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down of the skin: or internally, through the mucous membrane, us an ulcer of the stomach.

Ulcma. Collective term, in Mohammedan countries, for persons learned in religious law. Tht-y form the legal and judicial class, interpret the Koran, and are the prime movers in fanatical outbreaks.

Ulexite. NaCaBsO„+5aq. Natural sodium and calcium borate, containing- 35.5 per cent of water, very soft and light, occurring in aggregates of fine silky fibers, especially in Chili, where it is known as tiza, and in Nevada in the form of socalled cotton-balls.

Ulfeldt, Leonora Christina, 1621-1698. Daughter of Christian IV. of Denmark: wife of an alleged traitor; imprisoned 1663-85. Her narrative was pub. 1869.

Ulfllas, Ulphilas. or Wulfila, ab. 311-381. Bp. 341; apostle of the Goths (q. v.), laboring s. of the Danube from 348. Portions of his notable Gothic Bible exist, chiefly the gospels: for it he invented an alphabet.

I llinium, Johann Christoph. 1771-1821. Prof. Marburg; author of valuable papers on mineralogy and on the geology of Hesse-Cassel.

Ullmann, Karl, 1796-1865. Prof. Heidelberg 1821-29 and 1836-56; prof. Halle 1829-36: prelate 1856-61. Gregory Nazianzen, 1825, tr. 1851; Sinlesmess of Jesus, 1828, tr. 1841; Worship of Genius, 1840, tr. 1846; Reformers Before the Reformation, 1840, tr. 1842; Essence of Christianity, 1846, tr. 1860.

ITIImannite. NiSbS. Mineral containing ab. 28 per cent of nickel combined with antimony and sulphur.

Ulloa, Antonio DE. 1716-1795. Spanish naturalist and astronomer, in Peru with J. Juan 1735-44; historian of this expedition, 1748-72; head of naval school at Cadiz from 1780; founder of a naval observatory and a school of metallurgy.

Ulloa, Francisco DE, ab.l485-ab.1540. Spanish officer under Cortes 1520; explorer of the Gulf of California 1539-40.

Ulloa, Francisco De. ab. 1498-1574. Spanish Dominican, missionary in Peru 1538-49 and ab. 1551-70.

Ulloa y Peretra, Luis De, 1590-1660. Spanish poet.

Ullswater Lake. Between the counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland, Eng.; 9 m. long. 1 m. wide. See Lake District.

Ulm. City of Wurtemberg, on the Danube, at the head of navigation. Its fine Lutheran cathedral, built 1377-1494 and

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in Germany. Here a peace was concluded July 3, 1620, between Catholics and Protestants; and here Mack surrendered an Austrian army of 30,000 to Napoleon. Oct. 19, 1805. It has manufactures of cotton, woolen, paper, leather and beer. Its ornamental pipe-bowls are noted. Pop., 1890, 36,201.

UlmlcAcid. Product of decaying vegetable matter. Found in earth-mould.

Ulna. Larger of the bones of the forearm, placed on the inner side. It forms, by its articulation with the humerus, the elbow joint, and extends as low as the wrist joint, but does not form a part of it.

Ulotrlchaceas Small order of green Algoz.

Ulotrlchl. See Man.

Ulphilas. See Ulfilas.

Ulpianu§, Domitius, ab.170-228. Roman jurist, b. at Tyre; prefect of Praetorian Guards 222; slain by them. Justinian's Digest includes 2,462 excerpts from his writings. Fragmenta. pub. 1549.

Ulrlc, St., ab.890-973. Bp. of Augsburg 923; celebrated for his defense of that city 954; canonized 993.

Ulricll I., 1498-1550. Duke of Wurtemberg; twice expelled and restored; active patron of the Reformation.

Ulrlcl, Hermann, 1806-1884. Prof, of Philosophy at Halle from 1834; writer on Hegel and Shakespeare. Logik, 1852; Gott und der Mensch, 1866; Strauss, 1873, tr. 1874.

Ultimate End. One to be sought for of itself, and Dot as a means to some other end; commonly identified in ethics with the Supreme Good.

Ultimate Good. That which is to be sought for as the proper object of reasonable human action.

Ultimate Strength. Force of tension, compression, or shear, which will cause the rupture of a body 1 sq. in. in section under tensile, compressive, or shearing stress. For ductile materials, like wrought iron or soft steel, it is less than the maximum strength, owing to the flow of metal. See Strength Of Materials.

Ultima Thule. See Thule.

Ultliniis Haeres. In Law, final heir. The State, which receives the property of those who die intestate, without leaving next of kin.

Ultramarine. Blue coloring matter, occurring in nature as Lapis-lazuli (q.v.); made in large quantities by melting kaolin, sulphur and dry sodium carbonate, or clay, calcined sodium sulphate and charcoal. A number of ultramarines are now on the market; a red, a yellow, a white, a green, and a number of blue varieties are known.

Ultramontaniim. Italian theories ascribing doctrinal infallibility and a universal episcopate, with ordinary and immediate authority, to the Pope. Both articles were established as necessary to Catholic faith by the Vatican Council 1870. The opposing principle was that of a national church, as Galiicanism.

Ultra Red. See Dark Heat.

Ultra Violet. That part of the solar spectrum which is more refrangible than the visible violet. This invisible stretch beyond the violet comprises a very large part of the total spectrum and may be studied by receiving it on some fluorescent surface, as a piece of paper which has been dipped in a solution of sulphate of quinine.

Ultra Vires. Act beyond the legal authority of a corporation. An ultra vires contract is unenforceable, but if it has been executed by one party, the other may be liable on a quasicontractual obligation. The term is inapplicable to torts ot corporations.

I I null Beg, 1394-1449. Grandson of Timur-Lenk; prince of Samarkand 1447; murdered by his eldest son. He is more widely known as an astronomer than as prince, his most enduring work being a catalogue of 992 stars, the first of the kind attempted since the time of Ptolemy. It is accompanied by an Introduction which throws much light upon the methods then in use.

I'll area'. Order of green Algoz, including the sealettuce.

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Temples of the King at Ulwar.

has an area of ab. 8,573 sq. m. It is governed under British direction. The people are called Mewatties. Pop. 778,596.

Ulysses, or Odysseus. One of the chief Greek heroes of the Trojan war; son of Laertes, husband of Penelope, and father of Telemachus; distinguished for valor and sagacity; hero of Homer's Odyssey, which recounts his ten years' wanderings and adventures, and his return to Ithaca.

I ina. Name given to Kali, wife of Siva.

Umatilla. Branch of the Columbia, inn. e. Oregon. Length ab. 150 m.

Umballa, or Ambala. Town of n. India, 150 m. n.n.w. of Delhi; commercially important. Pop., 1891, 79,270.

. Umbel. Flower-cluster having the pedicels all diverging

from the same point, and nearly equal in length, as in Carrot and Milkweed.

Umbellet. Partial umbel in a compound flowercluster of that name, as in Angelica.

Unibelltfterae. Natural family of flowering plants of the class Angiospermce, subclass Dicotyledons, and series Polypetalce, comprising 180 genera and ab. 1,400 species, distributed throughout the whole earth, especially through the temperate regions of the n. hemisphere; called the Parsley family.

Umber, Raw. Variety of ocher, dark brown, owing to the presence of manganese oxides; used in the manufacture of pigments. When the raw umber is heated to a redness, the brown hydrated oxide of iron is changed into the red oxide, and it is called Burnt Umber. It is redder in color.


Garden Angelica.

Umberto. See Humbert.

Umbilical Cord. Cord-like structure, consisting chiefly of two arteries and a vein, uniting the foetus with the placenta in the higher vertebrates.

Umbilicus. 1. Navel. 2. Aperture in the base of the Columella of Univalve shells. 3. Pit at the point of union of the calamus and the rhachis of the feather. 4. Passage from the intestine and ventrum of the embryo to the vitellus and allantois, or the various structures that go to make the navel string, as the vitelline duct, the allantoic stalk and the allantoic blood vessels.

Umbo. Eminence near the hinge in each valve of the shell of clams, etc., which marks the point where it began its growth. It usually points anteriorly.

Umbonate. Projecting in the center, like the boss of a shield.

Umbra. Consider a luminous body and an opaque body in

its vicinity. If a cone be developed, every element of which is an external tangent to the surfaces of the two bodies, that region within the conical surface and beyond the opaque body is the umbra or complete shadow. See Penumbra.

Umbreit, Friedrich Wilhelm Karl, 1795-1860. German* theologian; prof. Heidelberg 1820.

Umbrella. General body of a jelly-fish, its shape being' like two open umbrellas, put one within or below the other* uniting at their edges. The lower one (subumbrella) represents the ventral and peristomial surface, the upper (ex-umbrella) the dorsal surface.

Umbrella. Of high antiquity in the East, appearing on Assyrian and Persepolitan reliefs. Among the Arabs it is a mark of distinction, and generally throughout the East it is regarded as connected with royalty. Its origin has been traced by some to the tree under which sovereigns held court. la Siam, an umbrella with several rings is a prerogative of the sovereign; in Burmah, part of the royal title was Lord of the 24 Umbrellas. The first Englishman to carry an umbrella was Joseph Hanway, who died 1786; women used them a centuryearlier.

Umbrella-Bird (cephalopterus Ornatcs). S. American, crow-like, fruit-eating bird, having a large crest of hair-like


Umbrella-Bird (Cephalopterus ornatus).

feathers that, when erected, radiate, and curve down at the ends producing an umbrella-like structure. It also has a fleshy plume-bearing process hanging from its breast.

Umbrella - Leaf. Diphylleia cymosa. White - flowered herb of the natural family Berberidacece, native of the s.e. U. S.

Umbrella-Tree. Magnolia tripetala. Small tree of the natural family Magnoliacece, bearing large white flowers, native of the s.e. U. S.

Umbria. Part of ancient Italy, on the Adriatic, e. of Etruria; finally conquered by Rome 295 B.C.

Umbrian. Italic dialect, akin to Latin, with a few inscriptions preserved from ab. 300 B.C.

Umlaut. In German Philology, influence exerted upon a vowel in the root of a word by a vowel in the succeeding syllable. Umlaut in English is best seen in certain plurals like men. geese, feet, mice, and is here due to an i formerly present in the plural of the noun, but not in the singular. The syllable containing this i fell away, but left its influence upon the preceding vowel.

Umnak, or Oumnak. Alaskan island, of the Aleutian group; ab. 65 m. by 10; visited 1757.

Unalasbka. Aleutian island, e. of Umnak; ab. 75 m. by 20; mentioned in a celebrated line by Campbell, "The wolf's long howl from Oonalaska's shore."

Umritsur, or Amritsar. Commercial city of the Punjab. India, 32 m. e. of Lahore; founded by Guru Ram Das, an 1574


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Temple of UmriUur and the Lake of Immortality.

manufactures shawls; inferior, however, to those of Kashmir. Pop., 1891, 137.000, including cantonment.

I nam Sanctam. Bull of Pope Boniface VIII., claiming unbounded authority. It provoked Philip the Fair of France to the outrages which caused the death of Boniface 1303. resulting in the removal of the Papacy to Avignon, and ultimately in the Great Schism.

I 'nan lie, Jose Hippolite, 1758-1833. Peruvian scholar and statesman.

Uncas,ab.l600-1683. Chief of the Mohegan Indiansin Conn.; ally of the English in their conflicts with the Pequots and other tribes; not to be confounded with Cooper's hero.

Uncial Letters. Prevalent in MSS. ab.320-720; distinguished from the angular capitals which they superseded.

Uncinaria. Form of spicule like a needle, but bearing spines along its sides. It is derived from a hexactine, and is present in the sponge genus Valvulina.

Unconformable Strata. When one stratum overlies the upturned edges of another with no parallelism of dip or position. In the figure, the lower series (a) must first have


Unconformable Strata.

been deposited and subsequently folded and eroded, which partly removed the anticlinal arches, and afterward (6) was deposited.

Unconscious Cerebration. Action which so far resembles physiological functions as to be called unconscious, like the reflexes, and which yet so closely resembles mental function as to be taken for it. Carpenter used the term to express brain action reproducing past mental experience. Subliminal mental action is a better term.

Unconsciousness. Lapse of mental continuity. The possibility of absolute discontinuity of consciousness is doubtful. At the same time there are apparent breaks in an individual's mental history which demand recognition and to which the terms unconscious or subconscious may be applied. Such states are seen in sleep, fainting, hypnotic"trance, etc. The main characteristic of these lapses is loss of memory on awakening for what may have occurred either objectively or subjectively during the state. The evidence for mental activity of some sort in such periods is strong; e.g.. dream consciousness during sleep, the complex mental activity of hysterics and hypnotics in somnambulistic conditions, etc. The term now ordinarily used to denote this state in which the ideas do not rise above the threshold into the mental focus, is subconsciousness or subliminal consciousness. See Personality.

Unction. See Extreme Unction.

Ulldecagon. Polygon of eleven sides.

Underbasals. See Dicyclic Crinoids.

Under-Consumption. Rapidity of consumption of certain kinds of goods insufficient to absorb the amount produced.

Undercroft. Subterranean chapel or apartment. In the cloisters of Hereford Cathedral, Eng., there is a place called Mary-croft.

Undercutting. See Holing.

Underground Railroad. Secret movement which began with Pa. Quakers, became organized 1838, and till the Civil War aided the escape of fugitive slaves. There were various routes from the Northern slave States to Canada: on each of these were stations one day's journey apart, where the I'llnaways were fed and cared for. The reputed pres., Levi Coffin, 1798-1877, is said to have helped ab. 100 slaves annually to freedom.

Underground Railway. See Subway and Tunnel.

Underbill, John, 1597-1672. English emigrant, in Mass. 1030-37, on Long Island from 1646. Neices from America, 1638.

Underlay, or Underlie. See Hade.

Underpinning. Lowest timbers in a wooden house, resting upon the cellar walls.

Undershot Wheel. Water motor, in which the water acts more by its velocity than by its weight, being laid on in a sluice or apron below the horizontal diameter of the wheel, which turns on a horizontal axis. It is a low Breast WHEEL (q.v.) in its better forms, nnd is adapted only for very low falls with large volume of water, from which large power is sought. Efficiency of the wheels with straight blades is ab. J. The


Poncelet undershot or breast Wheel, with curved vanes in which a reaction was manifested, gave an efficiency of 50 per cent when drowned, and 60 per cent when not. These wheels are but little used, except along the banks of streams where water can be led to them without the expense of building dams. They generally move slowly.

Understanding. Mental faculty of conception and judgment as opposed to perception on one hand, and to ratiocination and intuition, functions of reason, on the other.

Undertaker, Tn Economics. Person who assumes the risks and management of business, supplying or borrowing capital, employing labor, administering the buying of materials and selling of the product, and taking as his remuneration the net returns to the business enterprise.

Underwood, Francis Henry, LL.D., 1825-1894. U. S. Consul at Glasgow 1885-89, and Leith 1893-94; author of novels, Handbooks of English and American Literature, 1871-72, and Lives of Longfellow. Lowell, and Whittier. 1882-83. Quabbin. 1893; Dr. GraifsQitest. 1895.—His cousin. Lucius Marccs, b.1853. prof. Syracuse Univ. 1883-91, De Pauw Univ. 1891-93, Columbia Univ. since 1896, has pub. Our Native Ferns. 18S182, and Hepaticas, 1884-93.

Underwood, Joseph Rogers, 1791-1876. Kv. Judge of Appeals 1828-35; M.C. 1835-43; U. S. Senator 1847-53.

Underwriter. One whocarries on the insurance business, especially marine insurance. See Insurance.

Undetermined Coefficients. Assumed quantities in the statement of known relations; their definite value becomes known in the process of reduction. The term is used as synonymous with indeterminate coefficients, but applies rather to the assumed constants in these, the values of which become known by the principles of indeterminate coefficients.

Undines. Female water-spirits of the Paracelsus system, who intermarry with human beings, and receive a soul, upon bearing a child" See Sylph.

Undulatory Theory. Propounded by Hooke 1664: developed later by Huygens, Fresnel, and Young, to explain the phenomena of light. It supposes light to consist of a wave motion set up by a luminous body in an elastic, rare, and all1575


pervading medium, called the luminiferous aether. The waves are supposed to be propagated by vibrations of aether particles in directions perpendicular to the line of propagation.

Unearned Increment. That portion of the value of land which arises from the general advance of the community in wealth and population, not from any effort or sacrifice of the landowner.

Ungava Bay. Projection of Hudson's Strait into n.w. Labrador.

Unger, Franz. 1800-1870. Prof, of Botany at Vienna 1850. Die exantheme der Pjlanzen, 1833: Veber den Eiiifltiss des Bodens, 1836; Ceber den Ban und das Wachathum des Dicotyledonenstammes, 1840; Genera et species plantarum Jossiliutii 1850; Diefossile Flora, 1850-67; Anatomie und Physiologie der Pjlanzen, 1855.

linger, Joseph, b.1838. Prof, of Jurisprudence at Prague 1853, and Vienna 1857; Minister of State; pres. Supreme Court 1881; writer on law.

Unger, WlLHELM. b.1837. Prof. Vienna; etcher. His work is distinguished by strength and freedom. Among his noted plates are: La Ronde du Met, after Rembrandt; Catharine Canaro, after Makart; and Portraits, after Velasquez.

Unguents. See Ointments.

Unguieulate. Furnished with an unguis or claw, as the petals or sepals of many flowers.

Ungula Spherical, or Wedge. Solid bounded by a spherical lune and the planes of the circles forming the lune. Its edge is a diameter of the sphere.

Ungulata (hoofed Mammals). In a restricted sense this group comprises only the Diplarthra (Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla), mammals with cotvledonary non-deciduate placenta; but resent discoveries of Tertiary vertebrates in w. U.S. have so filled the gaps which separate the various groups of

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J^lacentalia that certain authors include the Subungulates of the section Zonaria (including the Taxeopoda, Proboscidaz, and Amblyjmda) and the Proungulates of the section Discoidea (including the Bunotheria and Rodentia), all of the division Deciduata. It appears probable that the character of the placenta cannot be used strictly for purposes of classification.

Vnguligrade. Having the toes furnished with hoofs, as in the Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla.

Uniates. Greeks, Maronites. and other Eastern Christians, subject to Rome, but retaining their peculiar rites, discipline, and liturgical languages.

Unicap§ular. Dry compound fruit.

Unicellular. Consisting of but one cell, as does the entire body in most of the Protozoa and Protophyta.

Unicorn. Mythical one-horned horse, believed in by the ancients. The word thus tr. in O. T. probably means the wild ox or buffalo. See Monodontidje and Rhinocerotid.*.

Unicorn-Plant. Martynia proboscidea. Odorous, pubescent, coarse herb of the natural order Pedalineoz, bearing flealiv, lonir-beaked pods; cultivated as a vegetable; native of tlie s.w. U. S.

Untfoliolate. Compound leaf composed of a single leaflet, as in the barberry; distinguished from simple leaves by the presence of an articulation at the base of the leaflet.

Uniformitarianit*m. Doctrine in Geology, of which Lvell was the strongest exponent, maintaining that the past changes which the earth has undergone have been produced by causes still in action. The doctrine has been pushed by some of its more recent advocates to extreme conclusions, against which a reaction has set in.

Uniformity, Acts Of. Enforcing the use of the English Prayer-book 1549, and its revised forms 1552, 1558. and 1CG2. The last caused the ejection of some 2.000 nonconforming clergy, and was revoked 1689.

UnigenitUB. Bull of Pope Clement XL. Sept. 8, 1713, virtually condemning Jansenism through 101 statements of Qucsnel. It caused great ecclesiastical commotions in Fiance.

Unilabiate. Having one lip. as some pnmopetnlous corollas; or apparently one-lipped by the splitting of the tube of the corolla down one side, as in the Ligulatce.

Unilateral. One-sided, or with parts arranged along one side.

Unilocular. In Biology, one-chambered ovary or other hollow organ.

Unimak. Alaskan island, largest of the Aleutian group and nearest mainland; ab. 50 m. by 20.

Union. See United Kingdom.

Union Christian College. Coeducational institution, founded 1859 at Merom, Intl., by a denomination called Christians.

Union College. See Union University.

Unlonld» (najades, Freshwater Mussels). Lamellibranchs, with short siphons produced by the free apposition of the edges of the mantle, for a short distance. The valves of the shell are equal, but unsymmetrical; they are united by two adductor muscles, and covered externally by a smooth epidermis, and internally by a pearly layer. The foot has a

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sharp edge; the gills are united posteriorly. The outer pair of gills also function as a brood pouch for the developing young. Here belong- Anodon and Unio, the freshwater clnms. Some species of this familv produce pearls of considerable value. A collection from Wis. was exhibited at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893. Many were discovered in Arkansas 1897. See Pearls.

Union Jack. National banner of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The first one was proclaimed 1606, three years after the union of the English and Scottish crowns. It was a combination of the crosses of St. George and St. Andrmv. On the union with Ireland the cross of St. Patrick was introduced. It consists of a blue ground, with the upright cross of St. George, in red. edged with white; and the saltire or diagonal cross of St. Patrick, red, edged on one side by the cross of St. Andrew, white.

Union Theological Seminary. In New York: Presbyterian, but open to all and free from ecclesiastical control; founded 1836: incorporated 1839; removed from University Place to 700 Park Avenue, Sept. 1884. It has 13 instruc tors, 134 students, over 1,800 graduates, and a library of 71,576 vols.

Union University. At Schenectady, N. Y.; chartered 1795 as Union Coll. Its present title was assumed 1873. when the Albany Medical Coll. and Law School, with the Dudley Observatory, were united under one bo ird. In 1881 t he Coll. of Pharmacy was organized. Pres. E. Nott directed the institution most successfully 1804-66. It was the first non-secta1576


rian coll. in the U. IS., and the first to place the modern languages in the curriculum. A school of civil engineering was organized 1845, It has (1897) 30 instructors, 221 students, and a library of 31,000 vols. The Greek letter fraternities originated here in 1825, Kappa Alpha being the first.

Unipctnlous. Lacking all but one petal, as Amorpha.

Uniscrial. Arranged in one row, or consisting of a single whorl.

Unisexual. See Diclinous.

Unit. Quantity taken together as a basis of comparison and combination. " The abstract unit, one, is the base to which all finite quantity is referred.

Unitarians. Christians who deny the divinity of Christ; in the U. S., originally seceders from Trinitarian Congregationalism 1812 and later. They have ab. 437 congregations and 68,250 members, especially in New England. The movement was earlier but less extensive in England. It was anticipated at the Reformatian by Socinus.

Unltas Fratrmn. See Moravians.

United Armenians. Those subject to Rome; chiefly in the Turkish empire. Previous to the massacres there were ab. 100,000, with a patriarch, 6 abps., and 16 bishops.

United Brethren in Christ. Sect distinct from the Moravians, organized in Pa. 1800 by P. W. Otterbein (17261813); resembling the Methodists, but with quadrennial bishops. They have ab. 2,140 ministers, 4,200 congregations, and 210,000 communing members.

United Christians of St. Thomas. In s. India; mostly subject to Rome since 1599: these number ab. 235,000. See Christians Of St. Thomas.

United Copts. R.C. Egyptians, numbering ab. 12,000, and in Abyssinia possibly more.

United Evangelical Chnrcb. Lutheran and Reformed, united and established in Prussia since 1817.

United GreeKs. Those subject to Rome; most numerous (over 4,000,000) in Austria-Hungary, under the Ruthenian rite. Others are in Poland and elsewhere.

United Irishmen. Secret organization formed ab.1793, designed to unite Catholics and Protestants in an attempt to establish a republic in Ireland. Its founder. Theobald Wolfe Tone (1763-1798), was arrested and sentenced to death by a military commission 1798, when he committed suicide. It ceased to exist when Ireland was united with Gt. Britain 1801.

United Kingdom. That of Gt. Britain, formed 1707 by England and Scotland, which had been under one sovereign from 1603, but as separate states, each having its own parliament. Ireland was added 1801.

United Nestorians. Roman Catholics of the Syrian rite dating from 1553; also called Chaldean Christians.

United Oriental Rites. See Umates.

United Original Seceders. Scottish body, formed 1820. See Presbyterians.

United Preshyterlan Church Of N. America. Union, formed 185", of Associate and Reformed synods. It has ab. 900 ministers and 120.000 members. The kindred body in Scotland, formed 1847 by union of the Secession and Relief synods, has ab. 580 ministers and 192,000 members. See Presbyterians.

United Provinces. Holland. Zealand, Utrecht, and other Dutch States, associated 1579 against Spanish tyranny.

United Secession Church. Religious body which was formed by the union of the Associate and General Associate Synods of Scotland in 1820 and united to the United Presbyterian Ch. in 1847.

United Society of Believers. See Shakers.

United States. Republic of N. America, by far the largest, most populous and powerful on the w. continent. Its area is 3.026,500 sq. m. (excluding Alaska, which has 530.000). It extends from long. 67° to 12-1° W. and from lat. 24° 30' to 49° N. The w. part consists of a broad elevated tableland, extending from the n. to the s. boundary and from long. 105° W. nearly to the Pacific: this plateau is capped by many mountain ranges, trending nearly n. and s., parallel to its general direction, the highest being upon its e. and w. borders. The elevation of the plateau ranges from 10.000 ft. in central Col. down to 4.000 ft. near the n. and s. boundaries, while the mountain ranges rise from 4,000 ft. to 8,000 ft. higher, with many summits ex

ceeding 14,000 ft. The e. slope of this plateau consists of the great plains, a long, gentle incline. A second system of elevation is found in the e. part of the country, known as the Appalachian system. It trends in a direction nearly n.e. and s.w., extending from Me. to Ala. In length, breadth, and altitude it is much inferior to the w. system. Between these two systems of elevations is a great depression or plain, thes. and greater part of which is drained by the Mississippi and its tributaries, while the n. part is occupied by the system of the Great Lakes. E. of the Appalachians is a plain extending with a gentle incline to the Atlantic coast, known as the Atlantic plain. The average elevation of the country is 2.600 ft.

The streams of the Atlantic plain are comparatively short, and few are navigable above the head of tide. On the n. boundary is a series of great lakes, drained by the St. Lawrence. The Mississippi is one of the great rivers of the world. With its numerous large branches, it drains an area of ab. 1.250,000 sq. m., and has a navigable length of ab. 10,000 m. It drains not only the great valley but the w. slopes of the Appalachians and the e. slopes of the w. mountain system. The principal streams of the Pacific from this region are the Columbia, Sacramento, and Colorado. Much of the interior o( the plateau is drained to neither ocean.

The n. part of the Atlantic coast is rugged and broken. From N. Y. s. to and around the Gulf, the coast is low and sandy, with reefs extending along the shore, protecting marshy areas or bays behind them. The whole Atlantic coast abounds in deep bays and excellent harbors. The Pacific coast is bluff and rocky, with deep water immediately off shore, and very few harbors.

The temperature has a wide range, with the latitude and the altitude above sea level. Along the Gulf coast the mean annual temperature ranges from 70° to 75°, while in the n. parts

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it is less than 40°. as also in the high plateau region of Col.. Wy., and Mont. The range between summer and winter is, in general, great as compared with that of more humid countries, and becomes still more accented in the vv. plateau region. The rainfall, too, varies through wide limits. It is heaviest upon the immediate Gulf coast, where it averages ab. 60 in. annually, and diminishes gradually n., and more rapidly w., being in the region about the Great Lakes from80 to 40, on the w. plateaus 10 or 15, and in some regions not more than 4 or 5 in. Upon the n.w. coast there is a heavy rainfall, brought there by the warm air currents of the Pacific, which is deposited on the narrow strip of land w. of the Cascades. The e. and s. parts of the U. S. are, or were originally, covered with forests, which in the more densely settled parts have been largely cut away. Bordering this timbered area is a prairie region, forming a belt of separation between the forest area and the treeless plains, and including parts of Tex.. I. T., Kan., Mo., III., Ind., Mich., Wis.. Ia.. Minn., and N. and S. Dak. From this region w. to the base of the mountains extend the Great Plains, which are almost entirely devoid of trees. Within the mountain region, the valleys, plains, and plateaus are generally treeless. The mountains are as a rule covered with forests, and upon the Cascades, and throughout the region w. of them to the Pacific, the country is densely covered with valuable timber. The lumber industry is very large. See Forestry and Timber.

The mineral resources are very great. Anthracite coal is extensively mined in Pa., and bituminous coal in a majority of the States and Territories. The distribution of iron ore is equally wide, but it is mined on a large scale mainly on the upper peninsula of Mich., and in Ala. and Pa. The precious metals are mined mainly in the w. States and Territories, copper principally on the upper peninsula of Mich, and in the *.

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