on Klamath River. Area 163 sq. m.

Upper Peru. Colonial name for Bolivia.

Upsala. Ancient Swedish town, 44 m. n.n.e. of Stockholm; noted for its cathedral, erected 1289–1435, and partly burned 1702. The univ., founded 1477 and newly housed 1877. has ab. 2.000 students and a library of 250,000 vols., and 11.000 MSS., among which is the famous Codex Argenteus of UlGlas's translation of the Gospels into Gothic. Here dwelt till 1056 the ancient kings of Sweden, of two dynasties, supposed descendants of Woden; and here was Woden's great temple, the last seat of paganism, burned ab.1060. Pop., 1891, 21,511.

Upset Rods. Rods having the ends enlarged so that the effective section may not be diminished by cutting screw threads upon them.

Upshur, ABEL PARKER, 1790–1844. Va. Judge 1826; Sec. Navy 1841; Sec. of State 1843; killed on the Princeton by the bursting of a gun.-His nephew, JOHN HENRY, U.S.N., b.1823,

served on the Atlantic coast 1861-65, became Captain 1872, and Upas-Tree.

Rear-admiral 1884. slightest wound by an arrow tipped with it is fatal. The old

Upson, ANSEL JUDD, D.D., LL.D., b.1823. Prof. Hamilton stories of the desolation amid which it grows are apocry

Coll. 1853–70, and Auburn Theol. Sem. 1880–87; Chancellor of phal. No evil effects followed its introduction into hothouses

Univ. State of N. Y. 1893. 1844.

Uptbrow. Amount of dislocation in a faulted bed of ore, Upcast. Shaft in a mine through which the vitiated air rises to the surface; opposite of downcast.

or of coal measured in a vertical direction upward. Upchurch, JOHN JORDEN, 1822-1887. Founder (in Pa.) of

Upton, EMORY. U.S.A., 1839–1881. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols.

1864-66; distinguished in Va. campaigns; commandant at West the order of United Workmen 1868.

Point 1870-75. Infantry Tactics, 1867; Armies of Asia and Upcott, WILLIAM, 1779–1845. English antiquarian.

Europe, 1878. Upernivik. Town in Greenland, on an islet off the w.. Upton, FRANCIS HENRY, 1814-1876. Lawyer in New coast in 72° 48' N. lat. It is the northernmost Danish set York. Law of Trade Marks, 1860; Commerce during War,


Upton, GEORGE PUTNAM, b. 1834. Musical critic of Chicago Tribune from 1862 to 1881. Woman in Music, 1880-86: Standard Operas, 1885; Oratorios, 1886; Cantatas, 1887; Symphonies, 1888.

Upton, WINSLOW, b.1853. Prof. Brown Univ. 1884; writer on astronomy.

Ur. Birthplace of Abraham; formerly placed in Upper Mesopotamia, but probably much nearer the Persian Gulf, in the true Chaldea.

Uræmia. When, from any cause, the excrementitious substances, usually secreted by the kidneys, are retained in the blood, there results a condition known as uræmia. The most prominent symptoms are headache, with dimness of vision, vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions and stupor.

Ural. River of e. Russia, heading in the Ural Mts, and

flowing e. and s., between Europe and Asia, to tbe Caspian General View of Upernivik.

Sea through a delta. Length 930 m., drainage area 90,889

sq. m. tlement in Greenland. Its mean yearly temperature for eleven years was 17.4° F. It varies from 6° F. in January to 41° F. in Ural-Altaic. See SCYTHIAN. July.

Uralite. Variety of the mineral AMPHIBOLE (9.v.), formed Upfold, GEORGE, 1796–1872. P.E. Bishop of Ind. 1849. | by a kind of paramorphic alteration of pyroxene; first observed

in rocks from the Ural Mts. Upham, CHARLES WENTWORTH, 1802–1875. M.C. from Mass. 1853–55; author of several biographies. The Logos, 1828; Witch Ural Mountains. Range between Russia and Siberia. craft, 1831-67; Prophecy, 1835.

It extends from lat. 52° to the Arctic Sea, lat. 69°, and sepa

rates the waters of the Volga and the Petchora on the w, from Upham, THOMAS COGSWELL, D.D., LL.D., 1799–1872. Prof.

those of the Obi on the e. Its height exceeds 5,000 st. in but Bowdoin Coll. 1825-67. Mental Philosophy, 1827; The Will, 1834;

few places, and it contains numerous easy passes. It is comLife of Faith, 1846; Life of Mme. Guyon, 1847; Divine Union,

posed of Archæan and volcanic rocks, and contains mines of 1851; Christ in the Soul (hymns), 1872.-Of his brothers, NA

gold, platinum, copper, and iron. THANIEL GOOKIN, LL.D., 1801-1879, was Judge N. H. Supreme Court 1833-43; FRANCIS WILLIAM, LL.D., 1817-1895, wrote

Uralorthite. Variety of the mineral ALLANITE (q.v.), Church and Science, 1860, and other religious books.

found in the Ural Mts. Upington, SIR THOMAS, b.1844 in Ireland. Atty.-gen. of

Uranates. Salts of uranic acid. Cape Colony 1878-81 and 1886–90; Premier 1884-86; Judge Supreme Court 1892.

Urania. 1. She was regarded as the Muse of Astronomy,

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and is usually represented with a staff and a globe in her hands. 2. Surname of Aphrodite. In Mythology, one of the

US, Dark gray powder, obtained by the action of hydrogen sulphide upon the heated tetrachloride.

Uranium Tetrafluoride. UF.. Green insoluble powder, made by treating the oxide, U,Os, with hydrofluoric acid.

Uranium Yellow. See SODIUM DIURANATE.
Uranoliths. See METEORITES.

Uranometria. Understood by astronomers to mean a catalogue of naked-eye stars, as the U. Nova of Argelander, and the U. Argentina of Gould.

Uranus. Except Neptune, furthest planet from the Sun, 1,781,900,000 m.; diameter 31,900 m.; volume 65 times that of the earth, mass 14.7 that of the earth: density 1.22 that of water; time of revolution about sun 84.02 years; time of revolution about axis not known: discovered March 13, 1781, by Herschel, who supposed it to be a comet. Belts have been seen on the surface similar to those of Jupiter, but they are of the faintest possible character. After the computation of



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nine MUSES (q.v.), represented as the daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne.

Uranine. C,H,,Na,0. Sodium salt of fluorescein. It is a yellow solution employed in volumetric analysis, as its fluorescence is destroyed by an acid solution.

Uraninite. Mineral consisting chiefly of two uranium oxides, UO, and Vo,, with smaller quantities of lead and some of the rarer chemical elements. In some varieties ni


Bellatrix trogen has also been detected. In a massive form, as it occurs in Bohemia, from which most of the uranium of commerce is

ORION obtained, it is known as pitchblende.

Uranite. TORBERNITE (g.v.), or uranium mica.

Uranium. U. At. wt. 239.6, sp. gr. 18.7, sp. ht. .0276, valence II, IV, VI. One of the rarer chemical elements; discovered by Klaproth 1789; found in small quantities in several

Riga minerals, and as an essential element in uraninite. The metal is prepared from the tetrachloride by treating it with sodium. It has the color of nickel, oxidizes when heated, and is soluble in the ordinary acids. Its compounds are used in coloring

Approximate position of Uranus at time of its discovery. glass fluorescent greenish-yellow and painting on porcelain.

the orbit it was found that the planet had been previously Uranium Bromides. Tribromide. UBrz. Dark-red, vol

observed no less than 19 times, none of the former observers atile, hygroscopic needles, made by treating the tetrabromide suspecting it to be other than a fixed star. There are 4 satelwith hydrogen.-Tetrabromide. U Bra. Brown to black fusible lites, as follows: leaflets, made by fusing the oxide, U,0s, with carbon in presence of bromine vapors.

Names. Discovery



Diamfrom Uranus.

eter. Uranium Chlorides. Uranium Tetrachloride, Uranous Chloride. UCI, Dark-green octahedra, prepared by passing

miles. d. h. m. S. mi le.

Ariel Lassell 1851 120,000 2 12 chlorine over heated uranium.-Uranium Trichloride." UCls.

29 21.1 500? Umbriel

167,000 4 3 27 37.2 700? Dark-brown powder, obtained by passing hydrogen over the

Titania · Herschel 1787 273,000 8 16 56 29.5 1,000? tetrachloride.-Uranium Pentachloride. UCls. Found in two Oberon

365,000 13 11 7 6.4 800? forms; in black crystals, and a brown powder; made by passing chlorine over the tetrachloride.

The inclination of the orbits to the plane of the ecliptic is Uranium Oxides. Green Oxide. U,Og. Found in pitch 75° 18': the motion is retrograde. blende; made by heating the di- or trioxide; dark-green pow

Uranus. Son and husband of Gæa (Earth); father of der of satiny luster.-Uranic Trioxide, U03, or Uranyl Oxide,

Oceanus, Themis, Cronos, the Cyclopes, etc. He hated his (UO,)O. Formed by heating uranic nitrate in a tube to 250°

children and shut them up in Tartarus, for which he was C.; brownish-yellow powder.-Uranium Dioxide. UO.. Brown

dethroned by Cronos at Gæa's instigation. or copper-red powder, formed by heating the trioxide or uranic oxalate in a stream of hydrogen. It takes fire when heated, Uranyl Compounds. Those derived from acids by the and is soluble in strong acids.-Uranium Tetroxide. 00, replacement of the hydrogen by the bivalent group uranyl, Colorless, crystalline powder, formed by adding a solution of UO,; e.g., uranyl sulphate, UO,SO, uranyl nitrate to a mixture of hydrogen dioxide and sulphuric

Urao. Variety of TRONA (q.v.) found in Venezuela. acid, and allowing it to stand. Uranium Sulphate. U(SO4)2 +41,0. Deep-green crys

Urari. Strychnos tocifera. Small tree of the natural fam

ily Loganiaceae, native of n. S. America. Its sap is poisonous, tals, made by treating the oxide, U,Os, with sulphuric acid.

and is used by the Indians in tipping arrows. See CURARA. Uranium Sulphides. Monosulphide. US. Black amor

Urashimo Taro, The Rip Van Winkle in Japanese folkphous powder, made by the reduction of the sesquisulphide.Sesquisulphide. U.S. Gravish-black substance, made by treat

lore. The story furnishes subjects for art treatment. ing the heated tribromide with hydrogen sulphide. – Disulphide. Urates. Salts of uric acid.

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Uriel. In Jewish (not Biba RAVN

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Urban I. Bp. of Rome 222–230; supposed martyr.-II. Ureides. Combinations into which dibasic acids and urea
EUDES DE LAGNY, monk of Cluny; Bp. of Ostia; pope 1088-99. enter with the splitting out of water. Thus from oxalic acid
He expelled the Emperor Henry IV. from Rome, and raised and urea we have parabanic acid,
the first crusade, and was opposed by an antipope, Clement

III.-III. UBERTO CRIVELLI, Abp. of Milan, pope 1185-87. He


+24,0 quarreled with Barbarossa.-IV. JACQUES PANTALÉON, Bp. of Verdun and Patriarch of Jerusalem; pope 1261-64; at war with Ureter. When the urine is secreted by the kidneys it is Manfred of Sicily.- V. GUILLAUME DE GRIMOARD, Abbot at gathered into a cavity of that organ known as the pelvis of Marseilles; pope 1362–70; at Avignon till 1367, then at Rome the kidney, whence it is conveyed to the bladder by a duct, till near his end.-VI. BARTOLOMMEO PRIGNANI, Abp. of Bari; | known as the ureter. It is from 16 to 18 in. long. is placed pope 1378–89; opposed by a French antipope, Clement VII., i along the back of the abdomen and enters the bladder at its 1378–94.–VII. J. B. CASTAGNA, pope Sept. 15-27, 1590.–VIII. base. MAFFEO BARBERINI, 1568–1644; cardinal 1605; pope 1623. He

Urethane. O:C:NH,.OC,H. Ethyl carbamate; colorless plates, mpt. 50° C., formed by the action of ammonia on ethyl chlorocarbonate; soporific, used in pharmacy. See CARBAMIC ACID.

Urethra. Canal through which the urine is voided from the bladder.

Urga. Capital of n. Mongolia; on the Tola; noted for its Buddhist monasteries, Pop. ab. 30,000.

Uri. Rural Swiss canton, s. of Lake Lucerne. Area 416 sq. m.; pop. ab. 17,250, mostly R. C. and German,

Uriah. Officer and victim of King David. His wrongs were denounced by the prophet Nathan, II. Sam. xii. 1-12.

Uric Acid. C,H.N.03. Weak dibasic acid of complicated structure, occurring in urine and other animal fluids; white powder, soluble with difficulty in water. Upon oxidation it furnishes urea, alloxan and other products. It occurs in urinary calculi; ab. 5 grams are daily excreted in human urine.

Uriel. In Jewish (not Biblical) Angelology, one of the seven archangels.

Urim. See THUMMIM.

Urinary Calculi. See

Urinary Organs. Those Maoniti
Monument over the grave of Pope Urban VII., by Bernini,

Those Magnified view of Uric Acid in differ organs concerned in the secre

ent forms: in St. Peter's at Rome.

tion and excretion of urine;

The dumb-bell shaped forms seen in upper wrote hymns, revised the bull In Cæna Domini, canonized more especially the kidneys part of the figure were formerly supLoyola and Xavier, and supported France against Spain and with their ducts, the ureters, posed to consist of oxalate of lime. It

has recently been shown that they are the Empire. Under him Galileo was condemned.

the bladder and its canal, the a form of uric acid crystals.

urethra. Urbanists. Followers of the Order of St. Clara, who adhered to the rules as modified by Urban IV. See CLARA, ST. Urinatores. Group of Natatores, with short or rudimen

tary wings, and feet placed far back and webbed. They are Urbi et Orbi. Phrase signifying univeral application;

all strong swimmers, and mostly confined to cold seas, Here used in papal bulls.

belong the Auks (Alcidæ), Guillemots, Divers, and Grebes. Urbino. Ancient town of e. Italy, birthplace of Raphael; The last group has its toes more or less separately webbed. governed by dukes 1474–1631; part of the papal states 1631 The second and third have completely webbed feet with ru1860; now secluded and decayed, as is its univ., founded 1564. dimentary hallux in the former, and free hallux in the latter. It has a fine palace and other notable old buildings. Pop.

Uripe. Fluid secreted by the kidneys, conveyed to the ab. 5,100, commune ab. 17,250.

bladder by the ureters, and voided by the urethra. The normal Urceolate, Cup-shaped, with a narrowed top ; urn- | urine of man is a clear yellowish fluid with a specific gravity shaped.

approximating 1.020, having an acid reaction. The more im

portant solids held in solution are urea and uric acid (nitroge Urdaneta, RAFAEL, 1789-1845. Venezuelan general, active

nous crystalline bodies), sodium chloride, sodium, calcium and in the war of liberation; Sec. of War; acting Pres. of Colombia

magnesium phosphates. Urine may become abnormal by the 1830–31.-His cousin, FRANCISCO, 1791-1861, was a Colombian

presence of unusual components, as albumen in Bright's disgeneral.

ease, or sugar in diabetes; or by an excess of a normal constitUre, ANDREW, M.D., F.R.S, 1778-1857. Scottish chemist, in uent, as uric acid in a gouty diathesis. Urine contains a large London from 1830. Dict. Chemistry, 1821; Geology, 1829; Manu part of the nitrogen of animal voidings, and is therefore valufactures, 1835; Cotton Manufacture, 1836; Dict. of Arts, Manu able as a fertilizer, but it so readily undergoes fermentation factures, and Mines, 1837.

and decomposition that great care is necessary to prevent the

escape of the nitrogen into the atmosphere. Urea. O:C:(NH,),. Solid base, contained in the urine of mammals, birds, and in other animal fluids; prisms, mpt. 132° Urine, RETENTION OF. See RETENTION OF URINE. C.; separated from urine as a nitrate, or prepared by heat

Urinogenital. See UROGENITAL. ing ammonium cyanate; by the latter process, discovered by Wöhler 1828, it was the first organic compound made arti Urinometer. Form of hydrometer for determination of ficially.

the density of urine. Uredineæ. Subclass of Fungi, including an immense num Urmia. See URUMIAH. ber of minute species, mainly parasitic on flowering plants and

Urn. In general any vase; specially, the vessel in which seros, and often extremely destructive; also called Rust and

| the ashes of the dead are preserved. See CREMATION. SMUT (q.v.).

Urochorda. Tunicates; so called because some of the Uredospores. Spores produced in the Uredo state of

forms, and the young generally, possess a notochord in the Fungi, of the subclass Uredineæ. It is this phase of the life-history of these parasites which is so destructive to

tail. See CHORDATA. their hosts.

i Urocyst. Urinary bladder.

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