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Tubercle. 1. Conic or nodular projection or eminence,

on the crown of a tooth, near the head of a rib, and elsewhere. 2. Nodular mass of varying size formed in the connective tissues of organs tKat are attacked by the germ of consumption. See TUBERCULOSIS and Bacillus TubercuLosis. 8. Wart-like projection on any part of a plant.

Tubercular. Having the shape of a tubercle.

Tubercular M e n I n gitis. See Meningitis.

Tubercular Proce§». In

Anatomy, same as the DlAPO-
PHYSIS (q.v.).

Tubcrculatc. Surface covered with tubercles.

Tuberculin. See Koch's

Tubercle Bacilli in phthisical expec-LYMPH, toration (x ab.1,800 diameters):

a, bacilli; 6. catarrhal cell,. _Tu*er*U,,°-S C C ' ° r 1B 1

Teeth. Molar teeth in carnivores, that have sharp-cutting projections in addition to crushing surfaces and tubercles on their crowns.

Tuberculo§i§. Ordinarily called consumption, phthisis, or pearl disease; characterized by the formation of tubercles

on or in various organs, usually the lungs, intestines, and lymphatic glands, the result of irritation produced by the presence and multiplication of the Bacillus b tuberculosis, a microbe or disease-germ, parasitic in the organ. From f—C one-seventh to one-third of all deaths are due to , this disease, which is 0 undoubtedly contracted in all cases, in various ways: (1) as congenital, transmitted to the foetus by a consumptive mother; (2) by nursing from a diseased mother

66, giant cells; c, center of tubercle beginning to °r taking milk from a caseate; d, branch of pulmonary artery; consumptive CO w(seeBot alveolar framework of lung. TUBERCULOSIS); (3)

by eating food containing germs that have not been killed by exposure to sufficient heat, as in meat from consumptive animals, or any food exposed to air containing tubercular dust; (4) by breathing tubercular dust. In all cases, certain constitutions (and all constitutions when run down) are especially liable to fall prey to this germ, which in many cases is successfully resisted. The most potent factors aiding in this infection are lack of pure air and sunlight in dwellings, dissipation, and sexual excess. Close inbreeding is considered potent io evolving the consumptive diathesis, but some doubt this. See Koch"s Lymph.

Tuberose. Polianthes tuberosa. Bulbous, fragrant whiteflowered plant of the Lily family, native of India, widely cultivated for ornament.

Tuberous. Irregularly thickened roots or subterranean stems, as the Jerusalem artichoke.

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Britannia Tubular Bridge.

the Britannia bridge in Wales, over Menai Straits, which has two spans each 230 ft. long, and two each 460 ft. Tubular bridges are very stiff, but expensive on account of the great amount of materal required. None have been built since 1870.

Tubular Bullet. Recent invention of Charles Kruka of Prague and Wm. Hebler of Kiissnact, and called the KtukaHebler bullet. It is made of steel, having a copper rotating ring attached to the exterior. The hollow tube has a sabot fitting closely to act as a gas check, which drops off after the bullet leaves the gun. This projectile is still in its experimental stage, and it is claimed that an initial velocity of nearly 3.000 f. s. under a gas pressure of 2,650 atmospheres has been obtained.

Tubular Dispatch. See Pneumatic Dispatch.

Tubular Floret. One of the disk flowers in the Composita, whose corolla is small and regular, in distinction from the ligulate corolla of the ray-flowers.

Tubularlae (athecata, T^iniolata. Gymnoblastea, CoryNida, Gymnotoka, Ocellata, Anthomedus^;). Hydromedusce whose polyp-stocks either are naked or have a chitinous periderm, but no cup-shaped hydrothecae, as in Campanularians. The Medusa-buds are sometimes rudimentary. The sexual cells arise on the manubrium. Four to six ocelli are present at the bases of the tentacles, and correspond in number to the radial canals. The families included are Clavidae, Hydractinida, Tubularidee, Corynidcc, Eudendridce. The group is best termed Gymnoblastea-Anthomedusai.

Til bn la r id;r. Family of TubularUe (Tubularia being typical). There is a chitinous periderm, and the proboscis has a circle of tentacles, as well as the peristome. The generative buds are sessile and arise between the two circles of tentacles. The branches of the colony arise from a root-like stolon. In Tubularia they are much like straws in appearance, slightly branched; at the tip of each is the polyp with its fringes of numerous tentacles. The young pass their embryonic stages in the manubrium of the gonophores.

Tubulosa. Fossil corals with imperfect partitions in their thecffi. See Madreporaria.

Tuck, Friar. Chaplain of Robin Hood, represented as wearing the Franciscan habit; humorous and combative; introduced by Scott in Ivanhoe.

Tuckahoe. Edible, but tasteless fungus, growing on the roots of trees in the s. U. S.; also called Indian Bread.

Tucker, Abraham ("edward Search"). 1705-1774. English author. Light of Nature Pursued, 7 vols., 1768-78.

Tucker, Charlotte Maria ("A. L. O. E."), d.1895. English author of juvenile and religious tales, long a missionary in India.

Tucker, George, 1775-1861. M.C. from Va, 1819-25; prof. Univ. Va. 1825-45; writer on psychology and political economy; biographer of Jefferson 1837. Hist. U. S. to 1841, 4 vols., 1856-58.

Tucker, John Ireland, D.D., 1819-1895. Rector at Troy, N. Y.; compiler of tune-books, much used in P. E. Ch.

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Tucker, Josiah, D.D., 1711-1799. Dean of Gloucester, Eng., 1758; writer on politico economy. Commerce and Taxes, 1753.

Tucker, Luther, 1803-1873. Founder and ed. Genessee Farmer, 1831, and Country Gentleman, 1853.—His son, Willis Gaylord, M.D.. became pres. Albany Coll. of Pharmacy 1883.

Tucker, St. George, LL.D., 1753-1828. Judge of Va. courts, and of U. 8. District Court 1813-37; poet and legal writer; ed. Blackstone 1803. Slavery, 1796; Alien and Sedition Laws, 1799. —His son, Nathaniel Beverley, 1784-1851. was judge in Mo. 1816-30, and law prof. William and Mary Coll. from 1834. His Partisan Leader, 1836, a romance, was repub. 1861 as A Key to the Disunion Conspiracy.—His brother, Henry St. George, LL.D.. 1780-1848, was M.C. 1815-19, Chancellor of Va. 1834-31, pres. Va. Court of Appeals 1831-11, prof. Univ. Va. 1841-45, and a writer on law.—His son, John Randolph, LL.D., 18331897, M.C. 1875-87, was noted as an orator and lawyer.—A cousin. John Randolph, 1813-1883, was an officer U.S.N, and C. S. N., and in 1866 a Peruvian admiral.

Tucker, Samuel, 1747-1833. Seaman of Mass.; Capt. U.S.N. 1776-85; pensioned 1831.

Tucker, Tilghman M., d.1859. Gov. of Miss. 1841-43; M.C. 1843-45.

Tucker, William Jewett, D.D., b.1839. Prof. Andover 1879; pres. Dartmouth 1893.

Tuckerman, Edward, LL.D., 1817-1886. Prof. Amherst from 1858; lichenologist. N. American Lichens, 1845; Lichens of New England, etc., 1848.—His cousin, Bayard, b.1855, wrote several biographies. Hist. English Prose Fiction, 1883.

Tuckerman, Henry Theodore, 1813-1871. American critic and essayist.—His brother. Charles Keating, 1831-1896, was U. S. Minister to Greece 1868-73.—Their uncle, Joseph, P.D., 1778-1840, minister at large in Boston 1836, left his mark on methods of philanthropic work at home and in Europe.

Tucson. Capital of Pima co., and of Arizona 1867-77; on the Santa Cruz; founded by Jesuits 1560; seat of State University. The surrounding country is arid and the climate hot and dry. The prevailing industry is mining. Pop., 1890, 5,150.

Tucuman. City of n. Argentina, 733 m. n.w. of Buenos

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Ayres; founded 1564; scene of a patriot victory 1813, and of the declaration of Platine independence 1816. Pop. ab.40,000.

Tudeschls, Nicholas De (called Panormitanus), 1400-1445. Sicilian writer on canon law; Benedictine abbot; Cardinal 1440. His works were collected in 9 vols. 1617.

Tudor. English royal family 1485-1603; descended from Owen Tudor, of Welsh extraction, who married 1433 Catharine of Valois, widow of Henrv V. Its sovereigns were Henry VII., 148.5-1509, Henrv VIII.,* 1509-47, Edward VI., 1547-53, Mary, 1553-58, and Elizabeth, 1558-1603.

Tudor, William, 1779-1830. Founder and first ed. N. American Revieio, 1815-18; Consul at Lima 1833; Charge in Brazil 1837. Life of Jos. Otis, 1833; Gebel Teir, 1839.—His father. William, 1750-1819, was Col. and Judge-advocate 1775-78, and Mass. Sec. of State 1809-10.

Tudor Architecture. Usually applied to late Perpendicular Style, the chapel at Westminster being the most perfect specimen. Tudor flower is an upright flat leaf ornament, used in crests or cornices in Perpendicular architecture.

Tuesday. Day of Mars, the 3d day of the week, so called from Tuesco, a Saxon deity, worshiped on this day.

Tufa, or Tuff. Kind of rock characterized by a loose and open structure, formed by the accumulation of volcanic detritus, or by deposition from calcareous or siliceous springs.

Tuftit College. At Medford, Mass.; founded 1853, opened 1855; comprising schools of letters, divinity, applied sciences, and medicine; controlled bv Universalists; opened to women 1893. P. T. Barnum gave $95,000 to its museum. It has 14 buildings, 40 professors, 30 instructors, 351 students in letters. 35 in theology, 180 in medicine, and a library of 35,000 vols.

Tugenbund. League of Virtue. Formed at Konigsberg in Prussia soon after the Peace of Tilsit, for the revival o[ morality and patriotism, but really for throwing off the French yoke. Napoleon demanded its suppression 1809. It numbered ab. 400.

Tug of War. English school game, in which sides are chosen, and the opponents, taking the ends of a rope, endeavor to outpull each other; common amusement among schoolboys in Japan, as "rope pulling." It was formerly practiced in Japan between boys of rival villages on the 15th of the 8th month. In Corea it is still played about the 15th of the 1st month. In the country the entire population of districts and villages engage in the sport, and the village that wins expects to have a good harvest.

Tuilleries. Palace in Paris, joined by wings to the Louvre; begun 1564 by Catharine de' Medici, and subsequently much enlarged; stormed by the people 1793, 1830, and 1848; burned by


The Louvre and the Tuilleries (the latter In the background).

Communists 1871; ruins not removed till 1883. The garden, enlarged 1889, now extends over the site of the palace. Napoleon I. and III. resided here, and the kings who came between.

Tuke, Daniel Hack. M.D., LL.D., 1827-1895. English writer on mental diseases. Insanity, 1878; Diet. Psychological Medicine, 1892.

Tuke, Henry, 1756-1814. English writer on Quakerism.

Principles of Religion, 1805.

Tula. Russian town, on theUpa, 110 m. s. of Moscow. It has large and varied manufactures, especially of arms and niello work. Pop., 1890, 66,111.

Tulane, Paul, 1801-1887. Merchant of New Orleans, who gave ab. $1,100,000 to found Tulane University.

Tulane University. In New Orleans, La.; founded 1884. The Univ. of La., organized 1878, with all its property and franchises, was merged in it. It has also a medical department, dating from 1834, and a law school 1847. The Newcomb Memorial Coll., founded 1887 for women, has a separate foundation of $500,000, and an attendance of 96. There are 43 professors, 35 assistants, and 940 students.

Tulare Lake. In s. central Cal.; fed by several streams, and partly drained by the San Joaquin. Area ab. 300 sq. n>.; formerly much larger.

Tulasnc, Louis Rene. 1815-1885. French botanist, as was his brother, CHARLES, 1816-1884. They wrote chiefly on Fungi.

Tulchan Bishops. Scottish clergymen, appointed 1573 to episcopal sees, without consecration or authority, giving nearly all the revenues to lay patrons; so called from the

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stuffed "Tulchan calves" used to persuade cows to give their milk.

Tulip. Plants of the genus Tulipa, of the Lily family; widely cultivated for ornament in many forms, all supposed to have originated from a single species. It is a native of the Levant and was brought to Augsburg 1559, whence it spread over Europe. A mania for tulips occurred in Holland in the 17th century; they are still much cultivated there.

Tulip Tree. Liriodendron tulipifera. Large forest tree of the Magnolia family, bearing ^fe M large greenish-yellow flowers, na

tive of e. N. America. Locally it is wrongly called Poplar.

£T*mt$k£} ±j£h Tull,jETHRO,ab.l680-1740. En

fc-'iK'^fe^ Bo »''s'' author ol a system of im

( proving agriculture by means of

- wit thorough culture without manure,

.V^^SP^Nj. PWy exemplified in his Horse Hoe^&L^&&tj%gV *n9 Husbandry, 1733. See Lois

G&jMt ^^jf-^ffit Tulle. Thin silk fabric, used

dgJ\lY\ ^or trimming gowns, for veils, etc.;

Bwv ^^^sjikv ll named from a French town, where

ml '* wasrmer'y made.

•^sggj^swSp y Tulliaiiuin. Prison in ancient

W Rome. See Mamertine Prison.

Tulip Tree (Liriodendron Tullin, CHRISTIAN BRAUNMANN,

tulipifera). 1728-1765. Norwegian poet.

Tulloch, John, D.D., LL.D., 1823-1886. Prof. St. Andrews 1854, principal 1860; a leader of liberal thought in the Scottish Church. Theism, 1855; Leaders of the Reformation, 1859; Beginning Life, 1862; Rational Theology in nth Century, 1872; Modem Theories, 1884.

Tullu§ Hostilius. In Roman legends, third king of Rome 672-640 B.C. He destroyed Alba and transferred its inhabitants to Rome upon learning of the Albans' treason, who had acknowledged the supremacy of Rome as a result of the combat between the Horatii and Curiatii, which took place during his reign.

Tally. See Cicero.

Tumbling Lever. See Ground Lever.

Tumors. Enlargement or swelling, not the result of inflammation or of normal growth. The older classification of malignant and benign tumors, while not affording a sharp line of demarkation, affords a convenient grouping. Some tumors are of no concern except for the annoyance they may give; others, like the carcinoma, are very liable to terminate fatally. Cartilaginous tumors are composed of tissue similar to cartilage. They rank with the benign tumors. They are found chiefly at the ends of the long bones, especially in the fingers. Treatment is surgical. Benign tumors are abnormal growths, which do not produce constitutional derangement or general illness, except as a result of their pressure or location. They usually grow slowly and do not ulcerate.

Tun. In old wine measure 252 gals.; in old ale and beer measure 216 gals. The ton weight was probably taken from the tun measure, as a tun of water weighed a little more than 2,000 lbs.

Tunbrldge Wells. Inland watering place, especially fashionable during the 18th century, 34 m. s.e. of London. Its chalybeate springs were discovered by Lord North in 1606. The local industry is in Tunbridge Ware, a kind of wood mosaic in veneer. Pop., 1891, 27,895.

Tundra. See Plain.

Tune. See Melody.

Tmisstate*. Salts of tungstic acid.

Tungsten, or Wolfram. W. At. wt. 183.6, sp. gr. 19.1, sp. ht. .035. Element first isolated by Elhujar 1785; the oxide was obtained by Bergman and Scheele 1781-82. It occurs in wolframite, tungstite and scheelite. It is obtained by reducing the oxide by hydrogen at a red heat. It is a gray, infusible powder, which burns at a red heat. Introduced into steel in small percentages it gives great hardness for tools and projectiles. The conical points of Holtzer projectiles contain tungsten. Sodium tungstate is used as a mordant, and, with sodium phosphate, renders cloth uninflammable.

Tungsten Chlorides. Dichloride. WClv Soluble, unstable gray substance, made by treating the higher chlorides with nascent hydrogen.—Tetrachloride. WC14. Soluble, grayish-brown substance obtained by distilling the pentachloride in

carbon dioxide.—Pentachloride. WC1,. Lustrous black, needlelike crystals; mpt. 248°C; soluble in carbon disulphide to a blue color; made by distilling the hexachloride in carbon dioxide.—Hexachloride. WC1,. Black violet crystals; mpt. 275° C. (Cor.); obtained by passing chlorine over the heated metal.

Tungsten Dlbromlde. WBr,. Bluish-blackcompound, obtained by reducing the pentabromide with hydrogen.

Tungsten Dioxide. WO,. Brown powder; sp. gr. 12.1; made by reducing the trioxide with carbon.

Tungsten Disulphide. WS,. Black powder, made by melting tungsten with sulphur.

Tungsten Pentabromide. WBrt. Dark brown needles; mpt. 276° C. (Cor.); obtained by heating tungsten in bromine vapor.

Tungsten Trioxide. WOv Tungstic anhydride; lemonyellow powder, becoming darker on heating; sp. gr. 5.2 to 7.1. It melts in blast-flame, and is made by fusing wolframite with sodium carbonate and nitrate.

Tungsten Trisulphide. WS,. Liver-brown substance, obtained by fusing wolframite with carbon, sulphur, and soda.

Tungstie Aeid. H,W04+HaO. White solid,made by treating Potassium Tunostate (q.v.) with a strong acid; soluble in water. Colloidal tungstic acid is made by dialyzing a 5 per cent solution of sodium tungstate to which hydrochloric acid has been added. It is very soluble in water, forming a mucilaginous mass.

Tungstite. WO,. Natural tungsten oxide, occurring in small quantity as a yellowish or greenish earthy product of the decomposition of other tungsten minerals.

Tllllglis. Important branch of the n. Turanians, inhabiting central and part of e. Siberia. The Manchurians are a closely related branch. The Tungus number ab. 80,000, but are disappearing before the encroachments of the Slav from the w. and the Yakut hoards of the n.e. They are considered the most moral of Mongolians. In height they average 5 ft. 4 in.; their figures are slender, their skulls square, mouth large, lips thin, beard scant. They use the reindeer as a beast of burden and for riding, as well as draught. A few are agriculturists, but most are hunters and live by barter in furs. Their food is meat carefully cooked. They are nominally Russian Christians, but at heart Shamanists.

Tunic. Scaly coats of certain bulbs, as the Onion.

Tunic. Shirt or inner garment worn by ancient Romans.

Tunlcata (urochorda, Ascidioidea). Bilateral, barrel or sac-shaped animals, inclosed in a leathery tunic or testa. The anterior portion of the alimentary tract is pierced by openings, forming a branchial sac. The cloacal cavity is continued as an atrial chamber around the branchial basket. The testa has two openings, one, the mouth or incurrent orifice, leading into the branchial sac; the other, the excurrent orifice, leading out of the peribranchial space. Between the two (on the dorsal side) lies the nerve ganglion. A heart is present. The forms are hermaphrodite, out also reproduce asexually by budding. There

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are two classes: Tethyoidea and Thaliacea (q.v.). The development of the embryo Tunicate from the egg shows that these animals, which were once classed as Mollusks, are really closely allied to Vertebrata. There is a notochord in the caudal region, which persists in the lowest, least specialized Tunicates. The incurrent pore represents a mouth, and leads into a pharynx, whose walls are pierced by numerous pores representing the gill slits of fishes. The excurrent pore is an external gill opening, like that behind the operculum of a fish, but the cloaca has secured a secondary connection with the atrial or peripharyngeal chamber. Most of the Ascidians are sessile and undergo

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a specialization to fit them for such a habit, which from a certain standpoint may be termed a degeneration, so they are degraded Vertebrates, but as much specialized in their way as any Vertebrate.

Tunicate. Provided with a thin, separable covering.

Tllllicatcd Bulb. One whose scales are broad and overlap one another, forming a compact body.

Tuning Fork. Steel rod bent in the form of a U and attached to a steel handle at its center. If the prongs be set in vibration, the sound emitted is of constant pitch, depending upon the length and size of the fork. The fork is often mounted on a resonance box to intensify the sound.

Tunis. One of the Barbary States, of n. Africa, subject to

France. It lies between Algeria and Tripoli upon the Mediterranean coast. The n. part is mountainous; the s. is low, some of it being below sea level; through this depression it has been proposed to let the waters of the Mediterranean into part of the Sahara. The country was held in ancient times by Carthage and Rome, in the Middle Ages by Caliphs of Bagdad, and later was governed by its own Beys. It was invaded by Louis IX. of France 1270. and was tributary to Turkey 1575-1871. Since 1881 it has been subject to France. The Bey abdicated 1897 and retired to Nice. Pop. ab. 1,500,000. The capital, T.. near the site of C a r t h a g e, has Btrcut w Tuuia. some line buildings, espe

cially mosques and the Bey's palace, varied manufactures, tapestries, leather, soap, cloth, and olive oil, and a considerable trade. Pop. ab. 135.000.

Tunkcrs. See Dunkers.

Tunnel. Horizontal passage under the surface of the earth, built for an aqueduct, canal, or railroad. The Romans constructed several in connection with their water supply. The cost is, roughly, ab. $500,000 per mile. The Arlberg tunnel in the Tyrolese Alps is 6i m. long; opened 1883. The subaqueous tunnel under the Severn for the Great Western Railway is 4i m. long. That under the Mersey is, including approaches, 4i m. long; opened 1880. The Simplon tunnel, the contract for which was made in Sept. 1893, is to be 12± m. long. That under the Hudson River, opposite Jersey City, was partly constructed 1880-86, 1,800 ft. being completed; work was resumed 1889, hut again suspended. The north tunnel from the N. J. side is of brick, oval, 18 ft. by 18 ft. high inside. 2,000 ft. long, and beyond of cast-iron, 18 ft. 2 in. diameter, 2,000 ft., with ab. 1.600 ft. to build to reach the shaft; it is 5,680 ft. between the shafts, 5,400 ft. between bulkheads. The top of the tunnel is 14 ft. below the river bed. Lake Fucinus in Italy was drained by a tunnel begun by Claudius, 11 years in building, and ab. 3i m. long. Prince Torlonia reconstructed this 1854-76, extending it by 2.200 ft., and reclaiming ab.40,000 acres of fertile land. See Adit, Hoosic, Hddson River, Mt. Cenis, St. Gothard, and Thames Tunnels.

Tunny (orycnus Thynnus. Horse Mackerel). Acanthopterygian fish, which sometimes attains a weight of 1.000 lbs. or more. It lives in the N. Atlantic, and is especially abundant in the Mediterranean, where it is caught in special pounds, several hundred fishermen uniting to raise the net which forms the bottom of the inclosure. On American shores it is caught by harpooning.

Tunstall, Cuthbert, D.D., 1474-1559. Bp. of London 1522, and of Durham 1530; deprived 1552 and 1559. restored 1553; a learned and moderate prelate, who bore no part in the persecutions under Mary.

Tuomey, Michael, 1808-1857. State Geologist of S. C. 1844, and of Ala. 1848; prof. Univ. Ala. from 1847; author of the geological map of Ala., 1853.

Tupac Amaru, ab.1543-1572. Inca of Peru, executed by the Spaniards.

Tupac Amaru II. (jose Gabriel Condorcanqui), 1742

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Tana (Tupaia tana).

They have long bushy tails, five-toed, plantigrade, nakedsoled feet, and are active both in trees and on the ground.

Tupelo. See Pepperid(}e.

Tupi-Guarani. Numerous Brazilian Indian tribes, related linguistically. The territory they occupied includes ab. half of S. America. The Caribs of the n. are also closely related. Many of the Amazon tribes are Tupi, with admixed blood of tribes belonging properly outside the Tupi-Guarani stock. Some of these are terrible river-pirates; all are skilled in making arrow-poisons, of which a form of strychnine is the base. Some of the n. Tupi are, or were, cannibals; some compress the heads of infants. Of the central tribes, some tattoo; some were head-hunters, and prepared the heads taken as did the Maori of New Zealand. The mission-work among the s. tribes has fallen into decay since the expulsion of the Jesuits. They had in 1732 over 30 parishes, including 141.000 souls, under parochial, semi-comniunistic rule. True Tupi-Guarani are of copper-red color, and in disposition silent, patient, torpid. Considerable agriculture is practiced.

Tupper, Sir Charles, M.D., D.C.L., b. 1821. Prime Minister of Nova Scotia 1864-67: Canadian Minister of State 1870-73, 1878-84. and 1887-S8: Commissioner in London and Baronet 1888.—His son. Sir Charles Hibbert, b.1855, Canadian official, was knighted 1893.

Tupper, Martin Farquhar, D.C.L.. F.R.S., 1810-1889. English author. His Proverbial Philosophy, 1838-42. written in unrhymed verse, was immensely popular, but little esteemed bv critics. A 3d part appeared 1867. My Life as an Author. 1886.

'I'llran. Anciently, those parts of the Sasanian monarchy which did not belong to Iran, on the north; now sometimes applied to Turkestan. In philology Turanian has been mainly opposed to Aryan, serving as a general term for that family of languages otherwise known as SCYTHIAN (q.v.) and UralAltaic, mostly n. and w. of China and Tibet. It includes Mongols, Samoyeds. Hungarians, Turks. Finns, Lapps, etc.: but of late is falling into discredit and disuse.

Turbellaria, or Planarida. Free-living Platyhelmintlis, with flat ovate bodies, covered with cilia. They have a mouth, but no anus, hooks, or suckers. They are divided into the suborders Rhabdoccela and Dendroccela (q.v.).

Turbcrvillc, George, ab.1530-1600. English poet and translator. Fauleonrie, 1575; Venerie, 1576.

Turbine. Form of water motor, revolving at a high velocity, and utilizing the impact and reaction upon curved blades of water moving at high speed, due to fall. There are 3 classes: 1st, those receiving water parallel with the axis and discharging in same direction, called parallel-flow wheels: of these the Fontaine and Jonval are historic types, and the Collins is a modern form: 2d. the outward flow, in which the water moves radially outward through guide blades, of which Fourneyron's wheel is the older type, and the Boyden is a modern form: 3d, the inward and downward flow or center-vent wheels, of which theSwain. Leffel. Burnham, Geyelin and Risdon are types. These may be combined. The axis is usually vertical (universally in earlier forms), but recently they have been

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