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Tubercle. 1. Conic or nodular projection or eminence, are placed in parallel calcareous tubes, united by horizontal

on the crown of a tooth, near | plates; e.g., Organ-pipe coral.
the head of a rib, and else-
where. 2. Nodular mass of

Tubitelæ, or TUBITELARIÆ. See SPIDERS.
varying size formed in the con- Tubman, HARRIET, b, ab.1821 in Md. Slave, who escaped
nective tissues of organs that 1849, and by 1861 had promoted the escape of over 300 negroes.
are attacked by the germ of

Tubular. In the form of a tube, as the calyx or corolla consumption. See TUBERCULOSIS and BACILLUS TUBERCU

of a gamosepalous or gamopetalous flower; also hollow stems. LOSIS. 3. Wart-like projection Tubular Bridge. Wrought-iron bridge having its sides, on any part of a plant.

! top and floor made of plate iron riveted together so as to form Tubercular. Having the

a rectangular tube, through which trains pass. The longest is shape of a tubercle.

Tubercular Menin-
gitis. See MENINGITIS.

Tubercular Process. In
Anatomy, same as the DIAPO-
PHYSIS (q.v.).

Tuberculate. Surface
covered with tubercles.

Tuberculin. See KOCH'S
Tubercle Bacilli in phthisical expec- LYMPH.
toration (x ab.1,800 diameters):
a, bacilli; b, catarrhal cells.

Tuberculo-Sectorial
Teeth. Molar teeth in car-

Britannia Tubular Bridge.
nivores, that have sharp-cutting projections in addition to
crushing surfaces and tubercles on their crowns.

the Britannia bridge in Wales, over Menai Straits, which has Tuberculosis. Ordinarily called consumption, phthisis,

two spans each 230 ft. long, and two each 460 ft. Tubular or pearl disease; characterized by the formation of tubercles

bridges are very stiff, but expensive on account of the great on or in various organs, amount of materal required. None have been built since 1870. X usually the lungs, in Tubular Bullet. Recent invention of Charles Kruka of testines, and lymphatic

Prague and Wm. Hebler of Küssnact, and called the Krukaglands, the result of irri

Hebler bullet. It is made of steel, having a copper rotating tation produced by the

ring attached to the exterior. The hollow tube has a sabot presence and multipli

fitting closely to act as a gas check, which drops off after the cation of the Bacillus

bullet leaves the gun. This projectile is still in its experimen-6 tuberculosis, a microbe tal stage, and it is claimed that an initial velocity of nearly

or disease-germ, para 3,000 f. s. under a gas pressure of 2,650 atmospheres has been sitic in the organ. From

obtained.
Icone-seventh to one-third

of all deaths are due to Tubular Dispatch. See PNEUMATIC DISPATCH.
this disease, which is Tubular Floret. One of the disk flowers in the Com-
undoubtedly contracted

posita, whose corolla is small and regular, in distinction from in all cases, in various

the ligulate corolla of the ray-flowers.
ways: (1) as congeni-
tal, transmitted to the

Tubulariæ (ATHECATA, TÆNIOLATA, GYMNOBLASTEA, CORYfætus by a consumptive NIDA, GYMNOTOKA, OCELLATA, ANTHOMEDUSÆ). Hydromedusce mother; (2) by nursing

| whose polyp-stocks either are naked or have a chitinous periTubercle of Lung (x 50 diameters): from a diseased mother derm, but no cup-shaped hydrothecæ, as in Campanularians.

or taking milk from a The Medusa-buds are sometimes rudimentary. The sexual cells bb, glant cells; c, center of tubercle beginning to caseate; de branch of pulmonary artery; consumptive cow(see Bo

arise on the manubrium. Four to six ocelli are present at the e alveolar framework of lung.

VINE TUBERCULOSIS); (3)

bases of the tentacles, and correspond in number to the radial by eating food containing germs that have not been killed by canals. The families included are Clavida, Hydractinidæ, Tuexposure to sufficient heat, as in meat from comsumptive ani

bularido, Corynidæ, Eudendrida. The group is best termed mals, or any food exposed to air containing tubercular dust; Gymnoblastea-Anthomedusc. (4) by breathing tubercular dust. In all cases, certain consti

Tubularidæ. Family of Tubularice (Tubularia being typitutions (and all constitutions when run down) are especially | cal). There is a chitinous periderm, and the proboscis has a liable to fall prey to this germ, which in many cases is suc- circle of tentacles, as well as the peristome. The generative cessfully resisted. The most potent factors aiding in this in- buds are sessile and arise between the two circles of tentacles. fection are lack of pure air and sunlight in dwellings, dissipa- | The branches of the colony arise from a root-like stolon. In tion, and sexual excess. Close inbreeding is considered potent Tubularia they are much like straws in appearance, slightly in evolving the consumptive diathesis, but some doubt this.

branched; at the tip of each is the polyp with its fringes of See KOCH'S LYMPH.

numerous tentacles. The young pass their embryonic stages Tuberose. Polianthes tuberosa. Bulbous, fragrant white

in the manubrium of the gonophores. flowered plant of the Lily family, native of India, widely cul Tubulosa. Fossil corals with imperfect partitions in their tivated for ornament.

thecæ. See MADREPORARIA. Tuberous, Irregularly thickened roots or subterranean Tuck, FRIAR. Chaplain of Robin Hood, represented as stems, as the Jerusalem artichoke.

wearing the Franciscan habit; humorous and combative; inTube Wells. See DRIVEN WELL.

troduced by Scott in Ivanhoe. Tubicolæ (TUBICOLOUS ANNELIDS). See SEDENTARIA.

Tuckahoe. Edible, but tasteless fungus, growing on the

roots of trees in the s. U. S.; also called Indian Bread. Tubinares. See LONGIPENNES.

Tucker, ABRAHAM (“EDWARD SEARCH"), 1705–1774. EnTübingen. Town of Würtemberg, on the Neckar. Its

glish author. Light of Nature Pursued, 7 vols., 1768–78. university, founded 1477, had, in 1895, 1,184 students, ab. 100 instructors, and a library of 200,000 vols.

Tucker, CHARLOTTE MARIA ("A. L. O. E.”), d. 1895. English

author of juvenile and religious tales, long a missionary in Tübingen School. Founded by F. C. Baur (1792–1860),

India. for the free criticism of Scripture and of Church history. Its influence has been large and somewhat destructive, especially

Tucker, GEORGE, 1775–1861. M.C. from Va. 1819–25; prof. through D. F. Strauss' Leben Jesu, 1835–36. An earlier school, Univ. Va. 1825–45; writer on psychology and political econled by G. C. Storr (1746–1805), held Evangelical tenets; another | omy; biographer of Jefferson 1837. Hist. U. S. to 1841, 4 was headed by J. A. Möhler (1796–1838), prof. of R. C. theology | vols., 1856–58. there.

Tucker, JOHN IRELAND, D.D., 1819–1895. Rector at Troy, Tabiporidæ. Family of Alcyonaria, in which the polyps N. Y.; compiler of tune-books, much used in P. E. Ch.

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1560

TUCKER-TULCHAN BISHOPS

Tucker, JOSIAH, D.D., 1711-1799. Dean of Gloucester, Eng., | Tufts College. At Medford, Mass.; founded 1852, opened 1758; writer on politica economy. Commerce and Taxes, 1753. 1855; comprising schools of letters, divinity, applied sciences.

and medicine; controlled by Universalists; opened to women Tucker, LUTHER, 1802–1873. Founder and ed. Genessee

1892. P. T. Barnum gave $95,000 to its museum. It has 14 Farmer, 1831, and Country Gentleman, 1853.-His son, WILLIS

buildings, 40 professors, 30 instructors, 251 students in letters, GAYLORD, M.D., became pres. Albany Coll. of Pharmacy 1883.

35 in theology, 180 in medicine, and a library of 35,000 vols. Tucker, St. GEORGE, LL.D., 1752–1828. Judge of Va. courts,

Tugenbund. League of Virtue. Formed at Konigsberg and of U. S. District Court 1813-27; poet and legal writer; ed.

in Prussia soon after the Peace of Tilsit, for the revival of Blackstone 1803. Slavery, 1796; Alien and Sedition Laws, 1799.

| morality and patriotism, but really for throwing off the French -His son, NATHANIEL BEVERLEY, 1784-1851, was judge in Mo.

yoke. Napoleon demanded its suppression 1809. It numbered 1816-30, and law prof. William and Mary Coll, from 1834. His

ab. 400. Partisan Leader, 1836, a romance, was repub. 1861 as A Key to the Disunion Conspiracy.-His brother, HENRY ST. GEORGE, Tug of War. English school game, in which sides are LL.D., 1780–1848, was M.C. 1815–19, Chancellor of Va. 1824–31, chosen, and the opponents, taking the ends of a rope, endeavor pres. Va. Court of Appeals 1831-41, prof. Univ. Va. 1841-45, to outpull each other; common amusement among schoolboys and a writer on law.-His son, JOHN RANDOLPH, LL.D., 1823- in Japan, as “rope pulling.” It was formerly practiced in Japan 1897, M.C. 1875–87, was noted as an orator and lawyer.-A between boys of rival villages on the 15th of the 8th month. In cousin, John RANDOLPH, 1812–1883, was an officer U.S.N. and Corea it is still played about the 15th of the 1st month. In the C. S. N., and in 1866 a Peruvian admiral.

country the entire population of districts and villages engage Tucker, SAMUEL, 1747–1833. Seaman of Mass.; Capt.

in the sport, and the village that wins expects to have a good

harvest. U.S. N. 1776-85; pensioned 1821.

Tuilleries. Palace in Paris, joined by wings to the Louvre; Tucker, TilgHMAN M., d.1859. Gov. of Miss. 1841-43; M.C.

begun 1564 by Catharine de' Medici, and subsequently much en1843–45.

larged; stormed by the people 1792, 1830, and '1848; burned by Tucker, WILLIAM JEWETT, D.D., b.1839. Prof. Andover 1879; pres. Dartmouth 1892.

Tuckerman, EDWARD, LL.D., 1817-1886. Prof. Amberst from 1858; lichenologist. N. American Lichens, 1845; Lichens of New England, etc., 1848.-His cousin, BAYARD, b.1855, wrote several biographies. Hist. English Prose Fiction, 1882.

Tuckerman, HENRY THEODORE, 1813–1871. American critic and essayist.-His brother, CHARLES KEATING, 1821–1896, was U. S. Minister to Greece 1868–72.-Their uncle, JOSEPH, D.D., 1778–1840, minister at large in Boston 1826, left his mark on methods of philanthropic work at home and in Europe.

Tucson. Capital of Pima co., and of Arizona 1867–77; on the Santa Cruz; founded by Jesuits 1560; seat of State University. The surrounding country is arid and the climate hot and dry. The prevailing industry is mining. Pop., 1890, 5,150.

M

ontes Tucuman. City of n. Argentina, 723 m. n.w. of Buenos

Sereymon

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The Louvre and the Tuilleries (the latter in the background). Communists 1871; ruins not removed till 1883. The garden, enlarged 1889, now extends over the site of the palace. Napo

leon I. and III. resided here, and the kings who came between. Tucuman.

Tuke. DANIEL HACK, M.D., LL.D., 1827-1895. English Ayres; founded 1564; scene of a patriot victory 1812, and of

writer on mental diseases. Insanity, 1878; Dict. Psychological

Medicine, 1892. the declaration of Platine independence 1816. Pop. ab.40,000. Tudeschis, NICHOLAS DE (called PANORMITANUS), 1400-1445.

Tuke, HENRY, 1756-1814. English writer on Quakerism. Sicilian writer on canon law; Benedictine abbot; Cardinal 1440.

Principles of Religion, 1805. His works were collected in 9 vols. 1617.

Tula. Russian town, on the Upa, 110 m, s, of Moscow. It Tudor. English royal family 1485–1603; descended from

has large and varied manufactures, especially of arms and Owen Tudor, of Welsh extraction, who married 1423 Catharine

niello work. Pop., 1890, 66,111. of Valois, widow of Henry V. Its sovereigns were Henry VII., Tulane, PAUL, 1801–1887. Merchant of New Orleans, who 1485–1509, Henry VIII., 1509-47, Edward VI., 1547–53, Mary, I gave ab. $1,100,000 to found Tulane University. 1553–58, and Elizabeth, 1558–1603.

Tulane University. In New Orleans, La.; founded 1884. Tudor, WILLIAM, 1779-1830. Founder and first ed. N. Amer. The Univ. of La., organized 1878, with all its property and ican Review, 1815-18; Consul at Lima 1823; Chargé in Brazil franchises, was merged in it. It has also a medical depart1827. Life of Jas. Otis, 1823; Gebel Teir, 1829. His father, ment, dating from 1834, and a law school 1847. The Newcomb WILLIAM, 1750-1819, was Col. and Judge-advocate 1775–78, and Memorial Coll., founded 1887 for women, has a separate founMass. Sec. of State 1809–10,

dation of $500,000, and an attendance of 96. There are 43 Tudor Architecture. Usually applied to late Perpen

professors, 25 assistants, and 940 students. dicular Style, the chapel at Westminster being the most per-| Tulare Lake. In s. central Cal.; fed by several streams, rect specimen. Tudor flower is an upright flat leaf ornament, and partly drained by the San Joaquin. Area ab. 200 sq. m.; used in crests or cornices in Perpendicular architecture.

formerly much larger. Tuesday. Day of Mars, the 3d day of the week, so called Tulasne, Louis RENÉ, 1815–1885. French botanist, as was from Tuesco, a Saxon deity, worshiped on this day.

his brother, CHARLES, 1816–1884. They wrote chiefly on Fungi. Tufa, or TUFF. Kind of rock characterized by a loose and Tulchan Bishops. Scottish clergymen, appointed 1572 open structure, formed by the accumulation of volcanic detri- to episcopal sees, without consecration or authority, giving tus, or by deposition from calcareous or siliceous springs. | nearly all the revenues to lay patrons; so called from the

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vapor.

stuffed “Tulchan calves” used to persuade cows to give their | carbon dioxide.--Pentachloride. WCI.. Lustrous black, needlemilk.

like crystals; mpt. 248° C.; soluble in carbon disulphide to a

blue color; made by distilling the hexachloride in carbon Tulip. Plants of the genus Tulipa, of the Lily family;

dioxide.-Hexachloride. WCl.. Black violet crystals; mpt. widely cultivated for ornament in many forms, all supposed

275° C. (Cor.); obtained by passing chlorine over the heated to have originated from a single species. It is a native of

metal. the Levant and was brought to Augsburg 1559, whence it spread over Europe. A mania for tulips occurred in Holland Tungsten Dibromide. WBr,. Bluish-black compound, in the 17th century; they are still much cultivated there. obtained by reducing the pentabromide with hydrogen." Tulip Tree. Liriodendron tulipifera. Large forest tree Tungsten Dioxide. WO, Brown powder; sp. gr. 12.1;

of the Magnolia family, bearing made by reducing the trioxide with carbon.
large greenish-yellow flowers, na-

Tungsten Disulphide. WSg. Black powder, made by tive of e. N. America. Locally it

melting tungsten with sulphur. is wrongly called Poplar.

Tungsten Pentabromide, WBrs. Dark brown needles; Tull, JETHRO, ab.1680–1740. English author of a system of im

mpt. 276° C. (Cor.); obtained by heating tungsten in bromine proving agriculture by means of thorough culture without manure, Tungsten Trioxide. WOs. Tungstic anhydride; lemonexemplified in his Horse Hoe yellow powder, becoming darker on heating; sp. gr. 5.2 to 7.1. ing Husbandry, 1733. See LOIS It melts in blast-flame, and is made by fusing wolframite with WEEDON.

sodium carbonate and nitrate. Tulle. Thin silk fabric, used

Tungsten Trisuļphide. WSg. Liver-brown substance, for trimming gowns, for veils, etc.;

obtained by fusing wolframite with carbon, sulphur, and soda. named from a French town, where it was formerly made.

Tungstic Acid. H,WO,+H,0. White solid, made by treat

ing POTASSIUM TUNGSTATE (q.v.) with a strong acid; soluble in Tullianum. Prison in ancient

water. Colloidal tungstic acid is made by dialyzing a 5 per Rome. See MAMERTINE PRISON.

cent solution of sodium tungstate to which bydrochloric acid Tulip Tree (Liriodendron Tullin, CHRISTIAN BRAUNMANN, has been added. It is very soluble in water, forming a mutulipifera). 1728–1765.' Norwegian poet.

cilaginous mass. Tulloch, John, D.D., LL.D., 1823–1886. Prof. St. An Tungstite. WOg. Natural tungsten oxide, occurring in drews 1854, principal 1860; a leader of liberal thought in small quantity as a yellowish or greenish earthy product of the Scottish Church. Theism, 1855; Leaders of the Reforma- | the decomposition of other tungsten minerals. tion, 1859; Beginning Life, 1862; Rational Theology in 17th

Tungus. Important branch of the n. Turanians, inhabiting Century, 1872; Modern Theories, 1884.

central and part of e. Siberia. The Manchurians are a closely Tullus Hostilius. In Roman legends, third king of related branch. The Tungus number ab. 80,000, but are disapRome 672–640 B.C. He destroyed Alba and transferred its in pearing before the encroachments of the Slav from the w. and habitants to Rome upon learning of the Albans' treason, who the Yakut hoards of the n.e. They are considered the most had acknowledged the supremacy of Rome as a result of the moral of Mongolians. In height they average 5 ft. 4 in.; their combat between the Horatii and Curiatii, which took place figures are slender, their skulls square, mouth large, lips thin, during his reign.

beard scant. They use the reindeer as a beast of burden and

for riding, as well as draught. A few are agriculturists, but Tully. See CICERO.

most are hunters and live by barter in furs. Their food is meat Tumbling Lever. See GROUND LEVER.

carefully cooked. They are nominally Russian Christians, but

at heart Shamanists. Tumors. Enlargement or swelling, not the result of inflammation or of normal growth. The older classification of Tunic. Scaly coats of certain bulbs, as the Onion. malignant and benign tumors, while not affording a sharp

Tunic. Shirt or inner garment worn by ancient Romans. line of demarkation, affords a convenient grouping. Some tumors are of no concern except for the annoyance they may

Tunicata (UROCHORDA, ASCIDIOIDEA). Bilateral, barrel or give; others, like the carcinoma, are very liable to terminate sac-shaped animals, inclosed in a leathery tunic or testa. The fatally. Cartilaginous tumors are composed of tissue similar anterior portion of the alimentary tract is pierced by openings, to cartilage. They rank with the benign tumors. They are forming a branchial sac. The cloacal cavity is continued as an found chiefly at the ends of the long bones, especially in the atrial chamber around the branchial basket. The testa has two fingers. Treatment is surgical. Benign tumors are abnormal openings, one, the mouth or incurrent orifice, leading into the growths, which do not produce constitutional derangement or branchial sac; the other, the excurrent orifice, leading out of general illness, except as a result of their pressure or location. the peribranchial space. Between the two (on the dorsal side) They usually grow slowly and do not ulcerate.

lies the nerve ganglion. A heart is present. The forms are

hermaphrodite, but also reproduce asexually by budding. There Tun. In old wine measure 252 gals.; in old ale and beer measure 216 gals. The ton weight was probably taken from the tun measure, as a tun of water weighed a little more than 2,000 lbs.

Tunbridge Wells. Inland watering place, especially fashionable during the 18th century, 34 m. s.e. of London. Its chalybeate springs were discovered by Lord North in 1606. The local industry is in Tunbridge Ware, a kind of wood mosaic in veneer. Pop., 1891, 27,895.

Tundra. See PLAIN.
Tune. See MELODY.
Tungstates, Salts of tungstic acid.

Tungsten, or WOLFRAM. W. At. wt. 183.6, sp. gr. 19.1, sp. ht. .035. Element first isolated by Elbujar 1785; the oxide was obtained by Bergman and Scheele 1781-82. It occurs in

Tunicata (Ascidia microcosmus). wolframite, tungstite and scheelite. It is obtained by reduc

are two classes: TETHYOIDEA and THALIACEA (q.v.). The deing the oxide by hydrogen at a red heat. It is a gray, infusible powder, which burns at a red heat. Introduced into

velopment of the embryo Tunicate from the egg shows that

these animals, which were once classed as Mollusks, are really steel in small percentages it gives great hardness for tools

closely allied to Vertebrata. There is a notochord in the caudal and projectiles. The conical points of Holtzer projectiles contain tungsten. Sodium tungstate is used as a mordant, and,

region, which persists in the lowest, least specialized Tunicates.

The incurrent pore represents a mouth, and leads into a pharwith sodium phosphate, renders cloth uninflammable.

ynx, whose walls are pierced by numerous pores representing Tungsten Chlorides. Dichloride. Wci,. Soluble, un the gill slits of fishes. The excurrent pore is an external gill stable gray substance, made by treating the higher chlorides opening, like that behind the operculum of a fish, but the cloaca with nascent hydrogen.-Tetrachloride. WC),. Soluble, gray. has secured a secondary connection with the atrial or periphaish-brown substance obtained by distilling the pentachloride in | ryngeal chamber. Most of the Ascidians are sessile and undergo

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a specialization to fit them for such a habit, which from a cer 1781. Descendant of the Incas; acknowledged by the natives, tain standpoint may be termed a degeneration, so they are whom he endeavored to protect. He led a rebellion Nov. 1780. degraded Vertebrates, but as much specialized in their way i and was put to death with cruel tortures, as were most of his as any Vertebrate.

relatives. Tunicate. Provided with a thin, separable covering.

Tupac Yupanqui, ab.1420–1483. Inca of Peru 1453. He Tunicated Bulb. One whose scales are broad and over

greatly extended bis empire by conquests. lap one another, forming a compact body.

Tupaiidæ (SQUIRREL-SHREWS). Family of Insectivora, Tuning Fork. Steel rod bent in the form of a U and at

including the Banxrings of India and the Malay Archipelago. tached to a steel handle at its center. If the prongs be set in vibration, the sound emitted is of constant pitch, depending upon the length and size of the fork. The fork is often mounted on a resonance box to intensify the sound. Tunis. One of the Barbary States, of n. Africa, subject to

France. It lies between
Algeria and Tripoli upon
the Mediterranean coast.
The n. part is mountain-
ous; the s. is low, some
of it being below sea level;
through this depression it
has been proposed to let
the waters of the Mediter-
ranean into part of the Sa-
hara. The country was
held in ancient times by
Carthage and Rome, in

- Tana (Tupaia tana).
the Middle Ages by Caliphs
of Bagdad, and later was They have long bushy tails, five-toed, plantigrade, naked-
governed by its own Beys. soled feet, and are active both in trees and on the ground.
It was invaded by Louis
IX. of France 1270, and

Tupelo. See PEPPERIDGE. was tributary to Turkey Tupi-Guarani. Numerous Brazilian Indian tribes, re1575–1871. Since 1881 it lated linguistically. The territory they occupied includes ab. has been subject to half of S. America. The Caribs of the n. are also closely reFrance. The Bey abdi- lated. Many of the Amazon tribes are Tupi, with admixed cated 1897 and retired to blood of tribes belonging properly outside the Tupi-Guarani Nice. Pop. ab. 1,500,000. stock. Some of these are terrible river-pirates; all are skilled The capital, T., near the in making arrow-poisons, of which a form of strychnine is the

site of Carthage, has base. Some of the n. Tupi are, or were, cannibals; some comSureet in Tunis,

some fine buildings, espe press the heads of infants. Of the central tribes, some tattoo; cially mosques and the Bey's palace, varied manufactures, some were head-hunters, and prepared the heads taken as tapestries, leather, soap, cloth, and olive oil, and a considerable did the Maori of New Zealand. The mission-work among trade. Pop. ab. 135,000.

the s. tribes has fallen into decay since the expulsion of

the Jesuits. They had in 1732 over 30 parisbes, including Tunkers. See DUNKERS.

141,000 souls, under parochial, semi-communistic rule. True Tunnel. Horizontal passage under the surface of the earth, Tupi-Guarani are of copper-red color, and in disposition silent, built for an aqueduct, canal, or railroad. The Romans con patient, torpid. Considerable agriculture is practiced. structed several in connection with their water supply. The

Tupper, SIR CHARLES, M.D., D.C.L., b. 1821. Prime cost is, roughly, ab. $500,000 per mile. The Arlberg tunnel in

Minister of Nova Scotia 1864–67: Canadian Minister of State the Tyrolese Alps is 63 m. long; opened 1883. The subaqueous

1870–73, 1878-84, and 1887–88; Commissioner in London and tunnel under the Severn for the Great Western Railway is 43

Baronet 1888.-His son, SIR CHARLES HIBBERT, b.1855, Cana. m. long. That under the Mersey is, including approaches,

dian official, was knighted 1893. 41 m. long; opened 1886. The Simplon tunnel, the contract for which was made in Sept. 1893, is to be 127 m. long. That Tupper, MARTIN FARQUHAR, D.C.L.. F.R.S., 1810-1889. under the Hudson River, opposite Jersey City, was partly con English author. His Proverbial Philosophy, 1838-42, written structed 1880–86, 1,800 ft. being completed; work was resumed in unrhymed verse, was immensely popular, but little es1889, but again suspended. The north tunnel from the N. J. teemed by critics. A 3d part appeared 1867. My Life as an side is of brick, oval, 16 ft. by 18 ft. bigh inside, 2,000 ft. long, Author, 1886. and beyond of cast-iron, 18 ft. 2 in. diameter, 2,000 ft., with ab.

Turan. Anciently, those parts of the Sasanian monarchy 1,600 ft. to build to reach the shaft; it is 5,680 ft. between the shasts, 5,400 st. between bulkheads. The top of the tunnel is

which did not belong to Iran, on the north; now sometimes 14 ft. below the river bed. Lake Fucinus in Italy was drained

| applied to Turkestan. In philology Turanian has been mainly

| opposed to Aryan, serving as a general term for that family by a tunnel begun by Claudius, 11 years in building, and ab.

of languages otherwise known as SCYTHIAN (q.v.) and Ural31 m. long. Prince Torlonia reconstructed this 1854–76, extending it by 2,200 ft., and reclaiming ab.40,000 acres of fer

Altaic, mostlyn, and w. of China and Tibet. It includes tile land. See ADIT, HOOSIC, HUDSON RIVER, MT. CENIS, ST.

Mongols, Samoyeds, Hungarians, Turks, Finns, Lapps, etc.;

but of late is falling into discredit and disuse. GOTHARD, and THAMES TUNNELS.

Turbellaria, or PLANARIDA. Free-living Platyhelminths, Tunny (ORYCNUS THYNNUS, HORSE MACKEREL). Acanthop

with flat ovate bodies, covered with cilia. They have a mouth, terygian fish, which sometimes attains a weight of 1,000 lbs.

but no anus, hooks, or suckers. They are divided into the subor more. It Jives in the N. Atlantic, and is especially abun

orders RHABDOCELA and DENDROCEELA (q.v.). dant in the Mediterranean, where it is caught in special pounds, several hundred fishermen uniting to raise the net

Turberville, GEORGE, ab. 1530-1600. English poet and which forms the bottom of the inclosure. On American translator. Faulconrie, 1575; Venerie, 1576. shores it is caught by harpooning.

Turbine. Form of water motor, revolving at a high veTunstall, CUTHBERT, D.D., 1474–1559. Bp. of London 1522,

locity, and utilizing the impact and reaction upon curved and of Durham 1530; deprived 1552 and 1559, restored 1553;

blades of water moving at high speed, due to fall. There are a learned and moderate prelate, who bore no part in the

3 classes: 1st, those receiving water parallel with the axis and persecutions under Mary.

discharging in same direction, called parallel-flow wheels; of

these the Fontaine and Jon val are historic types, and the ColTuomey, MICHAEL, 1808–1857. State Geologist of S. C. lins is a modern form: 2d. the outward flow, in which the 1844, and of Ala. 1848; prof. Univ. Ala. from 1847; author of water moves radially outward through guide blades, of which the geological map of Ala., 1853.

Fourneyron's wheel is the older type, and the Boyden is a modTupac Amaru, ab.1543-1572. Inca of Peru, executed by

ern form: 3d, the inward and downward flow or center-rent the Spaniards.

wheels, of which the Swain. Leffel, Burnham, Geyelin and Risdon

are types. These may be combined. The axis is usually verTupac Amaru II. (JOSÉ GABRIEL CONDORCANQUI), 1742- tical (universally in earlier forms), but recently they have been

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