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trict along the s. coast. The cultivation of the vine is rapidly extending, but the wine produced is generally of inferior quality, except the Chianti and Montepuiciano, which have a high reputation. It is the ancient Etruria. Area 9,300 sq. in.; pop.. 1890, 2,274,191.

Tuscaroras. Tribe of s. Iroquois of N. C. They massacred whites 1711: the English, aided by Cherokees, took many of them prisoners, who were sold as slaves. The others rejoined the n. Iroquois, and thus the Five Nations became Six.

Tusculum. Latin city, 15 m. s. of Rome; noted for villas of Cicero (some of whose works were written there) and other eminent men; ruined 1191. Frascuti is near its Bite.

Tushita. Fourth of six Buddhist heavens.

Tuskegee Institute. For colored youth; established 1881 by Booker T. Washington at Tuskegee, Macon co., Ala.; modeled after the school at Hampton, Va. In 1897 it had 79 instructors, 867 students from 19 States, 37 buildings, and 2.460 acres of land, of which 650 were cultivated by the pupils. The property is valued at $300,000. 25 industries are prosecuted by the students, and all but 3 of the buildings were constructed by them, even to the making of the brick and the sawing of the timber. It has done much good, and sent forth missionary teachers to many parts of the South.

Tussaud, Marie (grosholtz), 1760-1850. Swiss-French modeler in wax, from 1802 in London, where she established an exhibition of wax figures. It maintains its celebrity, and has been imitated elsewhere.

Taster, Thomas, ab.1525-1580. English versifier, whose Good Husbandrie, 1557-73, has some historical value.

Tussock. Dense tuft; frequent form of growth of swamp species of grasses and sedges.

Tuthill, Louisa Cornelia (huoqins), 1798-1879. American writer, chiefly for the voung, as was also her daughter, Cornelia (pierso'n), 1820-1870.

Tutines. Same as Thothmes (q.v.).

Tuttle, Charles Wesley. 1829-1881. American astronomer and antiquarian.—His brother, Horace Parnell, b.1839. discovered several comets and asteroids. Pay Tables of U. S. Navy. 1872.

Tuttle, Daniel Sylvester, D.D., b.1837. P.E. Bp. of Montana 1887, and of Mo. 1886.

Tuttle, Herbert, 1846-1894. Prof. Cornell from 1881. German Political Leaders. 1876: Hist. Prussia. 4 vols., 188396. Gneist highly esteemed vols. 2, 3, 1884, on Frederick II.

Tuttle, James Madison, b.1823. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862-64.

Tuttle, Joseph Farrand, D.D., b. 1818. Pres. Wabash Coll., Ind., 1863-92; religious and historical writer.

Tutuila. One of the Samoan islands. The harbor PagoPago nearly divides it into two peninsulas. Length 11 m., area 15 sq. m.

Tlltwork. In Cornish Mining, work in barren ground, dead work, or work paid for at a price independent of the -value of the material excavated.

Tver. Russian town, on the Volga, 100 m. n.w. of Moscow. Pop., 1890, 40,962.

Twachtman, John Henry, h.1853 in Cincinnati Landson pe painter.

Twain, Mark. See Clemens.

Twayblade. Orchids of the genera Listera and Leptorchis; low woodland herbs of the n. hemisphere, bearing two leaves.

Tweed. River of s.e. Scotland, flowing 97 m. e. and n.e. to the North Sea at Berwick; drainage area 1,870 sq. m. Its last 18 m. form the English boundary. It is a noted trout and salmon stream.

Tweed, William Marcy, 1823-1878. Politician of New York City; M.C. 1853-55; State Senator 1867-71; Commissioner of Public Works 1870; grand sachem of Tammany Society from 1863; leading spirit of a group of politicians known as the • •Tweed Ring," who got control of the finances of the city, and plundered it of manv millions. The ring was overthrown in the election of Nov. 1871. T., 1872-73, was arrested, tried, and sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment, on criminal suit, but was discharged by decision of Court of Appeals 1875. He Was immediately arrested in a civil suit, and committed to prison for lack of bail, but escaped to Cuba, thence to Spain,

whence he was returned 1876. His case was tried and heavy damages obtained against him, which were not paid, and he was confined in Ludlow Street jail until his death.

Twelfth Cake. See Twelfth Nioht.

Twelfth Night. Jan. 5. Close of the Christmas holidays, which lasted 12 days; formerly celebrated in England bv choosing a king and queen who presided over the festivities until midnight. According to ancient custom, a l>ean and pea were baked in a cake, which was cut and distributed to the company. The one who received the bean was made king; the receiver of the pea became queen. This and other customs peculiar to the day have mostly fallen into disuse. See Epiphany.

Twelve Tables. Earliest code of Roman law, cut on bronze plates and set up in the Forum; the first ten tables were enacted 451 B.C., after study of Greek institutions by a commission. The 11th and 12th, the work of the unpopular second triumvirate, set up 450, are called by Cicero "the two tables of unjust laws." Roman boys in early times learned these laws by heart. The existing fragments of these laws have been, several times edited.

Twenty-cent Piece. U. S. silver coin, issued only 1875-78.

Twesten, August Detlev Christian, 1789-1876. Prof. Kiel 1(S14, and Berlin from 1835, succeeding Schleiermacher, on whom he wrote. Logik, 1825; Dogmatik, 1826-37.

Twickenham. Town of Middlesex, on the Thames, 11 m. s.w. of London; residence of Bacon, Pope, and other notables. Pop., 1891, 16,026.

Twiggs, David Emanuel. U.S.A., 1790-1862. Captain 1815, Col. 1836, Brig.-gen. 1846; distinguished in the Mexican war; dismissed 1861 for surrendering his command and stores in Texas to Confederates; Major-gen. C.S.A. 1861.

Twilight. Caused by reflection of the sun's light from the atmosphere, or from particles of matter floating in the atmosphere. It continues until the sun is about 18° below the horizon.

Twill. Variety of textile goods, in which the weaver gives a sort of diagonal ribbed appearance to the surface. All twilled fabrics present a twill on both surfaces, though reversed in direction. Satin bombazine and kerseymere are varieties of twill.

Twillingate, or ToULlNGUET. Port of Newfoundland, on two islands of same name, off n. coast, in 54° 44' W. long.: the finest Newfoundland dogs come from this district. Pop. 2,8<0.

Twin Flower. Linnaa borealis. Low. creeping evergreen shrub of the natural family Caprifoliaceae, bearing pairs of white flowers, native of the cooler parts of the n. hemisphere.

Twining, Thomas, 1734-1804. English tr. of Aristotle's Poetics, 1789. Recreations and Studies, 1883.

Twin-Leaf. Jeffersonia diphylla. Low, white-flowered herb of the natural order Berberidece, native of the e. U. S.; known also as Rheumatism-root.

Twirler. See Twister.

Twlss, Sir Travers, D.C.L.. F.R.S.. b.1809. Prof. Oxford 1842-47 and 1855-72; knighted 1867; framer of a constitution for Congo Free State 1884. International Law, 1856; Law of Nations, 1861-63; Monumenta Juridica, 4 vols., 1871-76.

Twisted-Stalk. Herbs of the genus Streptopus, of the Lily family, bearing inconspicuous flowers, natives of n. temperate zone.

Twister, or Twirler. In w. U. S., tornado, or small revolving storm.

Two-cent Piece. U. S. bronze coin, issued 1864-73; first to bear the motto, "In God we Trust."

Two Old Cat. See One Old Cat.

Tybee Island. In Georgia, at mouth of Savannah river. It is 6 m. long and 3 m. wide, and separated from the coast by Lazarreto Creek.

Tycho Rrahe. See Brahe.

Tycoon. Shogun, or military chief of Japan.

Tydldes. Son of Tydeus. See Diomedes.

Tye, Christopher, d.1572. Church composer; organist of Ely Cathedral 1041-62.

Tylarl. Wart-like pads on the underside of the toes of birds.

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Tyler, Bennett, D.D., 1783-1858. Pres. Dartmouth Coll. 1822-28; pres. Theol. Institute, E. Windsor, Conn., from 1834. He maintained the older and stricter views against Dr. N. W. Taylor (q.v.) of Yale. Hist. New Haven Theology, 1837; Lectures, 1859.

Tyler, Daniel. 1799-1882. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862-64, serving in Miss., Va., and Md.

Tyler, John, 1790-1862. Tenth pres. U. S.; M.C. 1816-21; Gov. of Va. 1825-27: U. S. Senator 1827-36: opponent both of U. S. Bank and of Pres. Jackson's measures against it: Whig candidate for Vice-Pres. 1836; elected 1840. He succeeded Pres. Harrison, April 1841, and had a rather stormy term,

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being at odds with most of the Whigs on the Bank question and other matters. Webster alone of Harrison's advisers remained in the.Cabinet. From 1845 he was in private life till 1861, when he entered the Confederate Congress.—His son, Lyon Gardiner, LL.D., b.1853, pres. William and Mary Coll. since 1883, pub. Letters and Times of the Tylers, 1884.

Tyler, Moses Coit, LL.D., b. 1835. Prof. Univ. Mich. 1867-81, and Cornell since 1881. Braumville Papers, 1868, Hist. American Literature (Colonial), 1878; Patrick Henry, 1887; Literary Hist. Revolution, vol. 1, 1897.

Tyler, Ransom Hebbard, 1813-1881. Judge of Oswego co., N. Y. Law of Infancy, 1868; Usury, Pawns, and Loans, 1873; Boundaries and Fences, 1874; Fixtures, 1877.

Tyler, Robert Ooden, U.S.A., 1831-1874. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862; artillery commander in Va.: disabled at Cold Harbor, June 1, 1864; Brevet major-gen. U.S.A.

Tyler, Royall, 1757-1826. Judge of Vt. Supreme Court 1794, Chief-justice 1800-6; author of three plays, produced 1786-97, a romance, The Algerine Captive. 1797, and other works. Reports Vt. Supreme Court, 1809-10.—His son, EdWard Royall, 1800-1848, founded The New Englander.

Tyler, Samuel, LL.D., 1809-1878. Law prof. Columbian Coll., Washington, D.C., from 1867: biographer of R. B. Taney, 1872. Burns, 1848; Progress of Philosophy, 1858; Law of Partnership. 1877. His Baconian Philosophy, 1844, won praise from Sir Wm. Hamilton.

Tyler, Wat, d.1381. Leader of a revolt of English peasants, celebrated in Shakespeare's Richard II.

Tyler, William Seymour, D.D., LL.D., 1810-1897. Prof. Amherst since 1836; editor of Tacitus, 1847-49, and other classics. Tlieology of Greek roets, 1867; Hist. Amherst Coll., 1873.

Tylopa,orTYLOPODA. This comprises the family Camelidce of the suborder Selenodontia, and is characterized by somewhat aberrant peculiarities. There are but two toes to each foot, and the hoof is nail-like. There are no horns, and the upper lip is cleft. The adult lias but two incisors in the upper jaw (the young and fossil forms h ive four or six). There are also canines, and the first premolar is separated by a diastema from the other grinders. The nostrils can be closed at will. The red blood corpuscles are oval. The Old World camels are domesticated, have the toes united by a callous sole, and form two species that are interfertile. the Bactrian Camel of Central Asia and the African or Arabian Dromedary. The former has two humps of fat, the latter only one. These are drawn

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Bactrian Camel (Camelua bactrianu$).

cated as the Alpaca, noted for its wool. They differ from the true camels in having no hump, and in having a separate pad for each toe. See Camel, Llama, etc.

Tylor, Edward Burnett, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., b.1832. Keeper Oxford Univ. Museum 1883; pres. Anthropological Society 1891. Mexico, 1861; Early History of Mankind, 1885; Primitive Culture, 1871; Anthropology, 1881.

Tyloses. Delicate membranes of parenchymatous tissue, found within the vessels of woody- plants.

TylOStyle. Spicule of the stylus type with the butt end clubbed (tylote), found in the sponge genus Placospongia.

Tylote. Rhabdus knobbed at the ends.

Tympani. See Drum.

Tympanic Rulla. Projecting capsule of tympanic bone in carnivores.

Tympanic membrane, or Drum Of The Ear. Membrane stretched across the bottom of the external auditory meatus, separating the external from the middle ear. It is closely connected with one of the small bones of the middle ear, and, receiving the sound vibrations, transmits them to the chain of ossicles. It vibrates with the same rapidity as the sonorous body. See Ear.

Tympanum. In Classical Architecture, triangular space between the horizontal and sloping cornices of a pediment.— In Mediaeval Architecture, the space between the top of a square doorway and an arch about it; it is generally carved.

Tympanum. Wheel for lifting water, consisting of i horizontal shaft, to which spokes are attached, having buckets at their ends. As the wheel is turned, these buckets dip into water and are filled: later in the revolution they discharge the water at a higher level. Anciently used for drainage and irrigation. Another form consists of an open framed wheel, with curved radial partitions to scoop up the water and deliver it at a higher level.

Tyndale, Hector, 1821-1880. Major 28th Pa. 1861: Brig.gen. U. S. Vols. 1862-64, serving with distinction in Va. and Tenn.

Tyndale, William, ab.1484-1536. English reformer anc martyr; on the Continent from 1524; imprisoned May 1535, strangled and burned at Vilvorde. S. Brabant, Oct. 6, 1536. His translations of N. T., 1526, and of the Pentateuch and other books, 1530-37, have great merit, and are the foundation of ours. His last words were memorable: "Lord, opt" the King of England's eyes."

Tyndall, John, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R S., 1820-1893. Prol. Royal Institution, London, 1853, and its head 1867-83; in the U.S. 1872; pres. British Association 1874; pre-eminent as a writer and lecturer on physics. Glaciers of the Alps. 1860: Mountaineering. 1862: Heat as a Mode of Motion, 1863: Radiation, 1865; Sound, 1867; Faraday, 1808; Natural Phaoso}*S, 1869: Light. 1870; Electrical Phenomena, 1870; Diamagnetim. 1870; Imagination in Science, 1871; Fragments of Science. 187192: Radiant Heat, 1872: Forms of Water. 1872: Exercise in tkt Alps, 1873; Floating Matter of the Air, 1881.

Tyne. Branch on the main stem or beam of a deer's horn.

Tyne. River of n. England, flowing 32 m. through a coal region to North Sea; navigable for 18 m.

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and its church (11th to 14th century). The borough includes N. Shields and 4 other townships. In Saxon times it was a noted burial place for princes and bishops. Shipbuilding, ropemaking and fishing are carried on. Pop., 1891, 46,267.

Tyner, James Noble, b.1826. M.C. from Ind. 1869-75; U. S. Postmaster-gen. 1876-77.

Tyne, Stephen Higginson, D.D.. 1800-1885. Rector in Phila. 1829^15, and in New York 1845-78; leading Low Churchman and prolific writer.—His son and namesake, b.1839, was a prominent rector in New York 1863-81, as a brother, Dudley Atkins, 1825-1858, had been in Phila.

Type. Canopy over a pulpit.

Type. In Biology, etc.. perfect individual, exhibiting all essential characteristics of its group.

Type. Prophetic symbol of spiritual truths to be disclosed or developed later, as the O. T. sacrifices of that of Christ. The search for types was carried to great lengths by Origen and other Fathers.

Type-Founding. Art of casting types used in printing. Until ab.1550 printers cast their own type, but from hereon it became a distinct business. A Frenchman named Garomond is the father of letter-founders. W. Caslon established a letter foundry in London 1718. In 1838 David Bruce invented the first successful type-casting machine, which has been improved by various inventors. See PRINTING, INVENTION OP.

Type Metal. See Antimony, Metallurgy Of. Type-Setting Machines. These are built on two principles and are used extensively in the U. S. and in Europe.

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sembles the letters in a long line, to be justified to any desired width. The second class of machines is the Linotype, which assembles the matrixes from which the entire line is cast automatically. Daily newspapers use the latter; for book composition printers prefer the former. A machine for setting type was first invented 1822 by W. Church of England. It is being constantly improved. For distributing the types, each letter has a distinctive nick or nicks on the shank, by means of which a machine distributes each into its proper compartment. 15,000 types have been set in an hour by a machine, one operator setting the line, while another does the spacing.

Type-Specimen. Individual used as a type in preparing the description of a species or group.

Typewriter. Mechanical writing-machine operated by hand and printing a combination of letters, or a single letter at a time. Henry Mill, of England, received the first patent in 1714. The first in the U. S. was invented in 1819 by W. A. Burt of Mich. That invented by Xavier Proyrin of France in 1833 embodied the principles of the modern successful machine. The first practical one, from which the modern Rem

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ington was developed, was invented by C. L. Sholes, S. W. Soule, and C. Glidden 1868 in Milwaukee, Wis., and, after extensive experimenting, it was put upon the market as the Remington in 1874; the fundamental principles alone surviving. Since then it has been greatly improved, and many others made, each claiming superiority in one respect or another. See Sholes, C. L.

Typhaceae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermm and subclass Monocotyledons, comprising two genera and ab. 16 species, growing in the waters and marshes of Europe, temperate and tropical Asia, Australia, and the temperate regions of N. America; called the Cat-tail family.

Typlilops. See Opoterodonta.

Typlilosole. Longitudinal fold of the dorsal wall of the intestine of the Earthworm and bivalved mollusks. Its use is to increase the digestive surface.

Typhoid Fever. Name given in 1829 by Louis, a distinguished French physician, to a form of low continued fever constantly accompanied with inflammation and ulceration of the lymph follicles of the intestines. It is an infectious disease caused by a bacillus of the intestines, which has been isolated, the bacillus of Eberth. It is a water borne disease, and the communication is usually through the water supply. It is the most common form of continued fever of temperate climes, and is most common in the autumn. It is a self-limited disease, lasting about six weeks, with a varying mortality rate in different epidemics. The great reduction in the general deathrate from typhoid fever, by the adoption of sanitary precautions, warrants the assertion that it is within our power to prevent every case of it. In 1895 there were 469 deaths from typhoid fever in Philadelphia; with a 10 per cent mortality this indicates a total of 4,690 cases. The deaths from this cause in the U. S. is estimated at 45,000 annually, indicating a total of 450.000 cases.

Typhon, or Typhosus. Monster of the archaic world, represented as a fire-lireathing giant, or a destroying hurricane, and 100-headed. He tried to gain dominion over gods and men, but was subdued, and lies in Tartarus, beneath Mt. 1570


Typhoon. Violent whirlwind, such as occurs on the coasts or China and Japan, and on neighboring seas; not essentially different from the hurricanes of the Atlantic Ocean. Dr. Morrison says: "At Hainam is a temple dedicated to Tiphon the goddess and to the Mother Ken woo, in allusion to the storm."

Typhus Fever. Acute disease with a sudden onset and markedly nervous symptoms lasting about two weeks. It is caused by overcrowding, insufficient food and unhealthy surroundings, as is indicated by the various names given to it, famine fever, ship fever, camp fever, jail fever. It is one of the most highly contagious of the fevers, but is not now known in the U. S., except possibly an occasional case in the most congested part of New York City.

Typography. See Printing.

Tyr. In Norse Mythology, god of war; son of Odin.
Tyrannldse. See Tyrant Birds.

Tyrant. Ruler of an ancient Greek city, who had usurped his power, however he might exercise it.—In popular language,

a cruel and oppressive sovereign.

Tyrant Birds (tyrannid^;). Over 850 species, including tyrant chats, tyrant wrens, tyrant flycatchers, peewees, Bee Martin (q.v.), etc. They persistently attack other and larger birds. Most are tropical. The bill is hooked at the tip; the general color is grayish olive, with a yellowish wash, strongest on the belly, and a red spot on the top of the head of both sexes, visible when the crest-like feathers are raised. A noted member of this family is the Scissors Tail of Central America, but straying northward. Its body is 4 in. long; the outer tail feathers are 10 in.: they cross from the two sides, and open alternately. It is called the Bird of Paradise in Mexico.

Tyrants, Thirty. See Thirty Tyrants.

Tyrconnel, Richard Talbot. Earl Of, ab.1625-1691. Irish intrignetybanished for conspiracy 1677: created by James II. Earl 1685. commander of the army in Ireland 1686, and Lorddeputy 1687. He replaced the English Protestant officers by Irish Catholics, sought to place Ireland under French protection, supported James after the Revolution, was made Duke 1689. fled to France 1690. and brought French troops to Ireland 1691.

Tyre. Ancient city on the coast of Phoenicia, colonized from Sidon; ancient city on mainland, besieged by Assyrians ab.713 B.C.; taken after 13 years'siege by Nebuchadnezzar and destroyed 572 B.C. A new city on the island was taken after 7

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Tyre and Sidon were the two most famous commercial cities of early antiquity, of which. Carthage was a colony. They were of Cunaanitish race, but mostly in friendly relations with the Hebrews, on whom they depended for food.

Tyrian Purple. Ancient dye prepared from certain mollusks, species of Murex and Purpura. Each shell-Ash contained a minute quantity, which was obtained at a great cost, hence symbol of imperial power.

Tyrol. Province of Austria, between Bavaria and Italv, e. of Switzerland; anciently Rhaetia; held by Austria since 1363, except 1806-14. Area 11,324 sq. m. It is mountainous, largely covered with forests, and the residue suitable chiefly for pasturage. Capital, Innsbruck. Pop., 1890, 928,769, mostly German Catholics.

Tyrollte. CujASjO^-f-Aq. Natural hydrous copper arsenate, greenish or bluish, found in small quantity as one of the products of the alteration of other copper and arsenical minerals.

Tyrone, Hugh O'neill, Earl Of, ab.1550-1616. Irish conspirator, Earl 1587. He revolted 1597, defeated the English twice, and offered the sovereignty to Philip II. of Spain, but was defeated with his Spanish allies by Mountjoy 1601. Repeated rebellions led to confiscation of land, dispossession of Catholics, and planting of Protestant English and Scotch in Ulster, 1609-12.

Tyrosine. C,H,,NOt. Silky needles crystallizing in stellate forms, occurring abnormally in the liver and urine, and formed from casein, feathers and albumen by potash fusion.

Tyrotoxicon. Ptomaine extracted from putrid cheese by Vaughan; also formed in milk which has stood for some days. It is very poisonous, producing diarrhoea and vomiting.

Tyrrhenia. See Etruria.

Tyrrhenian Sea. W. of Italy, e. of Corsica and Sardinia, and n. of Sicily; part of the Mediterranean.

Tyrtaeus, 7th cent. B.C. Greek poet of Attica. Noted for his war songs and elegies, which encouraged the Spartans in their wars with the Messenians. Fragments remain.

Tyrwhitt, Thomas. 1730-1786. English philologist, editor of Chaucer, 1773-78, the Rowley poems, 1778, and Aristotle's Poetics, 1794.

Tyssens, Peter, 1624-ab.l678. Dutch painter.

Tytler, James, 1747-1805. Scottish author, in America from ab.1796.

Tytler, William, 1711-1792. Scottish historical writer. —His son. Alexander Fraser. 1747-1813. prof. Edinburgh 1780, Judge-advocate of Scotland 1790, Judge of Session and Lord Woodhouselee 1802, pub. Elements of History, lt-01. and otlier books.—His son. Patrick Fuaser, 1791-1849, wrote a valuable History of Scotland, 9 vols.. 1828-43, and several biographies. —His daughter, Sarah Fraser, has pub. historical novels.

Tzana, or Tana. Fresh water lake on the plateau of Abyssinia, s. of Gondar. The Blue Nile flows into and out of it. It contains many islands, some inhabited. Length 60 m., breadth 30 to 40 m.

Tzarskoye. See Tsarskoye Selo.

Tzetzes, Johannes, 12th cent. Constantinopolitan; Greek poet, whose voluminous works contain much information in a dull and uninteresting form. He quotes a vast number of authors, and treats of many grammatical and literary subjects.

Tzschlrner, Heinrich Gottlieb, 1778-1828. Prof. Leipzig 1809; theological writer.

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Uganda. African State, n.w.

ITbertl, Fazio Degli. ab.1806-ab.1370. Italian epic and lyric poet, follower of Dante. Dittamondo, pnb. 1474.

Ublqullarlann. High Lutherans, holding Christ's glorified body to be everywhere in the Eucharist.

Vcayali. River of Peru, rising in the Andes, and flowing generally n. ab. 1,100 m. to the Amazon, of which it is the chief source.

Uccell, Paolo, 1396-1475. Florentine painter, celebrated for his interest in perspective. He has frescoes in Maria Novella. Florence, much injured.

Udalpur, or Oudipur. Capital of a native Rajput State of e. central India. Pop. ab. 40,000.

I dalI, Nicholas, ab. 1506-1556. Head-master of Eton 153448, anil nf Westminster 1555; author of the first English comedy, Ralph Roister Doister, pub. 1565.

Udine, Giovanni Da, 1487-1564. Italian painter.

Ueberweg, Friedrich, 1826-1871. Prof, at Konigsberg 1862. Logic, 1857, tr. 1871; Hint. Philosophy, 1863-66, tr. 1871.

Uffenbaeh, Bernard Von, 1691-1759. Austrian Jesuit, missionary in S. America 1722-45; historian of the Quarani Indians 1755. Quarani Lexicon, 1756.

of Lake Victoria Nyanza; first visited by Speke and Grant 1862; now partly under British influence. Here Bp. Hannington and many native Christians were slain 1885. The people are Bantus, and number ab. 2.750.000; area ab. 50,000 sq. m.

Ugollno, d.1288. Count of Gheradesca. podesta of Pisa; was vanquished or betrayed by Abp. Rubaldino, and confined with two sons and two grandsons in a tower, where they perished of hunger. The story is in Dante's Inferno, canto 33.

Ugollno, 14th centry. Painter of Siena, as ere three more of this family.

Ugrian§. Mongolians occupying northern Europe at the time of the Slavonic migrations, which separated them into n. and s. branches: now represented by the Finns, Lapps, Samoyeds, and Magyars; originals of the Ogres of mythic child-lore.

IThland, Lcdwio, 1787-1862. German poet, dramatist, and essayist, notable for scholarship, patriotism, and lyric power.

Uhlans. Prussian lancers, prominent 1870-71 for their bravery and marvelous activity; originally German and other light cavalry, partly Oriental in their accouterments. They


Menga, Capital of Ugouda.

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Uhlans on Reconnaissance Duty.

Poland and Lithuania. An attempt was made to introduce the Uhlans into France in 1734.

I III horn. Johann Gerhard Wilhelm. 1826-1895. Court preacher at Hanover 1855. Conflict of Christianity, 1874, tr. 1879; Ancient Ch., 1881, tr. 1883.

I'll rich, Jean Jacques Alexis, 1802-1886. French general, active in the Crimea 1854-55; defender of Strassburg, Aug.-Sept. 27, 1870.

Ulntahlte, or Uintaite. See Gilsonite.

Uinta Range. In n.e. Utah, trending e. and w., and

containing numerous peaks exceeding 13.000 ft. in height; composed mainly of older stratified rocks. Green River cuts a canon through it.

Ulst, N. And S. Islands of outer Hebrides, 18 and 21 m. long. Pop. ab. 7.200.

IJiji. African town, on Lake Tanganyika. Here Stanley found Livingstone Nov. 1871.

Ukase. Russian imperial or legislative edict.

Ukraine. E. part of Poland, long defended against Tartars and Cossacks. The portion e. of the Dnieper was ceded to Russia 1686.

Ulbach, Louis. 1822-1889. French poet and novelist; ed. Revue de Paris, 1853-58. Oloriann. 1844; Mme. Gosselin. 1878; Steel Hammer, 1882; For Fifteen Years, 1882.

Uleer. When inflammatory action has progressed so far that the integument becomes necrosed and is removed forming an open sore, the process is known as ulceration and the product as an ulcer. Ulcers may occur exteriorly, by the breaking

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