Page images
PDF
EPUB
[blocks in formation]

Trent. British mail steamer, from which Mason and Sli- and reformer, knighted 1848; Gov. of Madras 1859-60; Finance dell, Confederate commissioners to England, were seized by Minister of India 1862–65; opponent of the purchase of commisCapt. Wilkes, U.S.N., Nov. 8, 1861. The affair threatened un sions in the army; Baronet 1874. Christianity and Hinduism, pleasant relations with England, but the commissioners were | 1881.-His son, Sir GEORGE OTTO, b.1838, M.P. 1845. Cabinet surrendered Jan. 1, 1862, as the precedents were all against | Minister 1884, Sec. for Scotland 1886 and 1895, pub. a Life of their detention.

his uncle, Lord Macaulay, 1876. Cawnpore, 1865; Early Hist. Trent, COUNCIL OF. Held 1545–52 and 1562–63 at Trent, a

of C. J. Fox, 1880. Tyrolese city; esteemed by Roman Catholics the 20th Ecumeni Trevelyan's Rocker. Mass of copper, the bottom of

which is curved so that it may rest upon the long edges
formed on either side of a groove in a block of lead, upon
which it is placed. If this be heated and placed on the lead,
the points of contact suddenly expand by
the heat and the rocker is pushed upward;
the temperature as suddenly falls at ühese
points, and the piece settles back, only to
be forced up again by the local expansion. The whole thus os-
cillates rapidly and emits a sound the pitch of which depends
upon the conditions of the experiment.

Treves, or TRIER. Ancient city of Rhenish Prussia, prominent under Roman rule as Augusta Trevirorum; sacked by Attila 451; held by Lorraine 843-870 and 895–924; long ruled

[graphic]
[ocr errors]
[graphic]
[ocr errors]

Castle of Trent.
cal or General Council. It settled R.C. doctrine and discipline
after the shock of the Reformation. Its decrees were confirmed
1564.

Trente et Quarante. See ROUGE ET NOIR.
Trente et Un. See ROUGE ET NOIR.

Trenton. Capital of N. J. (since 1790) and of Mercer co., on the Delaware, at the head of navigation; chartered 1792; chiefly noted for its manufactures of iron, steel, pottery, rubber and wool, and for Washington's capture of 1,000 Hessians, Dec. 26, 1776. Pop., 1890, 57,458.

Trenton. Fossiliferous limestone, first studied in N. Y., where it forms the main fossiliferous mass of the Lower Silurian strata, now known as Ordovician. It is in part the equivalent of the Llandeilo group of Wales. See ORDOVICIAN.

Trenton Falls. In Oneida co., N. Y., 17 m. n.w. of Utica; series of fine cascades, descending 312 ft. within two miles.

Trent River. Rising in Rice Lake, Ontario, it flows 150 m. into Bay of Quintè, Lake Ontario.–Also river of England which joins the Ouse ab.15 m. w. of Hull, forming the Hum

Porta Nigra at Treves. ber, after a s.e, course of ab.150 m.

by its abps., who were Electors of the Empire from ab. 1200. Trepang. Dried body of several species of sea-cucumbers, | Its "Holy Coat.” first mentioned 1106, attracts many pilgrims. which are found on reefs on the s.e. coast of Asia. The ani

Pop., 1891, 36,162. See HOLY COAT OF TREVES. mal is from 8 to 24 in. long. Large quantities are prepared for the Chinese market. See HOLOTHUROIDEA.

Treviranus, CHRISTIAN LUDOLF, 1779–1864. Prof. of BotTrephining, or TREPANNING. Surgical operation, consist

any at Bonn. Vom imwendigen Bau der Gewächse und von der

Saftbewegung in denselben, 1806; Pflanzenphysiologie, 1841; ing in removing a circular section of bone, usually the skull,

Vermischte Schriften anatomischen und physiologischen Inby means of a trephine; this is a cylindrical instrument, slightly conical, up to 2 in. diameter, burred in its sides, with

halts, 1821, with Ĝ. R. Treviranus; Physiologie der Gewächse, saw-teeth on its lower edge and a center-pin on which it turns;

1835–38. a gimlet handle is attached to the top. It is performed to Trevithick, RICHARD, 1771-1833. English engineer, in relieve pressure on the brain, as in case of fracture of the Peru 1816–27. He introduced many improvements in enskull, for the drainage of abscesses or removal of tumors. gines, chiefly for mines, and did pioneer work on railways. Trephining was practiced in the Stone Age, and later to a

Trevor, GEORGE, D.D., 1809-1888. Canon of York 1847. considerable extent. Quite recently it was applied in most

Convocation, 1852; India, 1862; Egypt, 1866; Rome, 1869; head injuries, but it is now much restricted.

Eucharist, 1869. Trepidation. Slow oscillation of the Ecliptic, imagined

Trevor, SIR JOHN, 1633–1717. Speaker of the Commons by the Arabian astronomers to account for the discrepancy in

1685-88 and 1690-95, when he was expelled for corruption; the determination of the precession of the equinoxes. The period was supposed to be 7,000 years. See PRECESSION OF THE

| Master of the Rolls 1685–88 and from 1693. EQUINOXES.

Triacetine. C,H,(C,H,O,)g. Thick liquid, prepared by Trescott, WILLIAM HENRY, b.1822. American diplomat;

the action of acetic acid upon glycerin; used in cotton printplenipotentiary to China 1880, to Chili, Peru and Bolivia 1881,

ing. See ACETINES. and to Mexico with Gen. Grant 1882. Diplomatic Hist. of Triadelphous. Flowers whose stamens are united into Washington and Adams, 1857.

three sets, as in St. John's Wort and related plants. Trespass. Unlawful interference with another's person Triad Society. Chinese secret society, so called from or property.

the cosmical triad of Heaven, Earth, and Man. Its object is Trestle. Structure of wood or iron, built on land, instead

the overthrow of the present Manchu dynasty and the reof an embankment to carry a railroad track or roadway. See

establishment of the last Chinese dynasty of the Mings. It

is a common source of disturbance in s. China, and practically BENT.

governs the Chinese in their foreign colonies. Tretenterata. See ECARDINES.

Triæne. Cladose rhabdus, the branches (cladi) being usuTrevelyan, SIR CHARLES, 1807-1886. Anglo-Indian official | ally at one end. Such spicules are present in Geodia, a genus

[blocks in formation]

of sponges. There are several modifications, as amphitriæne, Tribune. Roman official title, used to designate several protriæne, dichotriæne, found in other genera.

different offices. The military tribunes were lieutenants of

the commanders; when the contest between the orders was Trial. Judicial examination of the issues of fact or of law

raging over the choice of Consuls, military tribunes were involved in a legal proceeding.

elected with consular power for a number of annual terms, Trial by Court-Martial. See COURT-MARTIAL.

and exercised the highest magistracy of the state. The trib

unes of the treasury were, perhaps, army paymasters. The Triandria. Linnæan class of plants, comprising those

tribunes of the people were the most important, and were apwhich have three stamens, as Crocus, Iris, and most of the

pointed first 490 B.C., to be the advocates of the oppressed Grass family.

plebeians. This office maintained itself with varying success, Triangle. Musical instrument consisting of a steel rod ! and its occupants were leaders in the struggle which won for

bent in the form of an isosceles triangle, open the lower order equal political rights. Being endowed with at one angle. It is struck with a rod of the an absolute power of veto in all public assenıblies, it was a same metal. At the Grand Opera in Paris they real menace, in the hands of demagogues, to the constitution, are 7} in, on the longest sides and 7 in. on the and under the Gracchi brought on revolution. The emperors short side; the rod is eindiameter. It has chose to veil their power under the name of the tribunician

been used by many composers as an adjunct office. Triangle, to the drums and in most military bands.

Tributer. Miner who engages to work a mine, or section Triangle, AREA OF. Half the product of its base and alti of a mine, on condition of delivering to the owner a specified tude; half the product of two sides into the sine of the included part of the gross yield, retaining the remainder. angle; half the square of one side into the product of the sines

Tributyrin. See BUTYRINES and BUTTER. of the adjacent angles, divided by the sine of the sum of these angles; square root of the continued product of the half sum Trichechidæ. Family of Pinnipedia, including the Wal. of the three sides into this half sum diminished by each side rus. Except in the dentition and the absence of external ears, successively.

they are similar to the Otariade. Nearly all the incisors are

| lost in early life, while the upper canines grow from persistent Triangle, PLANE. Plane polygon of three sides. It is

| pulps into two downward-turned tusks, which the animal uses equilateral, isosceles

for digging, for lifting itself upon ice floes, and for offense and or scalene, as the

defense. The Atlantic and Pacific species are distinct.
three sides are equal,
two, or none: it is

Trichechodont Dentition. Form of molar teeth of right, obtuse or

the antiodont-lophodont series, having the tubercular ridges
acute, as one angle of their crowns confluent into two or more transverse crests,
is right, one obtuse, as in the teeth of the elephant, dinotherium, kangaroo, manatee,
or all acute. The and lower jaw of the tapir.
sum of the interior

Trichechus, See MANATEE.
angles equals two
right angles. A spher-

Trichiasis. Misplaced eyelashes, their malposition causical triangle is ing them to rub against and to irritate the eye-ball. Relief bounded by three arcs can be obtained by extracting the lash, which will return and

irritate. A cure can be brought about by destroying the hair Triangles.

of circles. See SPHER

ICAL TRIANGLES. follicle producing the lash, or changing the direction of the Triangle of Forces. Whenever three forces acting at growth of the lasb. a common point are in equilibrium, they can be represented by Trichina Spiralis. Parasitic nematode, found in the ali. the sides of a triangle whose lengths are proportional to the mentary canal of man, carnivorous mammals, the pig, and the magnitudes of the forces, and whose directions are parallel to rat; discovered by Richard Owen 1835. The eggs develop within those of the forces. Several forces in equilibrium can be rep- | its body, and the young burrow into the muscles of the host, resented by a polygon. See FORCES, POLYGON OF.

where they become encysted. Then, if eaten, they escape from Triangular Truss. Bridge truss in which the struts and ties of the webbing have the same inclination; generally one truss having a single system of webbing.

Triangulation. See PRIMARY TRIANGULATION and GEODESY.

Triassic. Lowest division of the Mesozoic rocks; named from its threefold division in Europe; often accompanied in America with erupted volcanic materials, and chiefly found in Nova Scotia, Connecticut Valley, N. J., Pa. and N. C. The oldest reptilian remains are found in this formation. See COLUMN.

Tribal state. That stage in the development of mankind in which the tribe is the only unit of social organization, land being held in common, and little or no complexity of

Trichina lving coiled industrial condition existing.

Sexually mature female Trichina

up in muscle (mag. spiralis (highly magnified).

nified), Tribasic Acid. See ACID. Tribe. In Botany, group of genera subordinate to a

the cysts and become sexually mature. Each female can profamily.

duce 1,000 young, which, by the pain and disturbance they cause,

while burrowing through the tissues, give rise to the disease Tribes. Twelve divisions of Israel, descended from the called Trichinosis. The rat is the natural host of the Trichina, twelve sons of Jacob, Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, which is thence transferred to the pig. Thorough cooking of Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin, Gad, Asher, Dan, Naphtali. Levi pork kills the encysted Trichinas. See TRICHOTRACHELIDÆ, having been made a priestly caste, Joseph was divided into

Trichinopoli. Town of s.e. India, on the Caveri, 56 the two tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, to maintain the

m. e. of Madras; seat of several missions, and burial-place of number.

Bp. Heber. It has manufactures of tobacco, hardware, and Tribonianus, d. ab.545. Jurist and official under Justin jewelry. Pop., 1891, 90,730. ian; one of the framers of the Code and Institutes, and chief

Trichinosis, or TRICHINIASIS. Disease due to food concompiler of the Pandects or Digest.

taining Trichina spiralis, first recognized by Zenker 1860. Tribromacetaldehyde. See BROMAL.

With man it has been produced by eating smoked, pickled Tribromphenol. C.H, OH.Brg. White needles; mpt.

or imperfectly cooked pork, containing the encysted worms:

90,000 have been found in a cubic inch of a man's shoulder. 95° C.; prepared by the action of bromine upon phenol. The yellow compound produced by the immediate action of bro

The symptoms are pains in the intestines, diarrhea and vommine water upon phenol is C,H, OBr,Brg.

iting; the muscles become swollen and tender to the touch;

death is due to exhaustion, intestinal irritation or pneumonia, Tribune. Originally the seat of the ruler or judge in a and takes place in four or five weeks. In an epidemic in Gerbasilica, later of the bishop, and finally any elevated part of many in 1865 nearly one-third of the cases proved fatal. Cona church or public building.

valescence from a severe attack requires three or four months.

[graphic]
[graphic]
[ocr errors]

TRICHITES-TRIHEDRAL ANGLE

1551

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

There is no means of destroying the parasite when in the order of Pius IV., summarizing the decrees of Trent; to be muscles. When the disease is suspected calomel and castor subscribed by R. C. priests, teachers, and converts. oil are given to expel the embryos from the intestines; glyc- i

Tridymite. Mineral having the chemical composition and erin is said to kill them.

the hardness of quartz, but with a lower specific gravity; found Tricbites. Bundle of delicate spicules, originating in a in many parts of the world as a constituent ingredient of volsingle cell of a sponge.

canic rocks. Trichloracetaldehyde. See CHLORAL.

Trier. See TREVES. Trichloracetic Acid. CCI.COOH. Colorless prisms, Trieste. Seaport of Austria, on the Gulf of T., at the head exceedingly soluble in water; mpt. 52° C.; produced by the ac- of the Adriatic; anciently Tergestum; Austrian since 1382. tion of chlorine in sunlight upon acetic acid, or by the oxida- Its chief importance dates from ab. 1720; its main growth is tion of chloral; strong monobasic acid.

Trichoblast. Vegetable cell of branching form, serving as a receptacle for some secretion.

Trichocephalus. See TRICHOTRACHELIDÆ.

Trichocysts. Organs present in some Infusoria (as in Paramecium), resembling the nettle-cells of Coelenterates.

Trichogyne. Simplest form of the female organ of reproduction, consisting of a single cell with a hair-like projection in certain Algæ and Fungi.

Trichomes. Various appendages to and outgrowths from the epidermis of plants, as hairs, glands, and scales.

Trichophore. Cells which aid in the conveyance of pollinoids to the carpogone or female organ of reproduction in certain Algae, etc.

Trichoptera. Suborder of Neuroptera, including forms having the wings covered with hairs or scales, thus resembling

Trieste. Lepidoptera. The bind wings can be folded. The mandibles are aborted; the other mouth parts form a sucking proboscis, recent. It has a fine harbor, a large commerce, much ship

building, and extensive manufactures. Pop., 1890, 120,333; district 158,344.

Triewald, SAMUEL, 1688–1742. Swedish satirical poet.

Trifid. In Botany, cleft into three parts ab. half way to the base.

Trifoliolate. Compound leaf, composed of three leaflets, as in clover.

Triforium. Arcade or gallery in a church, above aisle or nave.

Trigeminus. Fifth pair of cranial nerves, the largest of the nerves derived from the brain. They are the great sensitive nerves of the head and face, being distributed to the forehead, the eyelids, cheeks, nose, and upper and lower jaws, including the teeth. They also supply motor impulses to the muscles of mastication, and the lingual branch is one of the nerves of the special sense of taste; known as the trifacial nerves.

Trigger. Pivoted lever, which acts against a projection on the long arm of the sear; the short arm of the sear fits into

the full-cock, half-cock, or safety notch of the tumbler. When Spring-flies,

the trigger is pulled by the finger the sear is withdrawn from

its notch and allows the main-spring to operate the tumbler or are sometimes aborted. The larvæ live in the water, in

and hammer and drive the firing-pin against the cartridge. cases (cocoons) fastened to stones, and made from leaves, sticks, snail shells, grains of sand, etc., which they can drag Triglycerides. Compounds, composed of three molecules about. The Phryganida or Spring-flies are examples.

of a monobasic fat acid and one of glycerin; e.g., tripalmitin, Trichoscolices. Group of Vermes, including Rotifers

| C,H,(0.C,H,O)3. See GLYCERIDES. and Platyhelminths.

Triglyph. In the Doric frieze, three vertical angular Trichosporangium. Sporangium morphologically rep

flutes, separated by narrow flat spaces; in Roman Architect

ure, placed over the center of the column; in Grecian, close resenting a hair.

to the angle of the entablature. Trichotrachelidæ. Nematode worms with a long thread

Trigonometric Functions OF AN ANGLE. Ratios belike neck and small mouth without papillæ. Trichocephalus

tween the lines which determine the position of any point on lives half-buried in the intestinal walls of man and other animals. The eggs are passed out and develop in the water,

the terminal line of the angle in reference to its initial line. which, if imbibed, introduces the larvæ into the intestine.

They are constant for the same angle: they depend on the poTRICHINA (q.v.) is a member of this family.

sition of the terminal line, not upon the points on this line.

They are periodic, the same value recurring at least once in Triclinium. Roman dining-room. Also the couch on each revolution. The primary functions are sine, cosine, tanwhich they reclined at meals.

gent, cotangent, secant, cosecant; the secondary, versedsine, Tricolor. Flag of France, adopted ab.1790; white, red,

coversedsine. and blue.

Trigonometry. Branch of Mathematics which treats of Triconodont Teeth. Molar teeth with three subequal,

the solution of triangles by establishing relations between

their sides and functions of their angles, and of trigonometric prominent, conic and cutting tubercles, as in the cat.

functions of angles generally. Its divisions are Analytical, Tricoupis, SPIRIDION, 1788–1873. Greek Minister, diplo Plane, and Spherical. matist, and poet. Speeches, 1836; Hist. Greek Revolution, 1853–57.-His son, CHARILAOS, 1832–1896, was five times Pre

Trigonous. Of triangular prismatic form. mier, alternating with his rival, Delyannis, from 1875.

Trigynia. Orders of plants having three pistils. Trident. Three-pronged spear, associated with Neptune Trigynous. Tricarpellary; having three pistils. and Britannia on coins and other representations.

Trihedral Angle, One formed by three intersecting Tridentine Profession of Faith. Framed 1564 by planes meeting at a common point. Three planes intersecting

[graphic]
[graphic]
[ocr errors]

1552

TRILOBITES—TRINITY SUNDAY

[ocr errors]

at right angles to each other divide the space about their com Trinacria. Sicily; supposed to be so called from its trimon point into eight equal trihedral angles, each a right triangular shape. hedral. Trihedrals are measured by the spherical surface in

Trine. In Astrology, aspect of two planets when 120° or cluded within the planes of their faces.

one-third of a circumference apart. Trilobites. Fossil Gigantostraca, allied to the Merosto

Trinidad. Island off n.e. coast of Venezuela; discovered mata, and found in rocks from the Cambrian to the Devonian.

by Columbus 1498; settled by Spaniards 1532; held by Gt. BritThe group became extinct in the Carboniferous period. The body of a Trilobite is oval, with a

ain since 1797. The soil is extremely fertile and is seldom subcentral elevated ridge, the rhachis flanked on each side by broad flat pleural regions. From front to back are 3 regions, first the anterior crescentic cephalothorax, bearing compound eyes. Then follows the many-jointed abdomen, and finally the body terminates in a heart-shaped caudal plate or pygidium, whose base is as wide as the

abdomen. No appendages had a, Phacops caudatus; b, Calymene been found up to 1880, but in blumenbachii

1881 Walcott announced the discovery of biramous appendages, bearing gills, present on every segment. In 1892 Valiant discovered delicate but perfect antennæ in Triarthrus beckii, so that, with the mouth parts, the adult possessed 48 pairs of appendages. The nearest relative of this group now existing is Limulus, the king crab

Trinidad-Digging Asphalt. or horse-foot crab.

ject to drought. It exports sugar, molasses, cacao, coffee, fruit, Trilocular. Pericarp having three cells.

and asphalt. La Brea is an asphalt lake of 100 acres. Port

of Spain is the only harbor of commercial importance. Area Trilogy. Series of three dramas, tragic or historical, usu 1,754 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 208,030. ally with subjects more or less closely related. Æschylus, Shakespeare, and Schiller afford examples.

Trinidad. Town on s. coast of Cuba. Pop. ab.30,000. Trimble, ALLEN, 1783–1870. Gov. of Ohio 1826-30.-His

Trinitarians. 1. Believers in the Trinity. 2. Order brother, WILLIAM, 1786–1821, officer in the War of 1812, was

founded 1197 to ransom Christian captives held by MohamU. S. Senator from 1819.

medans or pagans. See REDEMPTIONISTS. Trimble, ISAAC RIDGEWAY, 1802–1888. Engineer; Brig.

Trinitrocellulose. See NITROCELLULOSE. gen. C.S.A. 1861, Major-gen. 1863; active in Va. and at Gettys Trinitroglycerin. See NITROGLYCERIN. burg.-His uncle, DAVID, ab. 1782–1842, was M.C. from Ky. 1817–27.

Trinitrophenol. See PICRIC ACID. Trimble, ROBERT, 1777–1828. Chief-justice of Ky. 1810;

Trinitroresorcin. See STYPHNIC ACID. U. S. District Judge 1816–26; Justice V. S. Supreme Court Trinity. Deity as existing in three Persons, Father, Son, from 1826.

and Holy Ghost. The doctrine is not formally stated in Script. Trimera (PSEUDOTRIMERA, or CRYPTOTETRAMERA). Cole

ure (I. John v.7 being admittedly spurious), but is held by most

Christians to be implied there, though denied by Arians, Sooptera, with apparently three-jointed tarsus, but with an extra rudimentary joint. The Lady-birds (Coccinellidoe) are examples.

cinians, and Unitarians. Trimerous. Flowers constructed on the ternary plan;

Trinity Church, NEW YORK. This church was built by i.e., with three members of each circle of parts.

the colony of New York 1697, at the instigation of Gov. Benja

min Fletcher, the word Protestant in the Act being construed Trimethylamine. N(CH,)s. Strong organic base, sup to mean Episcopal, thus compelling the inhabitants to support posed to be derived from ammonia, NH,, by the replacement the Church of England. The church was enlarged 1735 and of the hydrogen by methyl; gas, easily condensed to a liquid; 1737, burned 1776, rebuilt 1788, consecrated by Bishop Provost found in the vegetable world and in herring brine; prepared 1791. There were two chapels attached to this church. In by the distillation of beet-sugar molasses.

1839 it was demolished for the building of the present church, Trimethylcarbinol. (CH,).C.OH. Tertiary butylal

which was opened 1846; it was designed by Richard Upjoho. cohol; liquid; bpt. 83° C., with an odor like spirits of camphor;

The parish includes St. George's in Beekman Street, erected present in fusel oil, but usually prepared by the action of di

1752; St. Paul's, Broadway, erected 1766; St. John's, Varick lute sulphuric acid on isobutylene. It solidifies easily, and is

Street, erected 1807; and Trinity Chapel, Twenty-fifth Street,

erected 1854. In 1703 a cemetery was donated to Trinity completely decomposed by oxidizing agents.

Church by the city and in the same year Queen Anne granted CH,-CH,

to the church King's Farm, originally the property of the Trimethylene. (CH,)

Gaseous hydrocar

Dutch West India Co., which had been increased by land of CH,

Aneka Jans or Jansen, bought from her heirs by the Colonial bon, produced by heating trimethylene bromide, CH,Br.CH, Government in 1671, one heir failing to join in the conveyance. CH,Br, with sodium; stable in character.

This land was granted to Roelef Jansen, husband of Aneka, in Trimmer, Piece of timber in a roof or floor to support

1636, by Wouter Van Twiller, Director-general of New Netherthe ends of joists, which cannot rest upon the walls, as at

lands; it consisted of 62 acres. This grant was the foundation

of the wealth of this church, fronting on Broadway, from fireplaces and stairways.

Warren to Duane Street, thence northwest to Christopher Trimmer, SARAH (KIRBY), 1741–1810, m.1762. English Street and North River, forming an unequal triangle. author of historical manuals and juvenile tales. Hist. Robins,

Trinity College. At Hartford, Conn.; chartered as 1868.

Washington Coll. 1823; Episcopal; named Trinity 1845. Its Trimorphism. 1. Flowers whose stamens or pistils are of former site is now occupied by the State Capitol, the college three different kinds, generally adapted for cross-fertilization, having been moved 1878. It has 11 professors, 9 lecturers, as in most species of Oxalis. 2. Species having three forms of | ab. 130 students, and a library of 37,000 vols. animals, as in the sexual trimorphism of certain butterflies, in which males and two sorts of females are present. Essentially

Trinity College, DUBLIN. See DUBLIN UNIVERSITY. the same is true of bees, the workers being infertile females. Trinity House, CORPORATION OF. On Tower Hill, LonTrimountain. Earliest name of Boston, from the three

don; chartered 1514; charged with the licensing of coast pilots,

and the maintenance of buoys, beacons, and lighthouses. summits of Beacon Hill. The name Boston was adopted Sept. | 7, 1630, Old Style.

Trinity River. In e. Texas. It heads in two forks, and Trimurti. Hindu trinity, represented as one body with

flows generally s.e. to Galveston Bay. Drainage area 17,960 three heads, Brahma the creator in the middle. Vishnu the

sq. m., length 550 m. preserver on the right, Siva the destroyer on the left. | Trinity Sunday. Next after Whitsunday; locally ob

[graphic]
[graphic]
[blocks in formation]

TI

served from ab.1000, more generally from ab. 1200; approved coast, but arid and sandy in the interior, which is imperfectly by Popes 1305 and 1334. The Sundays following till Advent known. Area ab.400,000 sq. m. This region was anciently are numbered from it.

subject to Phænicians, Cyrenians, Carthaginians, and Romans;

was known in the 3d century as Regio Tripolitana, from its Trinius, KARL BERNHARD, 1778–1844. German botanist.

three chief cities, then leagued together: was conquered with Fundamenta Agrostographice, 1820; Clavis Agrostographic

the rest of n. Africa by the Arabs, and by the Turks 1551; beantiquioris, 1822; De graminibus paniceis, 1826; Species gra

came partly independent 1714, and was made a province of minum iconibus et descriptionibus illustravit, 1828–36; Agros

the Turkish empire 1835. It is governed by a pasha, aptidea, 1840–41.

pointed by the Sultan. War with the U. S. was begun Triod. Sponge spicule having three equal rays making 1801, to obtain increase of tribute; the Bashaw was brought equal angles with each other.

to terms by a successful attack on Derne and the bombardTriolein. See OLEINES.

ment of Tripoli 1806. Pop. ab.1,000,000, chiefly Berbers and

Arabs.
Trionychidæ (SOFT-SHELLED TORTOISES). Family of Che-

Tripoli. 1. Capital of Tripoli; on the Mediterranean, ab. lonia, characterized by having the carapace covered with soft

200 m. e, of the Tunisian boundary. It has a shallow harbor, skin in place of epidermal plates: the webbed toes have three claws; the body is flat and circular. They are carnivorous, fond of mussels, and burrow in the mud, especially during drought. Aspidonectes spinifer has pointed nostrils on a flexible snout: it abounds in salt water creeks. A. ferox of the Gulf Coast grows to a length of 18 in. It lays over 60 eggs, and is palatable as food. It is aquatic and carnivorous, destroying many young alligators.

Tripalmitin. See PALMITINES.

Tripe. Dish prepared from the stomachs of sheep or cattle. Plain tripe is the paunch or rumen; honeycomb tripe is the reticulum. See RUMINANTS.

Tripe de Roche. Large, fleshy lichens of the genus Um-
billicaria, natives of rocky, mountainous regions; sometimes
used as food.

Tripestone. Variety of the mineral anhydrite, pre-
senting a peculiar irregular appearance that suggested the
name.
Triphenylmethane. CH : (C.H.)s. Solid hydrocarbon,

Tripoli.
crystaīlizing in beautiful white plates; mpt. 93° C.; prepared
from chloroform and benzene in the presence of aluminium but a large trade with the interior. Pop. ab. 35,000. 2. Sea.
chloride. The amido compounds derived from it are important port of Syria, 40 m. n.n.e. of Beyrout; anciently Tripolis, a
coloring matters. See PARAFUCHSINE.

Phænician city; taken by Crusaders 1104, by Mamelukes 1289. Triphenylrosaniline. C, H, N, Product of the action

Pop. ab. 20,000. of aniline upon rosaniline. See SPIRIT BLUE.

Tripoli, or TRIPOLITE. Diatomaceous earth; rotten stone, Tripitaka. Sacred books of Buddbism, named from their

in part a decomposed siliceous limestone from which the calhaving arranged in baskets the leaves of the palm, in time re

careous portions have been removed, leaving the silica behind;

used for the cleaning and polishing of metals. Some tripoli placed by written paper.

is an aggregation of the siliceous remains of minute animal Triple Alliance. 1. Between England, Sweden and the and vegetable organisms, or infusorial earth. Netherlands, against France, Jan. 23, 1668. 2. Between England, France and Holland, against Spain and the Pretender,

Tripos. Examination for honors at Cambridge Univ., ab. Jan. 1717. 3. Between England, Austria and Russia, Sept.

June 1; covering ten or more subjects. 28, 1795. 4. Between Germany, Austria and Italy, 1883, in Tripp, BARTLETT, b.1843. Chief-justice of Dakota 1885; tended to check Russia and France.

Minister to Austria 1893. Triple Expansion. Compound engines in which expan Triptych. Three tablets joined by hinges, to hold a paintsion takes place in three cylinders instead of two. Higher | ing or inscription. See DIPTYCH.

Triqueti, HENRI, BARON DE, 1802–1874. French painter and sculptor.

Triquetrous. See TRIGONOUS.

Trirectangular (or TRIQUADRANTAL) Triangle. Spherical triangle having all its angles right angles and all its arcs quadrants. It subtends a right trihedral, and is one-eighth the surface of the sphere.

Trireme. Galley with three banks of oars, first used 664 B.C. by Corinthians against Corcyra; it had a crew of 200 men; largest known to the ancients till ab. 350 B.C. Later, five (quiquireme) and even ten rows were used in war vessels.

Trisagion. Greek doxology, found in the Syriąc and other liturgies.

Trismegistus. See HERMES.

Trissino, GIOVANNI GIORGIO, 1478-1550. Italian poet, reTriple Expansion Engine.

former of the alphabet; author of a tragedy, Sofonisba, 1524,

and an epic, Italia liberata, 1548.
pressures of steam are thus applied, and the recent claims are
that the triple forms give an increased economy of 25 per cent

Tristan, or TRISTRAM. Legendary nephew of King Mark

of Cornwall, and lover of Yseult of Ireland; celebrated by M. over the two-cylinder engines.

Arnold and other poets. The story is of Celtic origin, and ex-
Triplicate Ratio. That of the third powers of two | isted from 1100 or earlier in various forms.
quantities.

Tristan da Cunha. Island in s, Atlantic, lat. 37° 6' S.,
Triploblastic. Having three layers in the embryo; viz., long. 12° 19' W.; named from its discoverer, 1506; occupied by
endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm, as in most Metazoa. England 1817. Area ab. 40 sq. m.; pop., 1895, 61.
Triplopy. See DIPLOPY.

Tristearin. See STEARINES.
Tripoli. Easternmost of the Barbary States of n. Africa. Tristichous. Three-ranked, as the arrangement of the
The Simpson is low, with a fertile strip along the Mediterranean alternate leaves in the Sedyes and some other plants.

[graphic]
[graphic]
« PreviousContinue »