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Asia. Under Solyman I., the Magnificent, ruling 1519-66, the empire attained its culmination. He conquered Hungary, besieged Vienna 1529, and menaced w. Europe. Turkisli fleets ruled the Mediterranean till the battle of Lepanto, 1571. Alternating victory and defeat followed, the latter predominating. Vienna was besieged again 1683, but relieved by the Poles. In 1770 Russia advanced her boundaries to the Balkans, assumed a protectorate over Moldavia and Wallachia, annexed the Crimea, and pushed over the Caucasus. This caused another war, in which England and Prussia, alarmed at the rapid expansion of Russia, interfered in behalf of T. From this time dates the singular situation of T. in Europe, her existence being supposed necessary to the equilibrium of the Great Powers. Sympathy with the struggle of Greece for independence, however, led unintentionally to the annihilation of the Turkish fleet by the allies at Navarino 1827. The Czar Nicholas improved the opportunity to assail T., but was forced by the allies to withdraw. A formidable revolt broke out in Egypt under Mehemet Ali, who led his victorious army to Constantinople 1832, but Russia feared the preponderance of French influence and joined the allies against Mehemet, who was forced to give up his conquests. The aggressions of Russia caused the Crimean war 1854, when France and England again defended T. Moldavia and Wallachia united as Roumania 1857, and secured a Hohenzollern prince for ruler. Bosnia and Herzegovina revolted 1875. Russia fomented discord at Constantinople; the Sultan was murdered. Bulgaria, Servia and Montenegro revolted, and in 1877 Russia declared war. T. was without an ally, and although her troops fought with their traditional valor. Russia was victorious and pressed forward to Constantinople. Again the allied powers interfered, and concluded the Treaty of Berlin 1878. Bulgaria became independent, e. Roumelia an autonomous tributary; Austria received Bosnia and Herzegovina; Servia and Montenegro became independent; Russia kept Kars and much adjoining territory. The frightful and repeated Armenian massacres of 1895-96 aroused much indignation in Christendom, but disclosed the inability of the Powers to agree on any action. The war with Greece, 1897, temporarily rehabilitated T. The Turks are valiant warriors, frugal, and capable of enduring great fatigue; religious fanaticism inspired their conquests. They are deficient in administrative capacity, and in peace settle down to sensuous enjoyment. The Porte rules over some of the finest territory of the globe, rich in soil, in mineral deposits, and in valuable timber: it has numerous excellent harbors, but a paralysis is over all. The debt in 1895 was $821,000,000. The Turks are an agricultural people; the business of the empire is in the hands of Greeks, Armenians and Jews. The government is a theocratic absolutism centering in the Sultan. The Vizier is Prime Minister, under whom are the department ministers. The governors of provinces are directly appointed by the Sultan, and the inferior officers are dependent upon them. All officials unite in their persons judicial and executive functions. The administration is exceedingly corrupt. Tripoli was made a province of T. 1835. Polygamy is practiced, and it was long the custom to supply the harem of the Sultan with captured Christians.

Turkey Buzzard. American vulture, resembling the carrion crow, but browner, with rounder tail: in flight it soars

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chief. They love fine horses and are wild and predatory, though breeders and agriculturists. Physically they are thin but muscular, and have bronzed faces with fierce deep-set eyes. Some semi-nomadic tribes of Asia Minor are also so called.

Turks. Generic name applied to several tribes and races of people in Asia and Europe, who speak dialects of the Turkish language and are in great part members of the Turkish division of the Ural-Altaic family. The principal tribes are the Bashkirs, Kirghiz, Mongolians, Osmanli, Tartars, UsBeks, and Yakuts (q. v.).

Turks Islands. Two islands s.e. of the Bahamas: Grand Turk, area 7 sq. m., pop. 2,500, and Salt Cay, area 2i sq. ra„ pop. 700. Chief products are salt from evaporating sea-water, fish, and tortoises. They were annexed to Jamaica 1874.

Turlupinus. Known also as Brethren Of The Free Spirit (q.v.).

Turmeric. Curcuma longa. Herb of the Ginger faniilv. native of India; widely cultivated for its tubers, which yield a yellow dye.

Turn Buckle. Double stirrup having a female screw in each end; used to connect the ends of two rods. The threads of the screws being cut in opposite directions, the rods are tightened by turning in one direction and loosened by turning in the other.

Turn bull, Laurence, M.D., b.1821 in Scotland. Aural surgeon in Phila. Diseases of the Ear, 1881.—His son, Charles Smith, M.D., b.1847, is also a specialist in the same branch.

Turnbull, Robert. D.D.. 1809-1877. Baptist pastor at Hartford, Conn., 1845-69. Olympia Morata, 1842; Iheophany, 1851.

Turnbull, Robert James, 1775-1833. Leader of S. C nulliflers. His Crisis was in that interest.

Turnbull,William, U.S.A., 1800-1857. Engineer: designer of the Potomac aqueduct 1832-43.—His son. CHARLES Nesbit. U.S.A., 1832-1874, was an engineer with the Va. armies 1861-63.

Turnbull, William Barclay, 1811-1863. Scottish antiquary.

Turnbull, William Paterson, 1830-1871. Scottish-American ornithologist. Birds of e. Pa. and JV. J., 1869.

Turnbull's Blue. See Ferrous Ferricyanide.

Turnebc, Adrien, 1512-1565. Prof. Paris 1547; Greek scholar, praised by Montaigne; editor of sundrv classics. Opera, 1600.

Turner, Charles Tennyson, 1808-1879. English poet, brother of Lord Tennvson. His name was changed 1835. Sonnets, 1864-80.

Turner, Charles Yardley, b.1850. American painter. N.A. 1886.

Turner, Daniel. U.S.N., 1794-1850. Active on the lakes 1813-14; Captain 1835.

Turner, Dawson. 1775-1858. English botanist. British Fuci. 1802; Muscologiai Hibernica; Spicilegium, 1804; ftri,


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Turner, Edward, 1778-1860. Judge Miss. Supreme Court 1834 and 1840-^3; Chief-justice 1829-32; Chancellor 1834-39. Statutes of Miss., 1815.

Turner, James, 1766-1824. Gov. of N. C. 1802-5; U. S. Senator 1805-16.

Turner, John Wesley, U.S.A., b.1833. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1863-66, serving chiefly in Va.

Turner, Joseph Mallord William, 1775-1851. Next to Constable, greatest English painter of his day; a man of great force of character and wonderfully true instincts in art; as a colorist not beyond criticism, but an artist of such power that no work of his can be overlooked or contemned. His later works may be considered rather as problems than as pictures. He amassed great wealth and devoted much of it to the repurchase of his own works, and bequeathed them to the nation, on condition that two of his landscapes should be hung beside two Claudes. The National Gallery has more than 100 of his paintings. A fine example is in the Metropolitan Museum, and two are in the Lenox Library, New York. Tlie Slave Ship, now in the Boston Museum, is hardly one of his greatest pictures, though much praised by Ruskin. who once owned it. It was Ruskin's great merit to raise T. to due appreciation by his Modem Painters. The famous painter was also a clever etcher


Dover, by Turner.

in his way. He made no attempt to reach the degree of finish then common, but laid in his lines roughly and with force, trusting to the beauty of tone obtained by mezzotinting his plates: thus his etching, with all its masterly power, was little else than rous;h artistic notes of exceeding excellence. jZHsaais and Hesperia, is highly prized bv the collectors, as is Devil's Bridge at Altdorf. His Liber Studiorum is well known.

Turner, Nat, 1800-1831. Va. slave, who organized an insurrection 1831: 55 whites were killed and 17 negroes hanged.

Turner, Samuel Hulbeart. D.D., 1790-1861. Prof. Gen. Theol. Sem. (P. E.), New York, from 1818, and Columbia Coll. from 1831; commentator. Prophecy, 1852; Autobiography, 1863.

Turner, Sharon, 1768-1847. English historian. AngloSaxons, 4 vols.. 1799-1805; Hist. England, 1066-1603, 1814-23; Sacred Hist. World, 1832.

Turner, Thomas, U.S.N., 1808-1883. Commodore 1862; prominent in attacks on Charleston 1863; Rear-admiral 1868.

Turner, William, ab.1510-1568. Dean of Wells, Eng., 1550-53 and from 1560: controversial writer and pioneer botanist. New Herball, 1551-62.

Turner, Sir William, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.. b.1832. Prof. Edinburgh since 1867; writer on anatomy.

Turner, William Wadden, 1810-1859. Prof. Union Theol. Sem., New York, 1842-52; Orientalist and translator.

Turneracese. Natural order of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermoz, subclass Dicotyledons, and series Polypetalat, comprising 6 genera ancj aD_ 85 species, mostly found in America, from N. C. and Mexico to the Argentine Republic.

Turnicimorphae. Order of Birds, including paleotropical forms having segithognathous skulls, straight bill, the upper mandible overhanging the lower at its tip, and the nostrils covered by a linear scale. Turnix, in which the hinder toe is absent, is an example.

Turning. Process by which a circular shape is given to wood, metal or other hard substance: also of engraving figures composed of curved lines upon a smooth surface. See LATHE, Shaping Machine, and Turret Lathe.

Turnip. Brassica. campestris. Biennial, fleshy-rooted herb of the Mustard family, native of Europe; widely cultivated as a food plant in many forms. The common turnip is only occasionally grown in field culture. Many farmers sow turnip seed in their corn nt the time of the last cultivation, often getting a fair crop. Turnips, though very watery, are relished by most


kinds of stock, and make a desirable adjunct to the winter ration.

Turnip, Indian. Arisatma triphyllum. Herb of the natural order ^Iraceap, with a hard, dense, intensely acrid corm, native of e. N. America; also known as Jack-in-the-Pulpit.

Turnip, Swede. Important in England and Canada; scarcely raised in the U. S., their place being taken by the mangel and sugar beet. When grown, they are cultivated in the same way as the beet, except that they are not sown until June 15 or later.

Turnip Fly. Name given to several insects destructive to turnips. Anthomyia radicum, the proper turnip fly, is of the same genus as the cabbage fly and attacks the root of the turnip, as the cabbage fly does that of the cabbage. The larvae lives in the root. See Cabbage Insects.

Turnout. Side track, connecting with a main track by means of a switch; used to enable trains to pass each other, or for the temporary storage of cars; also called a railway siding.

Turnpike. Road constructed or improved by private

Carties, who have power to erect gates or pikes for turning ack travelers who do not pay toll; kept in better condition than the public roads; first established in England 1346. Although some yet exist in the U. S., the tendency is to bring all roads under state, township, and municipal control. The word is sometimes applied to a macadamized road in a country district. See Rebecca Riots. Turnsol. See Litmus.

Turnspit. Dog allied to the Dachshund (q.v.), and formerly employed to turn the spit upon which meat was roasted.

Turnstone (arenaria). Plover, which has the habit of turning over stones to find the molluscan, crustacean, etc., food concealed beneath them. The bill is sharp-pointed, the chest deep black; the head, throat, tail and wing coverts are white; the rest of the plumage is dusky, varied with rufous.

Turntable. Railroad track ab. 100 ft. long, supported on girders and pivoted at the center; used to turn locomotives and cars around. See Round-house.

Turpene. See Terpenes.

Turpentine. Resinous substance secreted in intercellular

spaces, as of conifers. Each tree is cut near the bottom so ai

Turnip Fly {Anthomyia radicum). 1, Maggot (magnified); 2, pupa; 3, natural ruse; 4, Insect; 5, natural size.

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is cut higher up, the cut being- in the form of a V. This is termed hacking, and when it readies an inconveniently high point the tree is felled and used for timber. The crude turpentine is distilled with water in copper stills having a capacity of from 10 to 60 barrels. The oil is distilled off and the rosin drawn off into barrels.

Turpentine, Oil OF. Bpt. 160° C: prepared by submitting the exudation from the pine to distillation with water; the oil passes over, rosin remains behind. Its chief constituent is the terpene, pinene, which is a hydrocarbon of the symbol Ci.H,,. It is used as a solvent. See Terpenes.

Turpeth, or Turbith. Root of Ipomcea turpethum, found in India and Australia. It contains turpethine, Ca(HtgO,„ which possesses purgative properties. The root is used as a cathartic.

Turpeth Mineral, or Turbith Mineral. Ancient name for the basic sulphate of mercuric oxide, HgsSOj.

Turpie, David, b.1829. U. S. Senator from Ind. 1863 and since 1887.

Turpi I ins, Sextus, d.103 B.C. Author of Latin comedies. Fragments remain.

Turpin, or Tilpinus. d.800. Abp. of Rheims. His name is attached to a Hist. Karoli Magni, probably of later date, though approved by a Pope 1122. It was pub, 1566 and later.

Turpin, Edmund Hart, b.1835. London organist, composer of cantatas, masses, and other music, mostly sacred.

Turpin, Louis Georges Franqois. 1790-1848. French Commodore 1837, Admiral 1843.

Turpin, Pierre Jean Franqois, 1775-1840. French botanist. L'inflorescence des Graminees et des Cyperees, 1819; Jconographte elementaire et philosophique des vigiteaux, 1820; Jconographte vegetate, 1841.

Turpin, Richard, 1705-1739. English highwayman, hero of many legends; hanged at York for murder.

Turquoise. Al<P,On-)-5aq. Natural hydrous aluminium phosphate, a little softer than quartz, and with a blue, bluishgreen, or green color, due to the presence of copper; not found in crystals, nor in large masses. The Persian turquoise is highly prized as a gem; the mineral from New Mexico, Arizona and Nevada has been similarly used to some extent. Occidental turquoise, bone turquoise, or ODONTOLITE (q.v.), is similar in appearance to the true turquoise, but is of organic origin.

Turretin, Franqois, 1623-1687. Prof. Geneva 1653; Calvinistic theologian of the strictest type. Institutio Theologice, 1679-85.—His son, Jean Alphonse, 1674-1737, prof, at Geneva from 1697, held milder views, and strove for union with the Lutherans. Fundamental Articles, tr. 1720; Cogitationes, 1737. Works, 5 vols., 1775.

Turret Lathe. Machine tool much used in manufacturing, to produce numbers of the same article, particularly pins, screws, or studs. The head stock is like an ordinary lathe, with hollow spindle and centering chuck. A rod, of convenient size and section for the pieces to be made, passes through the spindle, is held by the chuck, and revolves with it. The tail stock carries a cylinder in which standardized tools are mounted like guns in a monitor turret: these tools can be presented successively to the work, and are fed by a lever up to stops which gauge length of cut. These tools may be six or more, and may size, turn thread, bore, point, and set for cutting off, without loss ot time for measurements or calling for great ability of operator.

Turreti. Small towers used in Gothic architecture for ornament or at the angles as buttresses; they may carry a bell or include a staircase. In the Norman style they are square, in Early English they are polygonal and terminate in spires, and in Perpendicular style they have battlements and pinnacles.—Also revolving towers of iron, containing large guns, for defensive purposes on land or water, invented by J. R. Tirnley 1841. New York Bay is protected in this manner. See Turret Ship.

Turret Ship. Species of iron-clad war vessel, on which the guns are carried in one or more iron turrets, which are capable of revolution, so as to bring the embrasure opposite the gun, which is pointed in any direction and temporarily unmasked while firing. Sometimes the turret projects through the deck of an iron-plated war vessel. The monitor has one or two turrets and one or two guns in each turret. It is nearly submerged and the deck overhangs, protecting the rudder and propeller. A monitor was built by J. Ericsson in 1862; plnns for such vessels were submitted by him to Napoleon III. 1854, but were rejected. See Monitor,

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Dove, Zenaidura macroura. It differs from the American Wild Pigeon in having a bare tarsus, 2 more (14) feathers in the tail, and the plumage brownish olive, glossed with blue and wine-color, with metallic luster. It is 5 in. shorter (12 in.) than the Wild Pigeon. The tail is over 6 in.

Turtle-Head. See Balmony.

Turtles. See Chelonia.

Tuscaloosa. Former capital of Ala., and now of Tuscaloosa Co.; on the Black Warrior, 55 m. s.w. of Birmingham; seat of the State University and other colleges. Pop., 1890, 4,215.

Tuscan Order. In Architecture; modification of llie Doric, adopted by Etrurians or early Romans.

Tuscany. Grandduchy of Italy 1569-1859; ruled by the Medici till 1737. It passed to Sardinia 1860 and to Italy 1861.

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trict along the s. coast. The cultivation of the vine is rapidly extending, but the wine produced is generally of inferior quality, except the Chianti and Montepuiciano, which have a high reputation. It is the ancient Etruria. Area 9,300 sq. in.; pop.. 1890, 2,274,191.

Tuscaroras. Tribe of s. Iroquois of N. C. They massacred whites 1711: the English, aided by Cherokees, took many of them prisoners, who were sold as slaves. The others rejoined the n. Iroquois, and thus the Five Nations became Six.

Tusculum. Latin city, 15 m. s. of Rome; noted for villas of Cicero (some of whose works were written there) and other eminent men; ruined 1191. Frascuti is near its Bite.

Tushita. Fourth of six Buddhist heavens.

Tuskegee Institute. For colored youth; established 1881 by Booker T. Washington at Tuskegee, Macon co., Ala.; modeled after the school at Hampton, Va. In 1897 it had 79 instructors, 867 students from 19 States, 37 buildings, and 2.460 acres of land, of which 650 were cultivated by the pupils. The property is valued at $300,000. 25 industries are prosecuted by the students, and all but 3 of the buildings were constructed by them, even to the making of the brick and the sawing of the timber. It has done much good, and sent forth missionary teachers to many parts of the South.

Tussaud, Marie (grosholtz), 1760-1850. Swiss-French modeler in wax, from 1802 in London, where she established an exhibition of wax figures. It maintains its celebrity, and has been imitated elsewhere.

Taster, Thomas, ab.1525-1580. English versifier, whose Good Husbandrie, 1557-73, has some historical value.

Tussock. Dense tuft; frequent form of growth of swamp species of grasses and sedges.

Tuthill, Louisa Cornelia (huoqins), 1798-1879. American writer, chiefly for the voung, as was also her daughter, Cornelia (pierso'n), 1820-1870.

Tutines. Same as Thothmes (q.v.).

Tuttle, Charles Wesley. 1829-1881. American astronomer and antiquarian.—His brother, Horace Parnell, b.1839. discovered several comets and asteroids. Pay Tables of U. S. Navy. 1872.

Tuttle, Daniel Sylvester, D.D., b.1837. P.E. Bp. of Montana 1887, and of Mo. 1886.

Tuttle, Herbert, 1846-1894. Prof. Cornell from 1881. German Political Leaders. 1876: Hist. Prussia. 4 vols., 188396. Gneist highly esteemed vols. 2, 3, 1884, on Frederick II.

Tuttle, James Madison, b.1823. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862-64.

Tuttle, Joseph Farrand, D.D., b. 1818. Pres. Wabash Coll., Ind., 1863-92; religious and historical writer.

Tutuila. One of the Samoan islands. The harbor PagoPago nearly divides it into two peninsulas. Length 11 m., area 15 sq. m.

Tlltwork. In Cornish Mining, work in barren ground, dead work, or work paid for at a price independent of the -value of the material excavated.

Tver. Russian town, on the Volga, 100 m. n.w. of Moscow. Pop., 1890, 40,962.

Twachtman, John Henry, h.1853 in Cincinnati Landson pe painter.

Twain, Mark. See Clemens.

Twayblade. Orchids of the genera Listera and Leptorchis; low woodland herbs of the n. hemisphere, bearing two leaves.

Tweed. River of s.e. Scotland, flowing 97 m. e. and n.e. to the North Sea at Berwick; drainage area 1,870 sq. m. Its last 18 m. form the English boundary. It is a noted trout and salmon stream.

Tweed, William Marcy, 1823-1878. Politician of New York City; M.C. 1853-55; State Senator 1867-71; Commissioner of Public Works 1870; grand sachem of Tammany Society from 1863; leading spirit of a group of politicians known as the • •Tweed Ring," who got control of the finances of the city, and plundered it of manv millions. The ring was overthrown in the election of Nov. 1871. T., 1872-73, was arrested, tried, and sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment, on criminal suit, but was discharged by decision of Court of Appeals 1875. He Was immediately arrested in a civil suit, and committed to prison for lack of bail, but escaped to Cuba, thence to Spain,

whence he was returned 1876. His case was tried and heavy damages obtained against him, which were not paid, and he was confined in Ludlow Street jail until his death.

Twelfth Cake. See Twelfth Nioht.

Twelfth Night. Jan. 5. Close of the Christmas holidays, which lasted 12 days; formerly celebrated in England bv choosing a king and queen who presided over the festivities until midnight. According to ancient custom, a l>ean and pea were baked in a cake, which was cut and distributed to the company. The one who received the bean was made king; the receiver of the pea became queen. This and other customs peculiar to the day have mostly fallen into disuse. See Epiphany.

Twelve Tables. Earliest code of Roman law, cut on bronze plates and set up in the Forum; the first ten tables were enacted 451 B.C., after study of Greek institutions by a commission. The 11th and 12th, the work of the unpopular second triumvirate, set up 450, are called by Cicero "the two tables of unjust laws." Roman boys in early times learned these laws by heart. The existing fragments of these laws have been, several times edited.

Twenty-cent Piece. U. S. silver coin, issued only 1875-78.

Twesten, August Detlev Christian, 1789-1876. Prof. Kiel 1(S14, and Berlin from 1835, succeeding Schleiermacher, on whom he wrote. Logik, 1825; Dogmatik, 1826-37.

Twickenham. Town of Middlesex, on the Thames, 11 m. s.w. of London; residence of Bacon, Pope, and other notables. Pop., 1891, 16,026.

Twiggs, David Emanuel. U.S.A., 1790-1862. Captain 1815, Col. 1836, Brig.-gen. 1846; distinguished in the Mexican war; dismissed 1861 for surrendering his command and stores in Texas to Confederates; Major-gen. C.S.A. 1861.

Twilight. Caused by reflection of the sun's light from the atmosphere, or from particles of matter floating in the atmosphere. It continues until the sun is about 18° below the horizon.

Twill. Variety of textile goods, in which the weaver gives a sort of diagonal ribbed appearance to the surface. All twilled fabrics present a twill on both surfaces, though reversed in direction. Satin bombazine and kerseymere are varieties of twill.

Twillingate, or ToULlNGUET. Port of Newfoundland, on two islands of same name, off n. coast, in 54° 44' W. long.: the finest Newfoundland dogs come from this district. Pop. 2,8<0.

Twin Flower. Linnaa borealis. Low. creeping evergreen shrub of the natural family Caprifoliaceae, bearing pairs of white flowers, native of the cooler parts of the n. hemisphere.

Twining, Thomas, 1734-1804. English tr. of Aristotle's Poetics, 1789. Recreations and Studies, 1883.

Twin-Leaf. Jeffersonia diphylla. Low, white-flowered herb of the natural order Berberidece, native of the e. U. S.; known also as Rheumatism-root.

Twirler. See Twister.

Twlss, Sir Travers, D.C.L.. F.R.S.. b.1809. Prof. Oxford 1842-47 and 1855-72; knighted 1867; framer of a constitution for Congo Free State 1884. International Law, 1856; Law of Nations, 1861-63; Monumenta Juridica, 4 vols., 1871-76.

Twisted-Stalk. Herbs of the genus Streptopus, of the Lily family, bearing inconspicuous flowers, natives of n. temperate zone.

Twister, or Twirler. In w. U. S., tornado, or small revolving storm.

Two-cent Piece. U. S. bronze coin, issued 1864-73; first to bear the motto, "In God we Trust."

Two Old Cat. See One Old Cat.

Tybee Island. In Georgia, at mouth of Savannah river. It is 6 m. long and 3 m. wide, and separated from the coast by Lazarreto Creek.

Tycho Rrahe. See Brahe.

Tycoon. Shogun, or military chief of Japan.

Tydldes. Son of Tydeus. See Diomedes.

Tye, Christopher, d.1572. Church composer; organist of Ely Cathedral 1041-62.

Tylarl. Wart-like pads on the underside of the toes of birds.

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Tyler, Bennett, D.D., 1783-1858. Pres. Dartmouth Coll. 1822-28; pres. Theol. Institute, E. Windsor, Conn., from 1834. He maintained the older and stricter views against Dr. N. W. Taylor (q.v.) of Yale. Hist. New Haven Theology, 1837; Lectures, 1859.

Tyler, Daniel. 1799-1882. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862-64, serving in Miss., Va., and Md.

Tyler, John, 1790-1862. Tenth pres. U. S.; M.C. 1816-21; Gov. of Va. 1825-27: U. S. Senator 1827-36: opponent both of U. S. Bank and of Pres. Jackson's measures against it: Whig candidate for Vice-Pres. 1836; elected 1840. He succeeded Pres. Harrison, April 1841, and had a rather stormy term,

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being at odds with most of the Whigs on the Bank question and other matters. Webster alone of Harrison's advisers remained in the.Cabinet. From 1845 he was in private life till 1861, when he entered the Confederate Congress.—His son, Lyon Gardiner, LL.D., b.1853, pres. William and Mary Coll. since 1883, pub. Letters and Times of the Tylers, 1884.

Tyler, Moses Coit, LL.D., b. 1835. Prof. Univ. Mich. 1867-81, and Cornell since 1881. Braumville Papers, 1868, Hist. American Literature (Colonial), 1878; Patrick Henry, 1887; Literary Hist. Revolution, vol. 1, 1897.

Tyler, Ransom Hebbard, 1813-1881. Judge of Oswego co., N. Y. Law of Infancy, 1868; Usury, Pawns, and Loans, 1873; Boundaries and Fences, 1874; Fixtures, 1877.

Tyler, Robert Ooden, U.S.A., 1831-1874. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862; artillery commander in Va.: disabled at Cold Harbor, June 1, 1864; Brevet major-gen. U.S.A.

Tyler, Royall, 1757-1826. Judge of Vt. Supreme Court 1794, Chief-justice 1800-6; author of three plays, produced 1786-97, a romance, The Algerine Captive. 1797, and other works. Reports Vt. Supreme Court, 1809-10.—His son, EdWard Royall, 1800-1848, founded The New Englander.

Tyler, Samuel, LL.D., 1809-1878. Law prof. Columbian Coll., Washington, D.C., from 1867: biographer of R. B. Taney, 1872. Burns, 1848; Progress of Philosophy, 1858; Law of Partnership. 1877. His Baconian Philosophy, 1844, won praise from Sir Wm. Hamilton.

Tyler, Wat, d.1381. Leader of a revolt of English peasants, celebrated in Shakespeare's Richard II.

Tyler, William Seymour, D.D., LL.D., 1810-1897. Prof. Amherst since 1836; editor of Tacitus, 1847-49, and other classics. Tlieology of Greek roets, 1867; Hist. Amherst Coll., 1873.

Tylopa,orTYLOPODA. This comprises the family Camelidce of the suborder Selenodontia, and is characterized by somewhat aberrant peculiarities. There are but two toes to each foot, and the hoof is nail-like. There are no horns, and the upper lip is cleft. The adult lias but two incisors in the upper jaw (the young and fossil forms h ive four or six). There are also canines, and the first premolar is separated by a diastema from the other grinders. The nostrils can be closed at will. The red blood corpuscles are oval. The Old World camels are domesticated, have the toes united by a callous sole, and form two species that are interfertile. the Bactrian Camel of Central Asia and the African or Arabian Dromedary. The former has two humps of fat, the latter only one. These are drawn

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Bactrian Camel (Camelua bactrianu$).

cated as the Alpaca, noted for its wool. They differ from the true camels in having no hump, and in having a separate pad for each toe. See Camel, Llama, etc.

Tylor, Edward Burnett, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., b.1832. Keeper Oxford Univ. Museum 1883; pres. Anthropological Society 1891. Mexico, 1861; Early History of Mankind, 1885; Primitive Culture, 1871; Anthropology, 1881.

Tyloses. Delicate membranes of parenchymatous tissue, found within the vessels of woody- plants.

TylOStyle. Spicule of the stylus type with the butt end clubbed (tylote), found in the sponge genus Placospongia.

Tylote. Rhabdus knobbed at the ends.

Tympani. See Drum.

Tympanic Rulla. Projecting capsule of tympanic bone in carnivores.

Tympanic membrane, or Drum Of The Ear. Membrane stretched across the bottom of the external auditory meatus, separating the external from the middle ear. It is closely connected with one of the small bones of the middle ear, and, receiving the sound vibrations, transmits them to the chain of ossicles. It vibrates with the same rapidity as the sonorous body. See Ear.

Tympanum. In Classical Architecture, triangular space between the horizontal and sloping cornices of a pediment.— In Mediaeval Architecture, the space between the top of a square doorway and an arch about it; it is generally carved.

Tympanum. Wheel for lifting water, consisting of i horizontal shaft, to which spokes are attached, having buckets at their ends. As the wheel is turned, these buckets dip into water and are filled: later in the revolution they discharge the water at a higher level. Anciently used for drainage and irrigation. Another form consists of an open framed wheel, with curved radial partitions to scoop up the water and deliver it at a higher level.

Tyndale, Hector, 1821-1880. Major 28th Pa. 1861: Brig.gen. U. S. Vols. 1862-64, serving with distinction in Va. and Tenn.

Tyndale, William, ab.1484-1536. English reformer anc martyr; on the Continent from 1524; imprisoned May 1535, strangled and burned at Vilvorde. S. Brabant, Oct. 6, 1536. His translations of N. T., 1526, and of the Pentateuch and other books, 1530-37, have great merit, and are the foundation of ours. His last words were memorable: "Lord, opt" the King of England's eyes."

Tyndall, John, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R S., 1820-1893. Prol. Royal Institution, London, 1853, and its head 1867-83; in the U.S. 1872; pres. British Association 1874; pre-eminent as a writer and lecturer on physics. Glaciers of the Alps. 1860: Mountaineering. 1862: Heat as a Mode of Motion, 1863: Radiation, 1865; Sound, 1867; Faraday, 1808; Natural Phaoso}*S, 1869: Light. 1870; Electrical Phenomena, 1870; Diamagnetim. 1870; Imagination in Science, 1871; Fragments of Science. 187192: Radiant Heat, 1872: Forms of Water. 1872: Exercise in tkt Alps, 1873; Floating Matter of the Air, 1881.

Tyne. Branch on the main stem or beam of a deer's horn.

Tyne. River of n. England, flowing 32 m. through a coal region to North Sea; navigable for 18 m.

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