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point of the fall. The efficiency of turbines, according to recent tests, averages 70 to 86 per cent, according to differences in design and in performance at full or partial opening of gate. 87.8 is one of the highest authentic results. The first turbine was devised by Fourneyron in France 1838. They are now used more extensively than all other forms of hydraulic motors. The most powerful ever erected are those installed at Niagara Falls 1895, each wheel furnishing 5,000 horse-power under a head of 136 ft.; theentire plant is intended to include ten such wheels. The cut shows a small wheel and the manner in which it is supplied with water from a penstock. See Center Flow Wheel.

Turbine, Steam. Charles A. Parsons of England invented a steam pressure turbine in 1882, which made 10,000 revolutions a minute, with the economic efficiency of a non-condensing steam-engine. The Westinghouse Co. in 1896 built a modification of this turbine, called the Westinghouse-Parsons, for the Nichols Chemical Co. of Brooklyn, N. Y. It is of 800 horse-power and makes 5,000 revolutions per minute. It is 12 ft. long. 2 ft. wide, and 4 to 6 ft. high. It consists of a drumlike shaft, of varying diameter, on which circular rows of inclined blades are mounted; this revolves within a cylinder, in which are circular rows of blades, inclined in the opposite direction to those on the revolving drum; the latter pass between the fixed blades; this secures the effect of expansion and impact of steam from section to section along the shaft. De Laval devised an impulse steam turbine in 1892, which made 30,000 revolutions a minute. The steam is delivered from nozzles upon the face of a wheel, with curved grooves radiating from the center. A 300 horse-power turbine of this form has been made for the Edison Electric Lighting Co. of New York. The wheels are 29.5 in. in diameter, and make 9,000 revolutions per minute. These two turbines are used for running dynamo-electric machines.

Turbot. See Heterosomata.

Turdus. See Dentirostres.

Turenne, Henri De La Tour D'atjvergne, Vicomte De, 1611-1675. French general of high rank; educated under his uncle, Maurice of Nassau; Marshal 1644; distinguished against Imperialists, Conde, Spaniards, and Montecuculi; killed at Sasbach. Memoires, 1782.

Turf. See Sod.

Turgenev, or Turgenien*, Ivan, 1818-1883. Russian novelist of highest rank, resident mainly in Paris from 1863. Annals of a Sportsman, 1846-51; Dimitri Rudine. 1852; Lisa, 1858; On the Eve, 1861; Fathers and Sons, 1861; Smoke, 1867: Virgin Soil, 1876; Poems in Prose, 1883. His works, which are

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all brief, and bear varying titles in the translations, were the first to reveal the inner life of Russia to w. Europe: they present a singular mixture of satire and sympathy, and are marked by an exquisite style, profound knowledge of human nature, and a gentle but hopeless pessimism.—Of his relatives, AnDrei, 1784-1845, wrote Historioe Russice Monumenta, 1841^48; Nikolai, 1790-1871, was long in exile, and pub. Russie et les Russes, 1847.

Turgite. H3Fe407. Hydrous ferric oxide, containing 5.8 per cent of water; much resembling and often occurring together with limonite, and of value as an iron ore. One of its best known American localities is at Salisbury, Conn. The name is of Siberian origin.

Turcot, Anne Robert Jacques, 1727-1781. French financial reformer and physiocrat. As Intendant of Limoges, 1761-74, he made that province the most prosperous of France. He became Controller-gen. of France 1774, but aroused enmity by his efforts to rectify the inequalities of taxation and to limit privilege, and was dismissed 1776. Reflexions sur la Formation et la Distribution des Richesses, 1776; Works, 9 vols., 1808-11.

Turin. City of n.w. Italy, at the junction of the Dora Riparia with the Po; ancient Ligurian town, sacked by Hannibal; Roman colony under Julius and Augustus; capital of a Lombard duchy, of Savoy, of Sardinia, and 1861-65 of Italy; held by the French 1506-65, 1640, and 1800-14. It has manufactures of silk and lace, some fine churches, squares, and gardens, several learned societies, and a university, with some 210 instructors, 2,000 students, and a library of" ah.225,000 vols. The growth has been chiefly since 1815. Pop., 1893, 835,900.

Turkestan, Russian. Region of w. central Asia, held by Russia since 1867. Area 257,134 sq. m.; pop., 1890, 2,670,035, of several races, chiefly Kirghiz and Sarts. The region e., Chinese Turkestan, is thinly peopled and largely desert.

Turkey (meleaoris). American Phasianidai of three wild species; M. galopavo (americana), with chestnut-tipped tail and wing coverts, wild turkey of TJ. S.; M. mexicana, with buffy white instead of chestnut; and M. ocellata of Central America, a gorgeous bird, colored with metallic blue, red, yellow, white, black, etc. The n. turkey may have been exported to England by the Cabots; the Mexican variety was imported by the Spaniards after 1518, and by 1530 had been


Turkey (Meleagris ocellata).

thoroughly established as a domesticated variety. By breeding and crossing between the n. and s. forms, the two main breeds of black and variegated are supposed to have arisen.

Turkey, or Ottoman Empire. In s. Europe and w. Asia, with dependencies in n. Africa. The surface of European T. is mountainous, the principal range being the Balkans, on the n. Its area is 67,820 sq. m., and pop. ab. 6,000,000. That of Asiatic T. is greatly diversified, comprising high mountains, treeless plains and plateaus, and fertile valleys. Its area is ab. 700,000 sq. m., and pop. ab. 20.000.000. Its culture and industries everywhere are extremely backward. The empire comprises in Europe the s. part of the Balkan peninsula; in Asia, Asia Minor and s. to Suez and Arabia. The Turks belong to the Tataro-Finnic family of the Mongolian race; they originated in the Altai Mts. They subdued Asia Minor 12301350, gained possessions in Europe, and attacked Constantinople; were defeated by Tamerlane 1402. but recovered, and under Mohammed II. took Constantinople May 29, 1453; it became his capital. Further conquests followed in Europe and 1564


Asia. Under Solyman I., the Magnificent, ruling 1519-66, the empire attained its culmination. He conquered Hungary, besieged Vienna 1529, and menaced w. Europe. Turkisli fleets ruled the Mediterranean till the battle of Lepanto, 1571. Alternating victory and defeat followed, the latter predominating. Vienna was besieged again 1683, but relieved by the Poles. In 1770 Russia advanced her boundaries to the Balkans, assumed a protectorate over Moldavia and Wallachia, annexed the Crimea, and pushed over the Caucasus. This caused another war, in which England and Prussia, alarmed at the rapid expansion of Russia, interfered in behalf of T. From this time dates the singular situation of T. in Europe, her existence being supposed necessary to the equilibrium of the Great Powers. Sympathy with the struggle of Greece for independence, however, led unintentionally to the annihilation of the Turkish fleet by the allies at Navarino 1827. The Czar Nicholas improved the opportunity to assail T., but was forced by the allies to withdraw. A formidable revolt broke out in Egypt under Mehemet Ali, who led his victorious army to Constantinople 1832, but Russia feared the preponderance of French influence and joined the allies against Mehemet, who was forced to give up his conquests. The aggressions of Russia caused the Crimean war 1854, when France and England again defended T. Moldavia and Wallachia united as Roumania 1857, and secured a Hohenzollern prince for ruler. Bosnia and Herzegovina revolted 1875. Russia fomented discord at Constantinople; the Sultan was murdered. Bulgaria, Servia and Montenegro revolted, and in 1877 Russia declared war. T. was without an ally, and although her troops fought with their traditional valor. Russia was victorious and pressed forward to Constantinople. Again the allied powers interfered, and concluded the Treaty of Berlin 1878. Bulgaria became independent, e. Roumelia an autonomous tributary; Austria received Bosnia and Herzegovina; Servia and Montenegro became independent; Russia kept Kars and much adjoining territory. The frightful and repeated Armenian massacres of 1895-96 aroused much indignation in Christendom, but disclosed the inability of the Powers to agree on any action. The war with Greece, 1897, temporarily rehabilitated T. The Turks are valiant warriors, frugal, and capable of enduring great fatigue; religious fanaticism inspired their conquests. They are deficient in administrative capacity, and in peace settle down to sensuous enjoyment. The Porte rules over some of the finest territory of the globe, rich in soil, in mineral deposits, and in valuable timber: it has numerous excellent harbors, but a paralysis is over all. The debt in 1895 was $821,000,000. The Turks are an agricultural people; the business of the empire is in the hands of Greeks, Armenians and Jews. The government is a theocratic absolutism centering in the Sultan. The Vizier is Prime Minister, under whom are the department ministers. The governors of provinces are directly appointed by the Sultan, and the inferior officers are dependent upon them. All officials unite in their persons judicial and executive functions. The administration is exceedingly corrupt. Tripoli was made a province of T. 1835. Polygamy is practiced, and it was long the custom to supply the harem of the Sultan with captured Christians.

Turkey Buzzard. American vulture, resembling the carrion crow, but browner, with rounder tail: in flight it soars

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chief. They love fine horses and are wild and predatory, though breeders and agriculturists. Physically they are thin but muscular, and have bronzed faces with fierce deep-set eyes. Some semi-nomadic tribes of Asia Minor are also so called.

Turks. Generic name applied to several tribes and races of people in Asia and Europe, who speak dialects of the Turkish language and are in great part members of the Turkish division of the Ural-Altaic family. The principal tribes are the Bashkirs, Kirghiz, Mongolians, Osmanli, Tartars, UsBeks, and Yakuts (q. v.).

Turks Islands. Two islands s.e. of the Bahamas: Grand Turk, area 7 sq. m., pop. 2,500, and Salt Cay, area 2i sq. ra„ pop. 700. Chief products are salt from evaporating sea-water, fish, and tortoises. They were annexed to Jamaica 1874.

Turlupinus. Known also as Brethren Of The Free Spirit (q.v.).

Turmeric. Curcuma longa. Herb of the Ginger faniilv. native of India; widely cultivated for its tubers, which yield a yellow dye.

Turn Buckle. Double stirrup having a female screw in each end; used to connect the ends of two rods. The threads of the screws being cut in opposite directions, the rods are tightened by turning in one direction and loosened by turning in the other.

Turn bull, Laurence, M.D., b.1821 in Scotland. Aural surgeon in Phila. Diseases of the Ear, 1881.—His son, Charles Smith, M.D., b.1847, is also a specialist in the same branch.

Turnbull, Robert. D.D.. 1809-1877. Baptist pastor at Hartford, Conn., 1845-69. Olympia Morata, 1842; Iheophany, 1851.

Turnbull, Robert James, 1775-1833. Leader of S. C nulliflers. His Crisis was in that interest.

Turnbull,William, U.S.A., 1800-1857. Engineer: designer of the Potomac aqueduct 1832-43.—His son. CHARLES Nesbit. U.S.A., 1832-1874, was an engineer with the Va. armies 1861-63.

Turnbull, William Barclay, 1811-1863. Scottish antiquary.

Turnbull, William Paterson, 1830-1871. Scottish-American ornithologist. Birds of e. Pa. and JV. J., 1869.

Turnbull's Blue. See Ferrous Ferricyanide.

Turnebc, Adrien, 1512-1565. Prof. Paris 1547; Greek scholar, praised by Montaigne; editor of sundrv classics. Opera, 1600.

Turner, Charles Tennyson, 1808-1879. English poet, brother of Lord Tennvson. His name was changed 1835. Sonnets, 1864-80.

Turner, Charles Yardley, b.1850. American painter. N.A. 1886.

Turner, Daniel. U.S.N., 1794-1850. Active on the lakes 1813-14; Captain 1835.

Turner, Dawson. 1775-1858. English botanist. British Fuci. 1802; Muscologiai Hibernica; Spicilegium, 1804; ftri,


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Turner, Edward, 1778-1860. Judge Miss. Supreme Court 1834 and 1840-^3; Chief-justice 1829-32; Chancellor 1834-39. Statutes of Miss., 1815.

Turner, James, 1766-1824. Gov. of N. C. 1802-5; U. S. Senator 1805-16.

Turner, John Wesley, U.S.A., b.1833. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1863-66, serving chiefly in Va.

Turner, Joseph Mallord William, 1775-1851. Next to Constable, greatest English painter of his day; a man of great force of character and wonderfully true instincts in art; as a colorist not beyond criticism, but an artist of such power that no work of his can be overlooked or contemned. His later works may be considered rather as problems than as pictures. He amassed great wealth and devoted much of it to the repurchase of his own works, and bequeathed them to the nation, on condition that two of his landscapes should be hung beside two Claudes. The National Gallery has more than 100 of his paintings. A fine example is in the Metropolitan Museum, and two are in the Lenox Library, New York. Tlie Slave Ship, now in the Boston Museum, is hardly one of his greatest pictures, though much praised by Ruskin. who once owned it. It was Ruskin's great merit to raise T. to due appreciation by his Modem Painters. The famous painter was also a clever etcher


Dover, by Turner.

in his way. He made no attempt to reach the degree of finish then common, but laid in his lines roughly and with force, trusting to the beauty of tone obtained by mezzotinting his plates: thus his etching, with all its masterly power, was little else than rous;h artistic notes of exceeding excellence. jZHsaais and Hesperia, is highly prized bv the collectors, as is Devil's Bridge at Altdorf. His Liber Studiorum is well known.

Turner, Nat, 1800-1831. Va. slave, who organized an insurrection 1831: 55 whites were killed and 17 negroes hanged.

Turner, Samuel Hulbeart. D.D., 1790-1861. Prof. Gen. Theol. Sem. (P. E.), New York, from 1818, and Columbia Coll. from 1831; commentator. Prophecy, 1852; Autobiography, 1863.

Turner, Sharon, 1768-1847. English historian. AngloSaxons, 4 vols.. 1799-1805; Hist. England, 1066-1603, 1814-23; Sacred Hist. World, 1832.

Turner, Thomas, U.S.N., 1808-1883. Commodore 1862; prominent in attacks on Charleston 1863; Rear-admiral 1868.

Turner, William, ab.1510-1568. Dean of Wells, Eng., 1550-53 and from 1560: controversial writer and pioneer botanist. New Herball, 1551-62.

Turner, Sir William, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.. b.1832. Prof. Edinburgh since 1867; writer on anatomy.

Turner, William Wadden, 1810-1859. Prof. Union Theol. Sem., New York, 1842-52; Orientalist and translator.

Turneracese. Natural order of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermoz, subclass Dicotyledons, and series Polypetalat, comprising 6 genera ancj aD_ 85 species, mostly found in America, from N. C. and Mexico to the Argentine Republic.

Turnicimorphae. Order of Birds, including paleotropical forms having segithognathous skulls, straight bill, the upper mandible overhanging the lower at its tip, and the nostrils covered by a linear scale. Turnix, in which the hinder toe is absent, is an example.

Turning. Process by which a circular shape is given to wood, metal or other hard substance: also of engraving figures composed of curved lines upon a smooth surface. See LATHE, Shaping Machine, and Turret Lathe.

Turnip. Brassica. campestris. Biennial, fleshy-rooted herb of the Mustard family, native of Europe; widely cultivated as a food plant in many forms. The common turnip is only occasionally grown in field culture. Many farmers sow turnip seed in their corn nt the time of the last cultivation, often getting a fair crop. Turnips, though very watery, are relished by most


kinds of stock, and make a desirable adjunct to the winter ration.

Turnip, Indian. Arisatma triphyllum. Herb of the natural order ^Iraceap, with a hard, dense, intensely acrid corm, native of e. N. America; also known as Jack-in-the-Pulpit.

Turnip, Swede. Important in England and Canada; scarcely raised in the U. S., their place being taken by the mangel and sugar beet. When grown, they are cultivated in the same way as the beet, except that they are not sown until June 15 or later.

Turnip Fly. Name given to several insects destructive to turnips. Anthomyia radicum, the proper turnip fly, is of the same genus as the cabbage fly and attacks the root of the turnip, as the cabbage fly does that of the cabbage. The larvae lives in the root. See Cabbage Insects.

Turnout. Side track, connecting with a main track by means of a switch; used to enable trains to pass each other, or for the temporary storage of cars; also called a railway siding.

Turnpike. Road constructed or improved by private

Carties, who have power to erect gates or pikes for turning ack travelers who do not pay toll; kept in better condition than the public roads; first established in England 1346. Although some yet exist in the U. S., the tendency is to bring all roads under state, township, and municipal control. The word is sometimes applied to a macadamized road in a country district. See Rebecca Riots. Turnsol. See Litmus.

Turnspit. Dog allied to the Dachshund (q.v.), and formerly employed to turn the spit upon which meat was roasted.

Turnstone (arenaria). Plover, which has the habit of turning over stones to find the molluscan, crustacean, etc., food concealed beneath them. The bill is sharp-pointed, the chest deep black; the head, throat, tail and wing coverts are white; the rest of the plumage is dusky, varied with rufous.

Turntable. Railroad track ab. 100 ft. long, supported on girders and pivoted at the center; used to turn locomotives and cars around. See Round-house.

Turpene. See Terpenes.

Turpentine. Resinous substance secreted in intercellular

spaces, as of conifers. Each tree is cut near the bottom so ai

Turnip Fly {Anthomyia radicum). 1, Maggot (magnified); 2, pupa; 3, natural ruse; 4, Insect; 5, natural size.

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is cut higher up, the cut being- in the form of a V. This is termed hacking, and when it readies an inconveniently high point the tree is felled and used for timber. The crude turpentine is distilled with water in copper stills having a capacity of from 10 to 60 barrels. The oil is distilled off and the rosin drawn off into barrels.

Turpentine, Oil OF. Bpt. 160° C: prepared by submitting the exudation from the pine to distillation with water; the oil passes over, rosin remains behind. Its chief constituent is the terpene, pinene, which is a hydrocarbon of the symbol Ci.H,,. It is used as a solvent. See Terpenes.

Turpeth, or Turbith. Root of Ipomcea turpethum, found in India and Australia. It contains turpethine, Ca(HtgO,„ which possesses purgative properties. The root is used as a cathartic.

Turpeth Mineral, or Turbith Mineral. Ancient name for the basic sulphate of mercuric oxide, HgsSOj.

Turpie, David, b.1829. U. S. Senator from Ind. 1863 and since 1887.

Turpi I ins, Sextus, d.103 B.C. Author of Latin comedies. Fragments remain.

Turpin, or Tilpinus. d.800. Abp. of Rheims. His name is attached to a Hist. Karoli Magni, probably of later date, though approved by a Pope 1122. It was pub, 1566 and later.

Turpin, Edmund Hart, b.1835. London organist, composer of cantatas, masses, and other music, mostly sacred.

Turpin, Louis Georges Franqois. 1790-1848. French Commodore 1837, Admiral 1843.

Turpin, Pierre Jean Franqois, 1775-1840. French botanist. L'inflorescence des Graminees et des Cyperees, 1819; Jconographte elementaire et philosophique des vigiteaux, 1820; Jconographte vegetate, 1841.

Turpin, Richard, 1705-1739. English highwayman, hero of many legends; hanged at York for murder.

Turquoise. Al<P,On-)-5aq. Natural hydrous aluminium phosphate, a little softer than quartz, and with a blue, bluishgreen, or green color, due to the presence of copper; not found in crystals, nor in large masses. The Persian turquoise is highly prized as a gem; the mineral from New Mexico, Arizona and Nevada has been similarly used to some extent. Occidental turquoise, bone turquoise, or ODONTOLITE (q.v.), is similar in appearance to the true turquoise, but is of organic origin.

Turretin, Franqois, 1623-1687. Prof. Geneva 1653; Calvinistic theologian of the strictest type. Institutio Theologice, 1679-85.—His son, Jean Alphonse, 1674-1737, prof, at Geneva from 1697, held milder views, and strove for union with the Lutherans. Fundamental Articles, tr. 1720; Cogitationes, 1737. Works, 5 vols., 1775.

Turret Lathe. Machine tool much used in manufacturing, to produce numbers of the same article, particularly pins, screws, or studs. The head stock is like an ordinary lathe, with hollow spindle and centering chuck. A rod, of convenient size and section for the pieces to be made, passes through the spindle, is held by the chuck, and revolves with it. The tail stock carries a cylinder in which standardized tools are mounted like guns in a monitor turret: these tools can be presented successively to the work, and are fed by a lever up to stops which gauge length of cut. These tools may be six or more, and may size, turn thread, bore, point, and set for cutting off, without loss ot time for measurements or calling for great ability of operator.

Turreti. Small towers used in Gothic architecture for ornament or at the angles as buttresses; they may carry a bell or include a staircase. In the Norman style they are square, in Early English they are polygonal and terminate in spires, and in Perpendicular style they have battlements and pinnacles.—Also revolving towers of iron, containing large guns, for defensive purposes on land or water, invented by J. R. Tirnley 1841. New York Bay is protected in this manner. See Turret Ship.

Turret Ship. Species of iron-clad war vessel, on which the guns are carried in one or more iron turrets, which are capable of revolution, so as to bring the embrasure opposite the gun, which is pointed in any direction and temporarily unmasked while firing. Sometimes the turret projects through the deck of an iron-plated war vessel. The monitor has one or two turrets and one or two guns in each turret. It is nearly submerged and the deck overhangs, protecting the rudder and propeller. A monitor was built by J. Ericsson in 1862; plnns for such vessels were submitted by him to Napoleon III. 1854, but were rejected. See Monitor,

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Dove, Zenaidura macroura. It differs from the American Wild Pigeon in having a bare tarsus, 2 more (14) feathers in the tail, and the plumage brownish olive, glossed with blue and wine-color, with metallic luster. It is 5 in. shorter (12 in.) than the Wild Pigeon. The tail is over 6 in.

Turtle-Head. See Balmony.

Turtles. See Chelonia.

Tuscaloosa. Former capital of Ala., and now of Tuscaloosa Co.; on the Black Warrior, 55 m. s.w. of Birmingham; seat of the State University and other colleges. Pop., 1890, 4,215.

Tuscan Order. In Architecture; modification of llie Doric, adopted by Etrurians or early Romans.

Tuscany. Grandduchy of Italy 1569-1859; ruled by the Medici till 1737. It passed to Sardinia 1860 and to Italy 1861.

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