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out making a nest. The Red-billed species is Indian and Pacific; the Yellow-billed has a body as large as a pigeon, and breeds in Bermuda.

Tropics. 1. Two small circles of the celestial sphere, parallel to the equator, and distant from it 23° 27'. That of Cancer is n., that of Capricorn s., of the equator. They are so called from the signs of the Zodiac, which begin at the points where these circles touch the ecliptic. 2. Two similar circles on the earth.

Tropldonotus. See Water-snakes.

Trophic. CBH16NO. Base, rapt. 61° C; prepared by the decomposing action of acids or alkalies on atropine or hyoscyamine.

Troplong, Raymond Theodore, 1795 -1869. French judge, Peer 1846, Senator 1852. Code civil explique, 28 vols., 1833-58.

Troppau. Capital of Austrian Silesia; on the Oppa; scene of a futile congress of the powers Oct.-Nov. 1820. Pop., 1890, 22,867.

Trossachs. Glen of Perthshire, celebrated by Scott; much visited by tourists.

Trot. See Gaits and Horse Racing.

Trott, Nicholas, 1663-1740. Judge in S. C. Laws Relating to Ch. and Clergy, 1721; Laws of S. C., 1736.

Trotzendorf, Valentin. Name given toFRiEDLAND (q.v.); being born at Trotzendorf, Germany.

Troubadours. Knightly, noble, and royal minstrels of France 1000-1300, corresponding to the MINNESINGERS (q.v.) of Germany. The most famous were Raoul de Coucy, King Thibaut IV. of Navarre, Adam De La Halle (q.v.), and Guillaume Machault.

Trouble. In Mining, any disturbance of regularity in a formation or in a mass of ore, whether produced by faulting or otherwise.

Trough of Low Pressure. Long narrow region or very elongated oval portion of the earth's surface, over which the barometric pressure is lower than on either side. Usually the winds are found blowing toward such belts or troughs over which calms and rains prevail. The equatorial belt is a permanent belt of this kind; minor belts frequently occur in the TJ. S., lasting for from 1 to 3 days, and closing up into a circular storm center.

Troup, George Mcintosh, 1780-1856. M.C. 1807-15; U. S. Senator 1816-19 and 1829-33; Gov. of Ga. 1823-27. During his term the Creeks ceded their lands to the State.

Troup, Robert. 1757-1832. American officer; U. S. Dist. Judge for N. Y. ab.1784.

Trousdale, William, 1790-1872. Col. in war with Mexico; Gov. of Tenn. 1849-51; Minister to Brazil 1853-57.

Trout. See Isospondyli and Salmonid^e. The Sea Trout is Salmo trutta, the Black Spotted Trout is Salmo fario. S. gairdneri (Steel-head), S. irideus (Rainbow Trout), or S. jmrpuratus (Red-throat). The Brook and the Lake Trout are the


1. Atlantic Salmon (Salmo talar); 2. Sea or Salmon Trout (Salmo trutta;.

Chars, including the genus Salvelinus, of which the species S. alpinus, S. oguassa, S. fontinalis, and S. namaycush are examples. See Salmo and Salvelinus.

Trouveres. Mediaeval poets of n. France. See TrocbaDours.

Trouvillc. Seacoast resort of n. France, 10 m. s.w. of Honfleur. Pop. ab. 7,000.

Trover. Legal action for Conversion (q.v.).

Trow, John Fowler, 1810-1886. Printer in New York: publisher of directories from 1849.

Trowbridge, Edmund, 1709-1792. Judge of Mass. Supreme Court 1767-72.

Trowbridge, John, b.1843. Prof. Harvard since 1880; noted for electrical researches; author of many papers. Afir Physics, 1884.

Trowbridge, John Townsend. b.1827. American novelist, poet, and writer for boys. Cudjo's Cave, 1863.

Trowbridge, William Petit, LL.D., 1828-1892. Assistant on U. S. Coast Survey 1857-63; Prof, of Engineering iD Yale 1870, and Columbia from 1877. Heat, 1874; Turbine Whnh, 1879.

Trowel Bayonet. Bayonet shaped like a trowel and intended to be used as an intrenching tool: invented by Lieut. Rice of the U. S. army,

Troy. Capital of Rensselaer co., N. Y., on the e. bank of the Hudson, at the head of steam navigation; 5 m. n. of-Albany; founded 1659, incorporated 1816. It has several railroads, two canals, and varied manufactures, especially of iron, shirts, and collars. It is the seat of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Pop., 1890, 60,956.

Troy. See Troad.

Troya, Carlo, 1785-1858. Italian historian.

Troyes. City of France, on the Seine, 104 m. e.s.e. of Paris; important in the later Middle Ages. It has a good trade, and cotton and other manufactures. By a treaty concluded here May 21,1420, Henry V. of England agreed to marry Catherine, daughter of Charles VI., and was recognized as hi* heir and regent. Pop., 1891, 49,808.

Troyon, Constant, 1810-1865. French painter of landscape and cattle; at his best the equal of any modern landscape painter, and superior of any in animals.

Troy Weight. See Pound.

Trubner, Nicholas, 1817-1884. German-English publisher and bibliographer.

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Truce. Suspension of hostilities, either genera) or partial (local), for a definite period, during which each army is to refrain from aggression, and the status quo to be maintained.

Truce, Flag Of. See Flag Of Truce.
Truce of God. See Peace Of God.
Truck. See Bissell Truck and Bogie.

Truck System. That of paying wages, in whole or part.

in commodities instead of money. It has invariably Wen found injurious, and has been abolished by law in various countries.

True, Charles Kittridge, D.D., 1809-1878. Prof. Wesleyan Univ. 1849-60; biographical writer.

Triloba y Quintana, Antonio De, 1821-1889. Spanish poet and novelist.

True Cross. See Holy Rood.

True Reformed Dutch Church. Body which was absorbed into the Christian Reformed Church, 1889, and which had separated from the Reformed Dutch Church in America in 1822. See Reformed Church.

Truffle. Ascomycetous fungus of subterranean habit, its sporocarps large and highly esteemed for food. There are numerous species, mainly of the genus Tuber, most abundant in Europe.

Trullan Councils. Held at Constantinople 680, to condemn the Monothelites, and 692 (Quinsext), to supplement the 5th and 6th General Councils; named from a domed hall in the palace.

Trumbull, Benjamin, D.D., 1735-1820. Pastor in Conn. Hist. Conn., 1797; Hist. U. S. (to 1765), 1810.—His grandson, Lyman, 1813-1896, was Justice III. Supreme Court Truffle 1848-53, and U. S. Senator 1855-73.

{Tuber cotivum). _ T . - -»

Trumbull, James Hammond, LL.D.. 1821-1897. Conn, antiquarian and philologist; writer on the Algonquin and other Indian languages.—His brother, Henry Clay, D.D., b.1831, sec. Sunday-School Union 1871, and long ed. Sunday - School Times, is a prolific writer. KadeshBarnea, 1884.

Trumbull, John, LL.D.. 1750-1831. Poet and essayist; Judge Conn. Superior Court 1801-19. His McFingal, 177482, a satire, was long popular; some of its lines are still quoted.

Trumbull, Jonathan, LL.D., 1710-1785. Assistant or Councilor in Conn. 1740-69; Chief-justice 1766-69; Gov. 176983; called by Washington "first of patriots" and "Brother Jonathan," whence probably that name as applied to the country.—Of his sons, Joseph, 1737-1778, was in Congress 177475, and Commissary-gen. of the army 1775-77: Jonathan. 17401809, was array paymaster 1775-80, aid to Washington 1780-83, M.C. 1789-95, Speaker 1791-95, U. S. Senator 1795-96, of Conn. 1796-98, and Gov. from 1798: John, 1756-1843, was in the army 1775-77, and later won as a painter, mainly of scenes from the Revolution and portraits of public men. He was long in England, and from 1816 mostly in New York. Four large pictures of his are in the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington. Most of his works, 57 in all, were sold ab.1827 to Yale Coll. for an annuity of $1,000, and are preserved in its museum. His importance is chiefly historical; but for his time he was no mean artist.

Trumbull, Joseph, LL.D., 1782-1861. Grandson of Jonathan; M.C. 1834-35 and 1839-43; Gov. of Conn. 1849-50.

Trumpet. Musical instrument of brass, consisting of a tube ab. 8 ft. long, bent on itself for convenience in handling, widening into a bell on one end and terminating in a cup

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pertaining to a natural tube. It is the most ancient wind instrument.

Trumpet Creeper, or Trumpet-flower. Tecoma radicans. High climbing vine of the natural family Bignoniaceee, native of the s.e. U. S., bearing showy scarlet flowers and long pods.

Trumpeter. Breed of pigeons, so called from the peculiarity of their cooing. The tarsi are well feathered, and the spreading crest overhanging the eyes must be trimmed, so that they can feed their young; white and black are the best colors.

Trumpets. Sarracenia flava. Yellow-flowered bog plant, with pitcher-like leaves, growing in bogs in the s.e. U. S.

Trumpet-Tree. Cecropia peltata. Tree of the Breadfruit family, native of tropical America, so called in the W. Indies.

Trumpet-Weed. See Joe-pye Weed.

Truncated Cone, or Pyramid. Part included between the base and a secant plane not parallel to the base.

Truncus Arteriosus. Ventral aorta in Vertebrates from which the aortic arches spring; sometimes divided into a valvular conus arteriosus near the heart and a more distant bulbus arteriosus.

Trunk Engine. Form of steam engine, in which the connecting-rod is pinned to the piston instead of to a crosshead connected by a rod to the piston. To admit of the angular motion of the connecting-rod without leakage of steam at the head of the cylinder, the effective diameter of the piston is reduced by a hollow tube or trunk, whose bore is big enough to admit of the swing of the connecting-rod inside of it, and whose outer surface fits the cylinder head steam tight by means of a stuffing-box. The trunk may be cylindrical, orof an oval shape. The engine is much shortened and compacted in this design, but the power of the two strokes is different, unless a second trunk is used on the other side, when the piston and cylinder become annular.

Trunk-Fish. See Plectognathi.

Truro. Old town of Cornwall, on an inlet, 12 m. n.n.e. of Falmouth, on a peninsula, at the junction of rivers Allen and


Truro Cathedral.

Kenwyn. T. was formerly an important mining town, in a region of tin and copper mines; seat of a former bishopric, revived 1876. Pop., 1891, 11,131.

Truro, Thomas Wilde, Baron, 1782-1855. M.P. 1831 and later; knighted 1840; Atty.-gen. 1841; Chief-justice of Common Pleas 1846; Baron 1850; Lord Chancellor 1850-52.

Truss. System of members consisting of an upper chord, a lower chord, and webbing, so arranged that each is strained only in tension or compression; everywhere used for roofs and bridges. The first trusses were employed in Italy and Germany in the 13th century, but the scientific method of arrangement was little studied until ab.1830. The first satisfactory theoretic discussion of the stresses in bridge trusses made in the U.S. was pub. by Whipple 1847. The Howe truss, introduced 1840. the Whipple 1850, the Pratt 1855, are those most extensively used for simple bridges. The stresses in the chords decrease, while those in the webbing increase, as the depth of the truss 1558


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a structure which exerts a horizontal pull or thrust upon its supports.

Truss Bridge. One deriving its supporting power from trusses which bring only vertical pressures on the piers. See Bridge and Truss.

Trust. Beneficial interest in property, the legal title to which is in another. The owner of such interest is called the cestin que trust, the holder of the legal title, the trustee. This is one of the most important subjects in equity jurisprudence.

Trusts. Trade combinations, in which several previously competing producers enter into an agreement to produce only a certain quantity of goods within a specified time, and to sell these only at a certain price. They have excited much recent attention and opposition in the Xf. S.

Trutb. Fact, reality, whether physical or spiritual; in a narrower sense, agreement of verbal expressions with the thought in the speaker's mind.

Truth, Sojourner. See Sojourner Truth.

Truthfulness. See Veracity.

Truxtun, Thomas, 1755-1822. Privateer 1776-82, distinguished in several engagements; Captain U.S.N. 1798. With the Constellation he fought and took a French frigate of superior force, L'Insurgente, Feb. 9, 1799; and defeated another, La Vengeance, F<-b. 1, 1800. He left the navy 1802 through a misunderstanding.— His grandson, William Talbot, U.S.N., 1824-1887, served through the Civil War, became Commander 1866, Captain 1873, and Commodore 1882.

Trygon. See Rays.

Trymberg, Hugo Von, d.ab.1300. German poet.

Tryon, Dwight William, b.1849. American landscape painter. N.A. 1891.

Tryon, George Washington, 1838-1888. Curator Phila. Academy of Natural Sciences 1869, and of its conchological section from 1875. Shells of D>. America, 4 vols., 1873; Manual of Conchology, 12 vols., 1879-85.

Tryon, William, ab.1725-1788. Gov. of N. C. 1765-71, and of N. Y. 1771-78; obnoxious for cruelty to prisoners and destructive raids into Conn.; Major-gen. 1777, Lieut.-gen. 1782.

Tryphlodorus. Egyptian-Greek author of uncertain date. His poem on the Falling of Troy survives.

Trypsin. One of the four pancreatic ferments of PanCreatin (q.v.), which digests proteids. It is the most important of the digestive ferments.

Tsad, Lake. See Chad.

Tsar. See Czar.

Tsarltsin, or Zaritzin. Town of s.e. Russia, on the Volga. It is surrounded by vineyards, and has flour mills and tanneries. Pop., 1890,40,130.

Tsarskoye-Selo. Russian town, 14 m. s. of St. Petersburg; site of two summer palaces. Pop. ab.17,000.

Tschalkowsky, Peter Ilitsch, 1840-1893. Russian composer of great versatility, in New York 1891. His chief works are the operas Woiwode, 1869, Opritschnik, 1874, Wakula, 1876, Eugen Onegin, 1879. Maid of Orleans. 1881, Mazeppa, 1882, Tscharavitschki, 1886, Tscharodeika, 1887, Piquedame, 1890, and Iolanthe, 1893; two pianoforte concertos, in B-flat major and G minor; symphonic poems, and six symphonies, in G minor, C minor, D major, F minor, E minor, and B minor (Pathetique).

Tschcrmigite. Natural ammonia alum; named from Tschermig, Bohemia, one of the localities at which it has been found.

Tschudl, -iegidius, 1505-1572. Swiss chronicler. His work, extending to 1470, was pub. 1734-36, and carried on by J. von Mflller.

Tschudi, Johann Jakob Von, 1818-1889. Swiss naturalist, in Peru 1838-43; envoy at Vienna 1866-83. Fauna Peruana, 1844-47.

Tseng, Kwoh-fan, 1807-1872. Gov.-gen of Kiang provinces.—His son, Ki-tseh, Marquis, 1848-1890, was Chinese envoy to England. France, and Russia. 1878-86.

Tsetse (glossina Morsitans). S. African fly, destructive to cattle and other animals.

Tslng. Ruling (Manchu) dynasty of China.

T-Square. Flat ruler furnished with a short crosshead, used by draughtsmen for drawing parallel lines.

Tuamotu. Group of coral islands in the s. Pacific, between 14" and 24° S. lat., and 135° and 150° W. Ions'., forming a dependency of the French possession of Tahiti. Called LouIslands by Bougainville, who discovered them, and later named Dangerous Islands by Cook. There are ab. 80 in all, 3 being atolls. Area ab. 3'AO sq. m.

Tuaregs. Berber tribes of central Sahara; nomadic warriors who exact tribute from caravans; distin- ws guished from the n. Ber- II bers, who are admixed with Arab blood, and w. Berbers, who are shepherds and have the upper part of the body naked; the T. are well clothed and wear a veil wrapped about the head and face, though the women go unveiled. They are Moslems, but monogamy prevails. Some agriculture is practiced on the oases. They hold negro slaves, and have sharp distinctions of caste.

Tuat. Group of oases, in w. Sahara, s. of Algeria. There is abundance of subterranean water, and the country is very fertile, producing mostly dates.



Tuaregs (Tuarics) on Journey.

Tuatara. New

land name for the Teria (q.v.).

Tuba. Bass musical instrument, belonging to the valved horns; sometimes called bombardon. Its tube is so long that it is either rolled in a spiral like a horn or bent on itself like a contrabassoon. See Saxhorn.

Tubal Cain. In Genesis, descendant of Cain; inventor of metallurgy.

Tube. Hollow organ formed by the union of sepals, petals, or stamens; also, projection from a germinating pollen-grain.

Tube, Drawn. Cylindrical tubes for gun-barrels, etc . made without a weld (see Pipe). An ingot or other homogeneous mass of metal is perforated in the center to take a mandrel of the required size. This mass, of short length but considerable thickness, is then reduced by repeated pressures and rollings with reheatings, until its length and thinness has reached the desired limit, when the last mandrel is withdrawn. The profess is expensive, but is best adapted for certain classes of wort, as in copper and brass.

Tube, In Hydraulics. Hollow cylinder whose length is ab. three times its interior diameter. The amount of water discharged through a tube is ab. 82 per cent of the theoretic amount.

Tube of Force. Space inclosed by lines of force drawn through all the points of contour of a portion of an equipotential surface in a field of force. Its lateral parts are always lines of force, while the ends are alwa.vs equipotential surfaces.

Tuber. Thickened portion of a rhizome or subterranean stem, generally rendered fleshy by the accumulation of starchy matters, as in the potato.

Tuberaceae. Order of Fungi of the subclass Aneomytxtc*

including the truffles.

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Tubercle. 1. Conic or nodular projection or eminence,

on the crown of a tooth, near the head of a rib, and elsewhere. 2. Nodular mass of varying size formed in the connective tissues of organs tKat are attacked by the germ of consumption. See TUBERCULOSIS and Bacillus TubercuLosis. 8. Wart-like projection on any part of a plant.

Tubercular. Having the shape of a tubercle.

Tubercular M e n I n gitis. See Meningitis.

Tubercular Proce§». In

Anatomy, same as the DlAPO-
PHYSIS (q.v.).

Tubcrculatc. Surface covered with tubercles.

Tuberculin. See Koch's

Tubercle Bacilli in phthisical expec-LYMPH, toration (x ab.1,800 diameters):

a, bacilli; 6. catarrhal cell,. _Tu*er*U,,°-S C C ' ° r 1B 1

Teeth. Molar teeth in carnivores, that have sharp-cutting projections in addition to crushing surfaces and tubercles on their crowns.

Tuberculo§i§. Ordinarily called consumption, phthisis, or pearl disease; characterized by the formation of tubercles

on or in various organs, usually the lungs, intestines, and lymphatic glands, the result of irritation produced by the presence and multiplication of the Bacillus b tuberculosis, a microbe or disease-germ, parasitic in the organ. From f—C one-seventh to one-third of all deaths are due to , this disease, which is 0 undoubtedly contracted in all cases, in various ways: (1) as congenital, transmitted to the foetus by a consumptive mother; (2) by nursing from a diseased mother

66, giant cells; c, center of tubercle beginning to °r taking milk from a caseate; d, branch of pulmonary artery; consumptive CO w(seeBot alveolar framework of lung. TUBERCULOSIS); (3)

by eating food containing germs that have not been killed by exposure to sufficient heat, as in meat from consumptive animals, or any food exposed to air containing tubercular dust; (4) by breathing tubercular dust. In all cases, certain constitutions (and all constitutions when run down) are especially liable to fall prey to this germ, which in many cases is successfully resisted. The most potent factors aiding in this infection are lack of pure air and sunlight in dwellings, dissipation, and sexual excess. Close inbreeding is considered potent io evolving the consumptive diathesis, but some doubt this. See Koch"s Lymph.

Tuberose. Polianthes tuberosa. Bulbous, fragrant whiteflowered plant of the Lily family, native of India, widely cultivated for ornament.

Tuberous. Irregularly thickened roots or subterranean stems, as the Jerusalem artichoke.

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Britannia Tubular Bridge.

the Britannia bridge in Wales, over Menai Straits, which has two spans each 230 ft. long, and two each 460 ft. Tubular bridges are very stiff, but expensive on account of the great amount of materal required. None have been built since 1870.

Tubular Bullet. Recent invention of Charles Kruka of Prague and Wm. Hebler of Kiissnact, and called the KtukaHebler bullet. It is made of steel, having a copper rotating ring attached to the exterior. The hollow tube has a sabot fitting closely to act as a gas check, which drops off after the bullet leaves the gun. This projectile is still in its experimental stage, and it is claimed that an initial velocity of nearly 3.000 f. s. under a gas pressure of 2,650 atmospheres has been obtained.

Tubular Dispatch. See Pneumatic Dispatch.

Tubular Floret. One of the disk flowers in the Composita, whose corolla is small and regular, in distinction from the ligulate corolla of the ray-flowers.

Tubularlae (athecata, T^iniolata. Gymnoblastea, CoryNida, Gymnotoka, Ocellata, Anthomedus^;). Hydromedusce whose polyp-stocks either are naked or have a chitinous periderm, but no cup-shaped hydrothecae, as in Campanularians. The Medusa-buds are sometimes rudimentary. The sexual cells arise on the manubrium. Four to six ocelli are present at the bases of the tentacles, and correspond in number to the radial canals. The families included are Clavidae, Hydractinida, Tubularidee, Corynidcc, Eudendridce. The group is best termed Gymnoblastea-Anthomedusai.

Til bn la r id;r. Family of TubularUe (Tubularia being typical). There is a chitinous periderm, and the proboscis has a circle of tentacles, as well as the peristome. The generative buds are sessile and arise between the two circles of tentacles. The branches of the colony arise from a root-like stolon. In Tubularia they are much like straws in appearance, slightly branched; at the tip of each is the polyp with its fringes of numerous tentacles. The young pass their embryonic stages in the manubrium of the gonophores.

Tubulosa. Fossil corals with imperfect partitions in their thecffi. See Madreporaria.

Tuck, Friar. Chaplain of Robin Hood, represented as wearing the Franciscan habit; humorous and combative; introduced by Scott in Ivanhoe.

Tuckahoe. Edible, but tasteless fungus, growing on the roots of trees in the s. U. S.; also called Indian Bread.

Tucker, Abraham ("edward Search"). 1705-1774. English author. Light of Nature Pursued, 7 vols., 1768-78.

Tucker, Charlotte Maria ("A. L. O. E."), d.1895. English author of juvenile and religious tales, long a missionary in India.

Tucker, George, 1775-1861. M.C. from Va, 1819-25; prof. Univ. Va. 1825-45; writer on psychology and political economy; biographer of Jefferson 1837. Hist. U. S. to 1841, 4 vols., 1856-58.

Tucker, John Ireland, D.D., 1819-1895. Rector at Troy, N. Y.; compiler of tune-books, much used in P. E. Ch.

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Tucker, Josiah, D.D., 1711-1799. Dean of Gloucester, Eng., 1758; writer on politico economy. Commerce and Taxes, 1753.

Tucker, Luther, 1803-1873. Founder and ed. Genessee Farmer, 1831, and Country Gentleman, 1853.—His son, Willis Gaylord, M.D.. became pres. Albany Coll. of Pharmacy 1883.

Tucker, St. George, LL.D., 1753-1828. Judge of Va. courts, and of U. 8. District Court 1813-37; poet and legal writer; ed. Blackstone 1803. Slavery, 1796; Alien and Sedition Laws, 1799. —His son, Nathaniel Beverley, 1784-1851. was judge in Mo. 1816-30, and law prof. William and Mary Coll. from 1834. His Partisan Leader, 1836, a romance, was repub. 1861 as A Key to the Disunion Conspiracy.—His brother, Henry St. George, LL.D.. 1780-1848, was M.C. 1815-19, Chancellor of Va. 1834-31, pres. Va. Court of Appeals 1831-11, prof. Univ. Va. 1841-45, and a writer on law.—His son, John Randolph, LL.D., 18331897, M.C. 1875-87, was noted as an orator and lawyer.—A cousin. John Randolph, 1813-1883, was an officer U.S.N, and C. S. N., and in 1866 a Peruvian admiral.

Tucker, Samuel, 1747-1833. Seaman of Mass.; Capt. U.S.N. 1776-85; pensioned 1831.

Tucker, Tilghman M., d.1859. Gov. of Miss. 1841-43; M.C. 1843-45.

Tucker, William Jewett, D.D., b.1839. Prof. Andover 1879; pres. Dartmouth 1893.

Tuckerman, Edward, LL.D., 1817-1886. Prof. Amherst from 1858; lichenologist. N. American Lichens, 1845; Lichens of New England, etc., 1848.—His cousin, Bayard, b.1855, wrote several biographies. Hist. English Prose Fiction, 1883.

Tuckerman, Henry Theodore, 1813-1871. American critic and essayist.—His brother. Charles Keating, 1831-1896, was U. S. Minister to Greece 1868-73.—Their uncle, Joseph, P.D., 1778-1840, minister at large in Boston 1836, left his mark on methods of philanthropic work at home and in Europe.

Tucson. Capital of Pima co., and of Arizona 1867-77; on the Santa Cruz; founded by Jesuits 1560; seat of State University. The surrounding country is arid and the climate hot and dry. The prevailing industry is mining. Pop., 1890, 5,150.

Tucuman. City of n. Argentina, 733 m. n.w. of Buenos

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Ayres; founded 1564; scene of a patriot victory 1813, and of the declaration of Platine independence 1816. Pop. ab.40,000.

Tudeschls, Nicholas De (called Panormitanus), 1400-1445. Sicilian writer on canon law; Benedictine abbot; Cardinal 1440. His works were collected in 9 vols. 1617.

Tudor. English royal family 1485-1603; descended from Owen Tudor, of Welsh extraction, who married 1433 Catharine of Valois, widow of Henrv V. Its sovereigns were Henry VII., 148.5-1509, Henrv VIII.,* 1509-47, Edward VI., 1547-53, Mary, 1553-58, and Elizabeth, 1558-1603.

Tudor, William, 1779-1830. Founder and first ed. N. American Revieio, 1815-18; Consul at Lima 1833; Charge in Brazil 1837. Life of Jos. Otis, 1833; Gebel Teir, 1839.—His father. William, 1750-1819, was Col. and Judge-advocate 1775-78, and Mass. Sec. of State 1809-10.

Tudor Architecture. Usually applied to late Perpendicular Style, the chapel at Westminster being the most perfect specimen. Tudor flower is an upright flat leaf ornament, used in crests or cornices in Perpendicular architecture.

Tuesday. Day of Mars, the 3d day of the week, so called from Tuesco, a Saxon deity, worshiped on this day.

Tufa, or Tuff. Kind of rock characterized by a loose and open structure, formed by the accumulation of volcanic detritus, or by deposition from calcareous or siliceous springs.

Tuftit College. At Medford, Mass.; founded 1853, opened 1855; comprising schools of letters, divinity, applied sciences, and medicine; controlled bv Universalists; opened to women 1893. P. T. Barnum gave $95,000 to its museum. It has 14 buildings, 40 professors, 30 instructors, 351 students in letters. 35 in theology, 180 in medicine, and a library of 35,000 vols.

Tugenbund. League of Virtue. Formed at Konigsberg in Prussia soon after the Peace of Tilsit, for the revival o[ morality and patriotism, but really for throwing off the French yoke. Napoleon demanded its suppression 1809. It numbered ab. 400.

Tug of War. English school game, in which sides are chosen, and the opponents, taking the ends of a rope, endeavor to outpull each other; common amusement among schoolboys in Japan, as "rope pulling." It was formerly practiced in Japan between boys of rival villages on the 15th of the 8th month. In Corea it is still played about the 15th of the 1st month. In the country the entire population of districts and villages engage in the sport, and the village that wins expects to have a good harvest.

Tuilleries. Palace in Paris, joined by wings to the Louvre; begun 1564 by Catharine de' Medici, and subsequently much enlarged; stormed by the people 1793, 1830, and 1848; burned by


The Louvre and the Tuilleries (the latter In the background).

Communists 1871; ruins not removed till 1883. The garden, enlarged 1889, now extends over the site of the palace. Napoleon I. and III. resided here, and the kings who came between.

Tuke, Daniel Hack. M.D., LL.D., 1827-1895. English writer on mental diseases. Insanity, 1878; Diet. Psychological Medicine, 1892.

Tuke, Henry, 1756-1814. English writer on Quakerism.

Principles of Religion, 1805.

Tula. Russian town, on theUpa, 110 m. s. of Moscow. It has large and varied manufactures, especially of arms and niello work. Pop., 1890, 66,111.

Tulane, Paul, 1801-1887. Merchant of New Orleans, who gave ab. $1,100,000 to found Tulane University.

Tulane University. In New Orleans, La.; founded 1884. The Univ. of La., organized 1878, with all its property and franchises, was merged in it. It has also a medical department, dating from 1834, and a law school 1847. The Newcomb Memorial Coll., founded 1887 for women, has a separate foundation of $500,000, and an attendance of 96. There are 43 professors, 35 assistants, and 940 students.

Tulare Lake. In s. central Cal.; fed by several streams, and partly drained by the San Joaquin. Area ab. 300 sq. n>.; formerly much larger.

Tulasnc, Louis Rene. 1815-1885. French botanist, as was his brother, CHARLES, 1816-1884. They wrote chiefly on Fungi.

Tulchan Bishops. Scottish clergymen, appointed 1573 to episcopal sees, without consecration or authority, giving nearly all the revenues to lay patrons; so called from the

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