Page images



[merged small][graphic][merged small]

stilled the waves by blowing his shell trumpet. Later poets speak of Tritons as subordinate sea-deities. Pausanias describes them as having sea-green hair and eyes, scales on their bodies, and a dolphin's tail.

Triton. See Salamandrina.

Triton (sea-slug). See Ailobranchia.

Tritozodld. Zooid of third generation, produced by a deuterozooid.

Triumph. Highest honor paid in ancient Rome to a victorious general. He entered the city in a solemn procession, riding in a chariot with four horses. In his train marched his army, with their spoils, the principal captives, and musicians. The general wore a gold-embroidered toga and flowered tunic; his head was crowned with a laurel wreath. He held a laurel branch in his right hand and a scepter in his left. After marching up the Sacred Way, through the Forum, he dismounted, climbed the Capitol Hill, and offered a sacrifice to Jupiter. The festivities closed with a banquet.

Triumvirates, Roman. Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus formed the tirst, 60 B.C. It lasted 10 years, and was followed by civil war. The second, formed 43 B.C., consisted of Octavius Caesar, Antony, and Lepidus; Octavius gained absolute power in 31 B.C.

Triurideae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Augio8permaz and subclass Monocotyledons, comprising 2 genera and ab. 16 species, natives of e. S. America, e. India, and the Malayan Archipelago.

Trivium. Three rays or arms of the starfish, opposite the Bivium (q.v.).

Trivium. See Seven Liberal Arts.

Troad. Territory of Troy, or Ilium, in n.w. Mysia, Asia Minor. It contained numerous cities. The siege of Troy by the Greeks is said to have occupied 10 years, ending 1184 B.C. The exact site of the city is disputed: Schliemann believed he had discovered it by his excavations at Hissarlik 1871-73.

Trocar. See Cannula and Tapping.

Trochal Disk. Expanded region around the Rotifer's mouth, which carries a circle of cilia.

Trochanter. Short ring-like second joint of the insect's leg, counting from the body. It may be in several parts; serves for attachment of muscles, and bears the thigh dis tally.

Trochee. Foot of one long and one short syllable; basis of trochaic meters.

Trochilidae. See Tenuirostres.

Trochoids. Class of curves generated by a point on the radius, or radius extended, of a circle rolling upon a fixed base; often identified with cycloids, but usually confined to curves traced by points not on the circumference, while cycloids are curves traced by points on the circumference of the moving circle. See Prolate Cycloid.

Trochu, Louis Jules, 1815-1896. French general 1854; prominent in the Crimea and at Solferino; obnoxious to the emperor through a pamphlet exposing: the condition of the army and approving the Prussian system 1867; Gov. and defender of Paris 1870; Deputy 1871-72. 3femoirej, 1896.

Troctolite. Variety of gabbro, composed of white feldspar and dark olivine.

Trffizen. City of e. Argolis, near the Myrtoum Sea; settled in remote antiquity by Ionians: supposed birthplace o( Theseus; ally of Athens, and later of Sparta; important till 200 B.C. or later, but long since in ruins.

Troglodytes. See Anthropomorpha.

Troglodytes Gorilla. Largest of the Anthropomorpha or man-like Apes. When full grown, the male attains a height of five and a half feet. The canines, muzzle, and superciliary crest become enormously developed. The arms reach to the knees when the animal is erect. It is arboreal, and constructs


Gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla).

nests, in which the female brings forth its young. The palms and soles are black and naked, and the three middle digits are united at their bases by the integument. The cranial capacity is ab. 31 cu. in.; that of an Australian is 71 cu. in., and of an average European 93 cu. in.

Troglodytes Niger. Chimpanzee, one of the Anthropo

morpha, inhabiting w. Africa e. to Abyssinia. The arms are long, and reach to the knees when the animal is erect, which is not its natural position when walking, though assumed at times when at rest. The body is covered with reddish-brown

[graphic][merged small][merged small]
[ocr errors]

have been described, but they may be mere varieties. Chimpanzees average a foot shorter in height than gorillas. The nest is used only by the female during confinement. As in gorillas, 18 pairs of ribs are present.

Trogons. Picarian birds, frequenting retired tropical forests; in the Miocene they were more widely distributed. They have a character unique among birds, in that both the first and second toes are turned backward; but these are weak, and not used for climbing. They are scliizognathic; ab. 50 species are known. The Old World forms feed on insects, but the New World ones eat fruit, snatching it from the tree while on the wing. They range in size from that of a thrush to a crow. The most brilliant species is the Quesal, with golden green color, black tail and crimson beneath. The male has the middle tail and the wing-coverts lengthened; the former are streamers 3 ft. long.

Trogus Pompelus, ab.40 B.C.-30. Latin authorof a universal history in 44 books, of which an epitome by M. Junianus Justinus (2d cent.) survives.

Trolley. Small metallic wheel, fastened to a flexible conductor or trolley pole, which travels in contact with the overhead wire, thus conveying the electric current to the motors on an electric car. See Electric Railways.

Trollope, Anthony, 1815-1882. English realistic novelist, voluminous and popular; best in his sketches of clerical life, as The Warden, 1855, Barchester Towers. 1857. and Last Chronicles of Barset, 1867. Autobiography, 1883.—His mother, FranCes (milton), 1780-1863, caused much wrath by her Manners of the Americans, 1832, and pub. several novels.

Trollope, Edward, D.D., b.1817. Bp. suffragan of Nottingham 1877; writer on history and architecture.

Trollope, Thomas Adolphus, 1810-1893. English novelist and historical writer, long resident in Florence and Rome; brother of Anthony. Beppo, 1864: The Oarstangs. 1859.—His wife, Frances Eleanor, is the 4th novelist of this family. Aunt Margaret's Trouble, 1866; That Unfortunate Marriage, 1888.

Trolls. Legendary giants of Scandinavia; dull-witted, and enemies of men.

Trttltsch, Anton Friedrich, Freiherr Von, 1829-1890. Prof. Wurzburg from 1864; eminent as an aurist. Anatomie dea Ohres, 1860; Ohrenheilkunde, 1862.

Trombidium. Bright-colored Mite, with hairy body, with eyes and tracheal respiration. The young are hexapodous, and are parasitic on Insects, Arachnids, and Mammals.

Trombone. Large trumpet so constructed that its tube can be lengthened, one portion sliding over the other, so as to command a greater range of tones than would be possible in a tube of fixed length. Formerly there were four kinds, bear

[graphic][merged small]

ing the names of the voices, soprano, alto, tenor and bass; the first two are seldom seen now. A double quartet is used at Moravian funerals at Bethlehem, Pa. In a symphony orchestra there are generally three, two tenors and a bass. The instrument is ancient, having been found at Pompeii.

Trommel. See Drum.

Tromp, Martin Harpertzoon Van, 1597-1653. Dutch admiral 1537; victorious over Spanish fleets Feb. and Oct. 1639, and over Blake (q.v.) Dec. 10, 1652; said to have sailed up the English Channel with a broom at his masthead; defeated by the British Feb. 28, 1653, June 12-13, and Aug. 8-9; slain in the last action.—His son, Cornelis, 16291691, Admiral 1653, was prominent in several battles, especially 1666 and 1673. He was made an English baron 1675. and succeeded De Ruyter in chief command of the Dutch navy 1676.

Trompe. Water blowing-engine; used as a furnace blast in Europe and America. It can only be used where a fall of water can be obtained, as it is based upon the principle that water falling through a pipe, with an opening in the side, will draw in air, which, by a simple arrangement, can be made to supply a constant blast.

Tromid. Commercial and fishing port of n. Norway, on e. coast of Tromsd Island, which is one of the most mountain

[merged small][graphic][merged small]

mostly burned 1530, has lately been restored: the choir is old. The town has a good export trade, chiefly dried fish, sulphur and copper. Pop., 1891, 25,051.

Troop. Smallest tactical unit of cavalry. In the U. S. service it consists of a captain. 2 lieutenants, 6 sergeants, 4 corporals, 2 trumpeters. 2 farriers, 1 saddler, 1 wagoner, 50 privates: a total of 3 commissioned officers and 66 enlisted men. Four troops form a squadron. In the plural, any body of soldiers.

Trooplal, or Troupial. American tropical bird of genus Icterus, ab. size of a largre robin; black, with beautiful yellow and white markings. It has a clear and pleasing but short whistling song, repeated at intervals.

Trooit, Gerard, 1776-1850. B. in Holland; first pres. Phila. Academy of Natural Sciences 1817-21: Prof, of Mineralogy in Phila. Museum 1821; prof. Univ. Nashville from 1828; State geologist of Tenn. 1831^19.

Tropseolines. Sodium salts of compounds formed by the action of phenols upon the diazo compound of sulphanilic acid. They dye wool various shades of orange in an acid bath, and are used as indicators in alkalimetry and acidimetry.

Trope. Figure of speech involving a departure from literal and prosaic truth. Thus metaphor is a trope; simile is not, nor is antithesis.

Troplil. In Insects, parts of the mouth which function in the acquisition of food.

Trophoiiius, Oracle Of. In a cave in Lebadeia. Bceotia. Whoever would consult it. drank first of the well of Oblivion, then of that of Recollection, then descended by a ladder and put his feet into an opening in the cave's side and was drawn in bodily by some invisible power. This oracle was highly esteemed, and in Plutarch's time was the only one where responses were given.

Trophoplast. Certain Leucites or Plastids found in vegetable cells; term applied by Meyer.

Trophosome. General assemblage of nutritive polyps of a Hydrozoon.

Trophy. Spoils of war, usually armor, set up by the Greeks and Romans on a battlefield, originally at the point where the enemy turned to flight.

Tropical Year. Time required for an apparent revolution of the sun from one equinox to the same. Owing to precession, the arc passed over is a little less than 360 degrees.

Tropic Birds. Three species (Red-billed, Yellow-billed, and White-tailed) of oceanic birds, resembling gulls; but in flight they beat their wings rapidly like ducks. The middle tail feathers are greatly elongated. The young are covered

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][graphic][merged small]

out making a nest. The Red-billed species is Indian and Pacific; the Yellow-billed has a body as large as a pigeon, and breeds in Bermuda.

Tropics. 1. Two small circles of the celestial sphere, parallel to the equator, and distant from it 23° 27'. That of Cancer is n., that of Capricorn s., of the equator. They are so called from the signs of the Zodiac, which begin at the points where these circles touch the ecliptic. 2. Two similar circles on the earth.

Tropldonotus. See Water-snakes.

Trophic. CBH16NO. Base, rapt. 61° C; prepared by the decomposing action of acids or alkalies on atropine or hyoscyamine.

Troplong, Raymond Theodore, 1795 -1869. French judge, Peer 1846, Senator 1852. Code civil explique, 28 vols., 1833-58.

Troppau. Capital of Austrian Silesia; on the Oppa; scene of a futile congress of the powers Oct.-Nov. 1820. Pop., 1890, 22,867.

Trossachs. Glen of Perthshire, celebrated by Scott; much visited by tourists.

Trot. See Gaits and Horse Racing.

Trott, Nicholas, 1663-1740. Judge in S. C. Laws Relating to Ch. and Clergy, 1721; Laws of S. C., 1736.

Trotzendorf, Valentin. Name given toFRiEDLAND (q.v.); being born at Trotzendorf, Germany.

Troubadours. Knightly, noble, and royal minstrels of France 1000-1300, corresponding to the MINNESINGERS (q.v.) of Germany. The most famous were Raoul de Coucy, King Thibaut IV. of Navarre, Adam De La Halle (q.v.), and Guillaume Machault.

Trouble. In Mining, any disturbance of regularity in a formation or in a mass of ore, whether produced by faulting or otherwise.

Trough of Low Pressure. Long narrow region or very elongated oval portion of the earth's surface, over which the barometric pressure is lower than on either side. Usually the winds are found blowing toward such belts or troughs over which calms and rains prevail. The equatorial belt is a permanent belt of this kind; minor belts frequently occur in the TJ. S., lasting for from 1 to 3 days, and closing up into a circular storm center.

Troup, George Mcintosh, 1780-1856. M.C. 1807-15; U. S. Senator 1816-19 and 1829-33; Gov. of Ga. 1823-27. During his term the Creeks ceded their lands to the State.

Troup, Robert. 1757-1832. American officer; U. S. Dist. Judge for N. Y. ab.1784.

Trousdale, William, 1790-1872. Col. in war with Mexico; Gov. of Tenn. 1849-51; Minister to Brazil 1853-57.

Trout. See Isospondyli and Salmonid^e. The Sea Trout is Salmo trutta, the Black Spotted Trout is Salmo fario. S. gairdneri (Steel-head), S. irideus (Rainbow Trout), or S. jmrpuratus (Red-throat). The Brook and the Lake Trout are the


1. Atlantic Salmon (Salmo talar); 2. Sea or Salmon Trout (Salmo trutta;.

Chars, including the genus Salvelinus, of which the species S. alpinus, S. oguassa, S. fontinalis, and S. namaycush are examples. See Salmo and Salvelinus.

Trouveres. Mediaeval poets of n. France. See TrocbaDours.

Trouvillc. Seacoast resort of n. France, 10 m. s.w. of Honfleur. Pop. ab. 7,000.

Trover. Legal action for Conversion (q.v.).

Trow, John Fowler, 1810-1886. Printer in New York: publisher of directories from 1849.

Trowbridge, Edmund, 1709-1792. Judge of Mass. Supreme Court 1767-72.

Trowbridge, John, b.1843. Prof. Harvard since 1880; noted for electrical researches; author of many papers. Afir Physics, 1884.

Trowbridge, John Townsend. b.1827. American novelist, poet, and writer for boys. Cudjo's Cave, 1863.

Trowbridge, William Petit, LL.D., 1828-1892. Assistant on U. S. Coast Survey 1857-63; Prof, of Engineering iD Yale 1870, and Columbia from 1877. Heat, 1874; Turbine Whnh, 1879.

Trowel Bayonet. Bayonet shaped like a trowel and intended to be used as an intrenching tool: invented by Lieut. Rice of the U. S. army,

Troy. Capital of Rensselaer co., N. Y., on the e. bank of the Hudson, at the head of steam navigation; 5 m. n. of-Albany; founded 1659, incorporated 1816. It has several railroads, two canals, and varied manufactures, especially of iron, shirts, and collars. It is the seat of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Pop., 1890, 60,956.

Troy. See Troad.

Troya, Carlo, 1785-1858. Italian historian.

Troyes. City of France, on the Seine, 104 m. e.s.e. of Paris; important in the later Middle Ages. It has a good trade, and cotton and other manufactures. By a treaty concluded here May 21,1420, Henry V. of England agreed to marry Catherine, daughter of Charles VI., and was recognized as hi* heir and regent. Pop., 1891, 49,808.

Troyon, Constant, 1810-1865. French painter of landscape and cattle; at his best the equal of any modern landscape painter, and superior of any in animals.

Troy Weight. See Pound.

Trubner, Nicholas, 1817-1884. German-English publisher and bibliographer.

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

Truce. Suspension of hostilities, either genera) or partial (local), for a definite period, during which each army is to refrain from aggression, and the status quo to be maintained.

Truce, Flag Of. See Flag Of Truce.
Truce of God. See Peace Of God.
Truck. See Bissell Truck and Bogie.

Truck System. That of paying wages, in whole or part.

in commodities instead of money. It has invariably Wen found injurious, and has been abolished by law in various countries.

True, Charles Kittridge, D.D., 1809-1878. Prof. Wesleyan Univ. 1849-60; biographical writer.

Triloba y Quintana, Antonio De, 1821-1889. Spanish poet and novelist.

True Cross. See Holy Rood.

True Reformed Dutch Church. Body which was absorbed into the Christian Reformed Church, 1889, and which had separated from the Reformed Dutch Church in America in 1822. See Reformed Church.

Truffle. Ascomycetous fungus of subterranean habit, its sporocarps large and highly esteemed for food. There are numerous species, mainly of the genus Tuber, most abundant in Europe.

Trullan Councils. Held at Constantinople 680, to condemn the Monothelites, and 692 (Quinsext), to supplement the 5th and 6th General Councils; named from a domed hall in the palace.

Trumbull, Benjamin, D.D., 1735-1820. Pastor in Conn. Hist. Conn., 1797; Hist. U. S. (to 1765), 1810.—His grandson, Lyman, 1813-1896, was Justice III. Supreme Court Truffle 1848-53, and U. S. Senator 1855-73.

{Tuber cotivum). _ T . - -»

Trumbull, James Hammond, LL.D.. 1821-1897. Conn, antiquarian and philologist; writer on the Algonquin and other Indian languages.—His brother, Henry Clay, D.D., b.1831, sec. Sunday-School Union 1871, and long ed. Sunday - School Times, is a prolific writer. KadeshBarnea, 1884.

Trumbull, John, LL.D.. 1750-1831. Poet and essayist; Judge Conn. Superior Court 1801-19. His McFingal, 177482, a satire, was long popular; some of its lines are still quoted.

Trumbull, Jonathan, LL.D., 1710-1785. Assistant or Councilor in Conn. 1740-69; Chief-justice 1766-69; Gov. 176983; called by Washington "first of patriots" and "Brother Jonathan," whence probably that name as applied to the country.—Of his sons, Joseph, 1737-1778, was in Congress 177475, and Commissary-gen. of the army 1775-77: Jonathan. 17401809, was array paymaster 1775-80, aid to Washington 1780-83, M.C. 1789-95, Speaker 1791-95, U. S. Senator 1795-96, of Conn. 1796-98, and Gov. from 1798: John, 1756-1843, was in the army 1775-77, and later won as a painter, mainly of scenes from the Revolution and portraits of public men. He was long in England, and from 1816 mostly in New York. Four large pictures of his are in the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington. Most of his works, 57 in all, were sold ab.1827 to Yale Coll. for an annuity of $1,000, and are preserved in its museum. His importance is chiefly historical; but for his time he was no mean artist.

Trumbull, Joseph, LL.D., 1782-1861. Grandson of Jonathan; M.C. 1834-35 and 1839-43; Gov. of Conn. 1849-50.

Trumpet. Musical instrument of brass, consisting of a tube ab. 8 ft. long, bent on itself for convenience in handling, widening into a bell on one end and terminating in a cup

[graphic][merged small]

pertaining to a natural tube. It is the most ancient wind instrument.

Trumpet Creeper, or Trumpet-flower. Tecoma radicans. High climbing vine of the natural family Bignoniaceee, native of the s.e. U. S., bearing showy scarlet flowers and long pods.

Trumpeter. Breed of pigeons, so called from the peculiarity of their cooing. The tarsi are well feathered, and the spreading crest overhanging the eyes must be trimmed, so that they can feed their young; white and black are the best colors.

Trumpets. Sarracenia flava. Yellow-flowered bog plant, with pitcher-like leaves, growing in bogs in the s.e. U. S.

Trumpet-Tree. Cecropia peltata. Tree of the Breadfruit family, native of tropical America, so called in the W. Indies.

Trumpet-Weed. See Joe-pye Weed.

Truncated Cone, or Pyramid. Part included between the base and a secant plane not parallel to the base.

Truncus Arteriosus. Ventral aorta in Vertebrates from which the aortic arches spring; sometimes divided into a valvular conus arteriosus near the heart and a more distant bulbus arteriosus.

Trunk Engine. Form of steam engine, in which the connecting-rod is pinned to the piston instead of to a crosshead connected by a rod to the piston. To admit of the angular motion of the connecting-rod without leakage of steam at the head of the cylinder, the effective diameter of the piston is reduced by a hollow tube or trunk, whose bore is big enough to admit of the swing of the connecting-rod inside of it, and whose outer surface fits the cylinder head steam tight by means of a stuffing-box. The trunk may be cylindrical, orof an oval shape. The engine is much shortened and compacted in this design, but the power of the two strokes is different, unless a second trunk is used on the other side, when the piston and cylinder become annular.

Trunk-Fish. See Plectognathi.

Truro. Old town of Cornwall, on an inlet, 12 m. n.n.e. of Falmouth, on a peninsula, at the junction of rivers Allen and


Truro Cathedral.

Kenwyn. T. was formerly an important mining town, in a region of tin and copper mines; seat of a former bishopric, revived 1876. Pop., 1891, 11,131.

Truro, Thomas Wilde, Baron, 1782-1855. M.P. 1831 and later; knighted 1840; Atty.-gen. 1841; Chief-justice of Common Pleas 1846; Baron 1850; Lord Chancellor 1850-52.

Truss. System of members consisting of an upper chord, a lower chord, and webbing, so arranged that each is strained only in tension or compression; everywhere used for roofs and bridges. The first trusses were employed in Italy and Germany in the 13th century, but the scientific method of arrangement was little studied until ab.1830. The first satisfactory theoretic discussion of the stresses in bridge trusses made in the U.S. was pub. by Whipple 1847. The Howe truss, introduced 1840. the Whipple 1850, the Pratt 1855, are those most extensively used for simple bridges. The stresses in the chords decrease, while those in the webbing increase, as the depth of the truss 1558


[merged small][graphic][merged small]

a structure which exerts a horizontal pull or thrust upon its supports.

Truss Bridge. One deriving its supporting power from trusses which bring only vertical pressures on the piers. See Bridge and Truss.

Trust. Beneficial interest in property, the legal title to which is in another. The owner of such interest is called the cestin que trust, the holder of the legal title, the trustee. This is one of the most important subjects in equity jurisprudence.

Trusts. Trade combinations, in which several previously competing producers enter into an agreement to produce only a certain quantity of goods within a specified time, and to sell these only at a certain price. They have excited much recent attention and opposition in the Xf. S.

Trutb. Fact, reality, whether physical or spiritual; in a narrower sense, agreement of verbal expressions with the thought in the speaker's mind.

Truth, Sojourner. See Sojourner Truth.

Truthfulness. See Veracity.

Truxtun, Thomas, 1755-1822. Privateer 1776-82, distinguished in several engagements; Captain U.S.N. 1798. With the Constellation he fought and took a French frigate of superior force, L'Insurgente, Feb. 9, 1799; and defeated another, La Vengeance, F<-b. 1, 1800. He left the navy 1802 through a misunderstanding.— His grandson, William Talbot, U.S.N., 1824-1887, served through the Civil War, became Commander 1866, Captain 1873, and Commodore 1882.

Trygon. See Rays.

Trymberg, Hugo Von, d.ab.1300. German poet.

Tryon, Dwight William, b.1849. American landscape painter. N.A. 1891.

Tryon, George Washington, 1838-1888. Curator Phila. Academy of Natural Sciences 1869, and of its conchological section from 1875. Shells of D>. America, 4 vols., 1873; Manual of Conchology, 12 vols., 1879-85.

Tryon, William, ab.1725-1788. Gov. of N. C. 1765-71, and of N. Y. 1771-78; obnoxious for cruelty to prisoners and destructive raids into Conn.; Major-gen. 1777, Lieut.-gen. 1782.

Tryphlodorus. Egyptian-Greek author of uncertain date. His poem on the Falling of Troy survives.

Trypsin. One of the four pancreatic ferments of PanCreatin (q.v.), which digests proteids. It is the most important of the digestive ferments.

Tsad, Lake. See Chad.

Tsar. See Czar.

Tsarltsin, or Zaritzin. Town of s.e. Russia, on the Volga. It is surrounded by vineyards, and has flour mills and tanneries. Pop., 1890,40,130.

Tsarskoye-Selo. Russian town, 14 m. s. of St. Petersburg; site of two summer palaces. Pop. ab.17,000.

Tschalkowsky, Peter Ilitsch, 1840-1893. Russian composer of great versatility, in New York 1891. His chief works are the operas Woiwode, 1869, Opritschnik, 1874, Wakula, 1876, Eugen Onegin, 1879. Maid of Orleans. 1881, Mazeppa, 1882, Tscharavitschki, 1886, Tscharodeika, 1887, Piquedame, 1890, and Iolanthe, 1893; two pianoforte concertos, in B-flat major and G minor; symphonic poems, and six symphonies, in G minor, C minor, D major, F minor, E minor, and B minor (Pathetique).

Tschcrmigite. Natural ammonia alum; named from Tschermig, Bohemia, one of the localities at which it has been found.

Tschudl, -iegidius, 1505-1572. Swiss chronicler. His work, extending to 1470, was pub. 1734-36, and carried on by J. von Mflller.

Tschudi, Johann Jakob Von, 1818-1889. Swiss naturalist, in Peru 1838-43; envoy at Vienna 1866-83. Fauna Peruana, 1844-47.

Tseng, Kwoh-fan, 1807-1872. Gov.-gen of Kiang provinces.—His son, Ki-tseh, Marquis, 1848-1890, was Chinese envoy to England. France, and Russia. 1878-86.

Tsetse (glossina Morsitans). S. African fly, destructive to cattle and other animals.

Tslng. Ruling (Manchu) dynasty of China.

T-Square. Flat ruler furnished with a short crosshead, used by draughtsmen for drawing parallel lines.

Tuamotu. Group of coral islands in the s. Pacific, between 14" and 24° S. lat., and 135° and 150° W. Ions'., forming a dependency of the French possession of Tahiti. Called LouIslands by Bougainville, who discovered them, and later named Dangerous Islands by Cook. There are ab. 80 in all, 3 being atolls. Area ab. 3'AO sq. m.

Tuaregs. Berber tribes of central Sahara; nomadic warriors who exact tribute from caravans; distin- ws guished from the n. Ber- II bers, who are admixed with Arab blood, and w. Berbers, who are shepherds and have the upper part of the body naked; the T. are well clothed and wear a veil wrapped about the head and face, though the women go unveiled. They are Moslems, but monogamy prevails. Some agriculture is practiced on the oases. They hold negro slaves, and have sharp distinctions of caste.

Tuat. Group of oases, in w. Sahara, s. of Algeria. There is abundance of subterranean water, and the country is very fertile, producing mostly dates.



Tuaregs (Tuarics) on Journey.

Tuatara. New

land name for the Teria (q.v.).

Tuba. Bass musical instrument, belonging to the valved horns; sometimes called bombardon. Its tube is so long that it is either rolled in a spiral like a horn or bent on itself like a contrabassoon. See Saxhorn.

Tubal Cain. In Genesis, descendant of Cain; inventor of metallurgy.

Tube. Hollow organ formed by the union of sepals, petals, or stamens; also, projection from a germinating pollen-grain.

Tube, Drawn. Cylindrical tubes for gun-barrels, etc . made without a weld (see Pipe). An ingot or other homogeneous mass of metal is perforated in the center to take a mandrel of the required size. This mass, of short length but considerable thickness, is then reduced by repeated pressures and rollings with reheatings, until its length and thinness has reached the desired limit, when the last mandrel is withdrawn. The profess is expensive, but is best adapted for certain classes of wort, as in copper and brass.

Tube, In Hydraulics. Hollow cylinder whose length is ab. three times its interior diameter. The amount of water discharged through a tube is ab. 82 per cent of the theoretic amount.

Tube of Force. Space inclosed by lines of force drawn through all the points of contour of a portion of an equipotential surface in a field of force. Its lateral parts are always lines of force, while the ends are alwa.vs equipotential surfaces.

Tuber. Thickened portion of a rhizome or subterranean stem, generally rendered fleshy by the accumulation of starchy matters, as in the potato.

Tuberaceae. Order of Fungi of the subclass Aneomytxtc*

including the truffles.

« PreviousContinue »