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cal or General Council. It settled R.C. doctrine and discipline after the shock of the Reformation. Its decrees were confirmed 1564.

Trente et Quarante. See Rouge Et Nont.
Trente et Un. See Rouge Et Noir.

Trenton. Capital of N. J. (since 1790) and of Mercer co., on the Delaware, at the head of navigation; chartered 1792; chiefly noted for its manufactures of iron, steel, pottery, rubber and wool, and for Washington's capture of 1,000 Hessians, Dec. 26, 1776. Pop., 1890, 57,458.

Trenton. Fossiliferous limestone, first studied in N. Y., where it forms the main fossiliferous mass of the Lower Silurian strata, now known as Ordovician. It is in part the equivalent of the Llandeilo group of Wales. See Ordovician.

Trenton Falls. In Oneida co., N. Y., 17 m. n.w. of

Utica; series of fine cascades, descending 312 ft. within two miles.

Trent River. Rising in Rice Lake, Ontario, it flows 150 m. into Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario.—Also river of England which joins the Ouse ah.15 m. w. of Hull, forming the Humber, after a s.e. course of ab.150 m.

Trepang. Dried body of several species of sea-cucumbers, which are found on reefs on the s.e. coast of Asia. The animal is from 8 to 24 in. long. Large quantities are prepared for the Chinese market. See Holothuroidea.

Trephining, or Trepanning. Surgical operation, consisting in removing a circular section of bone, usually the skull, by means of a trephine; this is a cylindrical instrument, slightly conical, up to 2 in. diameter, burred in its sides, with saw-teeth on its lower edge and a center-pin on which it turns; a gimlet handle is attached to the top. It is performed to relieve pressure on the brain, as in case of fracture of the skull, for the drainage of abscesses or removal of tumors. Trephining was practiced in the Stone Age, and later to a considerable extent. Quite recently it was applied in most head injuries, but it is now much restricted.

Trepidation. Slow oscillation of the Ecliptic, imagined by the Arabian astronomers to account for the discrepancy in the determination of the precession of the equinoxes. The period was supposed to be 7,000 years. See Precession Of The Equinoxes.

Trescott, William Henry, b.1822. American diplomat; plenipotentiary to China 1880, to Chili, Peru and Bolivia 1881, and to Mexico with Gen. Grant 1882. Diplomatic Hist, of Washington and Adams, 1857.

Trespass. Unlawful interference with another's person or property.

Trestle. Structure of wood or iron, built on land, instead of an embankment to carry a railroad track or roadway. See Bent.

Tretenterata. See Ecardines.

Trevelyan, Sir Charles, 1807-1886. Anglo-Indian official

and reformer, knighted 1848; Gov. of Madras f859-60; Finance Minister of India 1862-65; opponent of the purchase of commissions in the army; Baronet 1874. Christianity and Hinduism, 1881.—His son, Sir George Otto, b.1838, M.P. 1845, Cabinet Minister 1884, Sec. for Scotland 1886 and 1895. pub. a Life of his uncle. Lord Macaulay, 1876. Cawnpore, 1865; Early Hist, of C. J. Fox, 1880.

Trcvelyan's Rocker. Mass of copper, the bottom of which is curved so that it may rest upon the long edges formed on either side of a groove in a block of lead, upon which it is placed. If this be heated and placed on the lead, the points of contact suddenly expand by Mmm^m^M

the heat and the rocker is pushed upward; . !^ .

the temperature as suddenly falls at these

points, and the piece settles back, only to

be forced up again by the local expansion. The whole thus oscillates rapidly and emits a sound the pitch of which depends upon the conditions of the experiment.

Treves, or Trier. Ancient city of Rhenish Prussia, prominent under Roman rule as Augusta Trevirorum; sacked by Attila 451; held by Lorraine 843-870 and 895-924; long ruled

Porta Nigra at Treves.

by its abps., who were Electors of the Empire from ab.1200. Its "Holy Coat," first mentioned 1106, attracts many D'lgrims. Pop., 1891, 36,162. See Holy Coat Of Treves.

Trevlranus, Christian Ludolf, 1779-1864. Prof, of Botany at Bonn. Vom imwendigen Ban der Oew&chseund von der Saftbeicegung in denselben, 1806: Pflanzenphysiologie, 1841; Vermischte Schriften anatomischen und physiologischen Jnhalts. 1821, with G. R. Treviranus; Physiotogie der Gewachse, 1835-38.

Trevithlck, Richard, 1771-1833. English engineer, in Peru 1816-27. He introduced many improvements in engines, chiefly for mines, and did pioneer work on railways.

Trevor, George, D.D., 1809-1888. Canon of York 1847. Convocation. 1852; India, 1862; Egypt, 1866; Rome, 1869; Eucharist, 1869.

Trevor, Sir John. 1633-1717. Speaker of the Commons 1685-88 and 1690-95, when he was expelled for corruption; Master of the Rolls 1685-88 and from 1693.

Triacetine. CsHsfOjH.O,),. Thick liquid, prepared by the action of acetic acid upon glycerin; used in cotton printing. See Acetines.

Triadelphous. Flowers whose stamens are united 'nto three sets, as in St. John's Wort and related plants.

Triad Society. Chinese secret society, so called from the cosmical triad of Heaven, Earth, and Man. Its object is the overthrow of the present Manchu dynasty and the reestablishment of the last Chinese dynasty of the Mings. It is a common source of disturbance in s. China, and practicallv governs the Chinese in their foreign colonies.

Tri.ene. Cladoserhabdus, the branches (cladi) being usually at one end. Such spicules are present in Oeodia, a genus

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of,sponges. There are several modifications, as amphitriaene, protriaine, dichotriame, found in other genera.

Trial. Judicial examination of the issues of fact or of law involved in a legal proceeding.

Trial by Court-Marlial. See Court-martial.

Trinndrin. Linn;ean class of plants, comprising those which have three stamens, as Crocus, Iris, and most of the Grass family.

Triangle. Musical instrument consisting of a steel rod « bent in the form of an isosceles triangle, open t \ I at one angle. It is struck witli a rod of the / \ II same metal. At the Grand Opera in Paris thev

are 7i in. on the Ion,

on the It has

Triangle.

t sides and 7 in short side; the rod is T75 in. diameter, been used by many composers as an adjunct to the drums and in most military bands.

Triangle, Plane.

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Triangles.

Triangle, Area Of. Half the product of its base and altitude; half the product of twosides into the sine of the included angle; half the square of one side into the product of the sines of the adjacent angles, divided by the sine of the sum of these angles; square root of the continued product of the half sum of the three sides into this half sum diminished by each side successively.

Plane polygon of three sides. It is equilateral, isosceles or scalene, as the three sides are equal, two, or none: it is .right, obtuse or acute, as one angle is right, one obtuse, or all acute. The sum of the interior angles equals two right angles. A spherical triangle is bounded by three arcs of circles. See SPHERICAL Triangles. Triangle or Forces. Whenever three forces acting at a common point are in equilibrium, they can be represented by the sides of a triangle whose lengths are proportional to the magnitudes of the forces, and whose directions are parallel to those of the forces. Several forces in equilibrium can be represented by a polygon. See Forces, Polygon Of.

Triangular Truss. Bridge truss in which the struts and ties of the webbing have the same inclination; generally one truss having a single system of webbing.

Triangulation. See Primary Triangulation and GeOdesy.

Triassic. Lowest division of the Mesozoic rocks; named from its threefold division in Europe; often accompanied in America with erupted volcanic materials, and chiefly found in Nova Scotia, Connecticut Valley. N. J., Pa. and N. C. The oldest reptilian remains are found in this formation. See Column.

Tribal State. That stage in the development of mankind in which the tribe is the only unit of social organization, land being held in common, and little or no complexity of industrial condition existing.

Tribaslc Acid. See Acid.

Tribe. In Botany, group of genera subordinate to a family.

Tribes. Twelve divisions of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of Jacob, Reuben. Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin, Gad, Asher, Dan, Naphtali. Levi having been made a priestly caste, Joseph was divided into the two tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, to maintain the number.

Tribonianus, d. ab.545. Jurist and official under Justinian; one of the framers of the Code and Institutes, and chief compiler of the Pandects or Digest.

Trlbromacetaldehyde. See Bromal.

Trlbroinphenol. CeH,| OH.Br,. White needles; mpt. 95° C; prepared by the action of bromine upon phenol. The yellow compound produced by the immediate action of bromine water upon phenol is CjH,: OBr,Br,.

Tribune. Originally the seat of the ruler or judge in a basilica, later of the bishop, and finally any elevated part of a church or public building.

Tribune. Roman official title, used to designate several different offices. The military tribunes were lieutenants of the commanders; when the contest between the orders was raging over the choice of Consuls, military tribunes wire elected with consular power for a number of annual terms, and exercised the highest magistracy of the state. The tribunes of the treasur}' were, perhaps, army paymasters. The tribunes of the people were the most important, and were appointed first 490 B.C., to be the advocates of the oppressed plebeians. This office maintained itself with varying success, and its occupants were leaders in the struggle which won for the lower order equal political rights. Being endowed with an absolute power of veto in all public assemblies, it was a real menace, in the hands of demagogues, to the constitution, and under the Gracchi brought on revolution. The emperors chose to veil their power under the name of the tribunician office.

Tributer. Miner who engages to work a mine, or section of a mine, on condition of delivering to the owner a specified part of the gross yield, retaining the remainder.

Tribill j rin. See Butyrines and Butter.

Trichcchidre. Family of Pinnipedia, including the Walrus. Except in the dentition and the absence of external ears, they are similar to the Otariadoe. Nearly all the incisors are lost in early life, while the upper canines grow from persistent pulps into two downward-turned tusks, which the animal uses for digging, for lifting itself upon ice floes, and for offense and defense. The Atlantic and Pacific species are distinct.

Trichechodont Dentition. Form of molar teeth of the antiodont-lophodont series, having the tubercular ridges of their crowns confluent into two or more transverse crests, as in the teeth of the elephant, dinotherium, kangaroo, manatee, and lower jaw of the tapir.

Triclicchus. See Manatee.

Trichiasis. Misplaced eyelashes, their malposition causing them to rub against and to irritate the eye-ball. Relief can be obtained by extracting the lash, which will return and irritate. A cure can be brought about by destroying the hair follicle producing the lash, or changing the direction of the growth of the lash.

Trichina Spiralis. Parasitic nematode, found in the alimentary canal of man, carnivorous mammals, the pig, and the rat; discovered by Richard Owen 1835. The eggs develop within its body, and the young burrow into the muscles of the host, where they become encysted. Then, if eaten, they escape from

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the cysts and become sexually mature. Each female can produce l.OOOyoung.which, by the pain and disturbance they cause, while burrowing through the tissues, gi"e rise to the disease called Trichinosis. The rat is the natural host of the Trichina, which is thence transferred to the pig. Thorough cookingof pork kills the encysted Trichinas. See Trichotracheluxe.

Triclitnopoll. Town of s.e. India, on the Caveri, 56 m. e. of Madras; seat of several missions, and burial-plice of Bp. Heber. It has manufactures of tobacco, hardware, and jewelry. Pop., 1891, 90,730.

Trichinosis, or Trichiniasis. Disease due to food rontaining Trichina spiralis, first recognized by Zenker 1860. With man it has been produced by eating smoked, pickled or imperfectly cooked pork, containing the ancysted worms: 90,000 have been found in a cubic inch of a man's shoulder. The symptoms are pains in the intestines, diarrhoea and vomiting; the muscles become swollen and tender to the touch; death is due to exhaustion, intestinal irritation or pneumonia, and takes place in four or five weeks. In an epidemic in Germany in 186;> nearly one-third of the cases proved fatal. Convalescence from a severe attack requires three or four months. 1551

TRICHITES—TRIHEDRAL. ANGLE

There is no means of destroying the parasite when in the muscles. When the disease is suspected calomel and castor oil are given to expel the embryos from the intestines; glycerin is said to kill them.

Trlcbtles. Bundle of delicate spicules, originating in a single cell of a sponge.

Trlchloracetaldehyde. See Chloral.

Trichloracetic Acid. CCli.COOH. Colorless prisms, exceedingly soluble in water; mpt. 52°C; produced by the action of chlorine in sunlight upon acetic acid, or by the oxidation of chloral; strong monobasic acid.

Trichoblast. Vegetable cell of branching form, serving as a receptacle for some secretion.

Trichocephalus. See Thichotrachklid.-e.

Trlchocysts. Organs present in some Infusoria (as in Paramaecium), resembling the nettle-cells of Coele[iterates.

Trichogyne. Simplest form of the female organ of reproduction, consisting of a sinsrle cell with a hair-like projection in certain Algce and Fungi.

Trlchomes. Various appendages to and outgrowths from the epidermis of plants, as hairs, glands, and scales.

Tricltophore. Cells which aid in the conveyance of pollinoids to the carpogone or female organ of reproduction in certain Algce, etc.

Triclioptcra. Suborder of Meuroptera, including forms having the wings covered with hairs or scales-, thus resembling Lepidoptera. The hind wings can be folded. The mandibles are aborted; the other mouth parts form a sucking proboscis,

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or are sometimes aborted. The larvae live in the water, in cases (cocoons) fastened to stones, and made from leaves, sticks, snail shells, grains of sand, etc., which they can drag about. The Phryganidoe or Spring-flies are examples.

Trichoscollces. Group of Vermes, including Rotifers and Platyhelminths.

Trlchosporanglum. Sporangium morphologically representing a hair.

Trichotrachelidse. Nematode worms with a long threadlike neck and small mouth without papillae. Trictiocephalus lives half-buried in the intestinal walls of man and other animals. The eggs are passed out and develop in the water, which, if imbibed, introduces the larvae into the intestine. Trichina (q.v.) is a member of this family.

Triclinium. Roman dining-room.—Also the couch on which they reclined at meals.

Tricolor. Flag of France, adopted ab.1790; white, red, and blue.

Triconodont Teeth. Molar teeth with three subequal, prominent, conic and cutting tubercles, as in the cat.

Tricoupls, SPTRIDION, 1788-1873. Greek Minister, diplomatist, ami poet. Speeches, 1836; Hist. Greek Revolution. ia53-57.—His son, Charilaos, 1833-1896, was five times Premier, alternating with his rival, Delyannis, from 1875.

Trident. Three-pronged spear, associated with Neptune and Britannia on coins and other representations.

Tridentlne Profession of Faith. Framed 1564 by

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recent. It has a fine harbor, a large commerce, much shipbuilding, and extensive manufactures. Pop., 1890, 120,338; district 158,344.

Triewald, Samuel, 1688-1742. Swedish satirical poet.

Trifid. In Botany, cleft into three parts ab. half way to the base.

Trifoliolate. Compound leaf, composed of three leaflets, as in clover.

Triforlum. Arcade or gallery in a church, above aisle or nave.

Trigeminus. Fifth pair of cranial nerves, the largest of the nerves derived from the brain. They are the great sensitive nerves of the head and face, being distributed to the forehead, the eyelids, cheeks, nose, and upper and lower jaws, including the teeth. They also supply motor impulses to the muscles of mastication, and the lingual branch is one of the nerves of the special sense of taste; known as the trifacial nerves.

Trigger. Pivoted lever, which acts against a projection on the long arm of the sear; the short arm of the sear fits into the full-cock, half-cock, or safety notch of the tumbler. When the trigger is pulled by the finger the sear is withdrawn from its notch and allows the main-spring to operate the tumbler and hammer and drive the firing-pin against the cartridge.

Triglycerides. Compounds, composed of three molecules of a monobasic fat acid and one of glycerin; e.g., tripalmitin, C,HB(O.C„H3,0)a. See Glycerides.

Trtglyph. In the Doric frieze, three vertical angular flutes, separated by narrow flat spaces; in Roman Architecture, placed over the center of the column; in Grecian, close to the angle of the entablature.

Trigonometric Functions Of An Angle. Ratios between the lines which determine the position of any point on the terminal line of the angle in reference to its initial line. They are constant for the same angle: they depend on the position of the terminal line, not upon the points on this line. They are periodic, the same value recurring at least once in each revolution. The primary functions are sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, cosecant; the secondary, versedsine, coversedsine.

Trigonometry. Branch of Mathematics which treats of the solution of triangles by establishing relations between their sides and functions of their angles, and of trigonometric functions of angles generally. Its divisions are Analytical, Plane, and Spherical.

Trigonous. Of triangular prismatic form.

Trigynia. Orders of plants having three pistils.

Trigynous. Tricarpellary; having three pistils.

Trihedral Angle. One formed by three intersecting planes meeting at a common point. Three planes intersecting

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a, Phacops caudatus: 6, Calymene blumenbachii

at right angles to each other divide the space about their common point into eight equal trihedral angles, each a right trihedral. Trihedrals are measured by the spherical surface included within the planes of their faces.

Trllobites. Fossil Gigantostraca, allied to the Merostomata, and found in rocks from the Cambrian to the Devonian. The group became extinct in the Carboniferous period. The body

of a Trilobite is oval, with a central elevated ridge, the rhachis flanked on each side by broad flat pleural regions. From front to back are 3 regions, first the anterior crescentic cephalothorax, bearing- compound eyes. Then follows the many-jointed abdomen, :ind finally the body terminates in a heart-shaped caudal plate or pygidium, whose base is as wide as the abdomen. No appendages had been found up to 1880, but in 1881 Walcott announced the discovery of biramous appendages, bearing gills, present on every segment. In 1892 Valiant discovered delicate but perfect antenna; in Triarthrus beckii, so that, with the mouth parts, the adult possessed 48 pairs of appendages. The nearest relative of this group now existing is Limulns, the king crab or horse-foot crab.

Trilocular. Pericarp having three cells.

Trilogy. Series of three dramas, tragic or historical, usually with subjects more or less closely related. ^Eschylus, Shakespeare, and Schiller afford examples.

Trimble, Allen, 1783-1870. Gov. of Ohio 1826-30.—His brother, William. 1786-1821, officer in the War of 1812, was U. S. Senator from 1819.

Trimble, Isaac Ridgeway, 1802-1888. Engineer; Brig.gen. C.S.A. 1861, Major-gen. 1863; active in Va. and at Gettysburg.—His uncle, David, ab.1782-1842, was M.C. from Ky. 1817-27.

Trimble, Robert. 1777-1828. Chief-justice of Ky. 1810; U. S. District Judge 1816-26; Justice U. S. Supreme Court from 1826.

Trimera (pseudotrimera, or Cryptotetramera). Coleoptera, with apparently three-jointed tarsus, but with an extra rudimentary joint. The Lady-birds (Coccinellidce) are examples.

Trimerous. Flowers constructed on the ternary plan; i.e., with three members of each circle of parts.

Trimetli)iamlne. N(CHS)S. Strong organic base, supposed to be derived from ammonia, NHS. by the replacement of the hydrogen by methyl; gas, easily condensed to a liquid; found in the vegetable world and in herring brine; prepared by the distillation of beet-sugar molasses.

Trlmethylcarbinol. (CH,)a.C.OH. Tertiary butylalcohol; liquid; bpt. 83° C, with an odor like spirits of camphor; present in fusel oil, but usually prepared by the action of dilute sulphuric acid on isobutvlene. It solidifies easily, and is completely decomposed by oxidizing agents.

CH,—CH5.

Trimethylene. (CH,),. \ / Gaseous hydrocar

CH3.

bon, produced by heating trimethylene bromide, CH,Br.CH,. CH,Br, with sodium; stable in character.

Trimmer. Piece of timber in a roof or floor to support the ends of joists, which cannot rest upon the walls, as at fireplaces and stairwa3'S.

Trimmer, Sarah (kirby). 1741-1810. m.1762. English author of historical manuals and juvenile tales. Hist. Robins, 1868.

Trimorpliism. 1. Flowers whose stamens or pistils are of three different kinds, generally adapted for cross-fertilization, as in most species of Oxalis. 2. Species having three forms of animals, as in the sexual trimorphism of certain butterflies, in which males and two sorts of females are present. Essentially the same is true of bees, the workers being infertile females.

Trimountaln. Earliest name of Boston, from the three summits of Beacon Hill. The name Boston was adopted Sept. 7, 1630, Old Style.

Trimurti. Hindu trinity, represented as one body with three heads, Brahma the creator in the middle. Vishnu the preserver on the right, Siva the destroyer on the left.

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Trinidad—Digging Asphalt.

ject to drought. It exports sugar, molasses, cacao, coffee, fruit, and asphalt. La Brea is an asphalt lake of 100 acres. Port of Spain is the onlv harbor of commercial importance. Area 1,754 sq. m.; pop.,*1891, 208,030.

Trinidad. Town on s. coast of Cuba. Pop. ab.30,000.

Trinitarians 1. Believers in the Trinity. 2. Order founded 1197 to ransom Christian captives held by Mohammedans or pagans. See Redemptionists.

Trinitroccllulo§c. See Nitrocellulose.

Trinitroglycerin. See Nitroglycerin.

Trinitrophenol. See Picric Acid.

Trinitroresorcln. See Styphnic Acid.

Trinity. Deity as existing in three Persons, Father, Sod. and Holy Ghost. The doctrine is not formally stated in Scripture (I. John v. 7 being admittedly spurious), but is held by most Christians to be implied there, though denied by Arians, Socinians, and Unitarians.

Trinity Church, New York. This church was built by the colony of New York 1697, at the instigation of Gov. Benjamin Fletcher, the word Protestant in the Act being construed to mean Episcopal, thus compelling the inhabitants to support the Church of England. The church was enlarged 1735 and 1737, burned 1776, rebuilt 1788, consecrated by Bishop Provost 1791. There were two chapels attached to this church. In 1839 it was demolished for the building of the present church, which was opened 1846; it was designed by Richard Upjohn. The parish includes St. George's in Beekman Street, erected 1752; St. Paul's, Broadway, erected 1766; St. John's, Varick Street, erected 1807; and Trinity Chapel, Twenty-fifth Street, erected 1854. In 1703 a cemetery was donated to Trinity Church by the city and in the same year Queen Anne granted to the church King's Farm, originally the property of the Dutch West India Co., which had been increased by land of Aneka Jans or Jansen, bought from her heirs by the Colonial Government in 1671, one heir failing to join in the conveyance. This land was granted to Roelef Jansen, husband of Aneka, in 1636, by Wouter Van Twiller, Director-general of New Netherlands; it consisted of 62 acres. This grant was the foundation of the wealth of this church, fronting on Broadway, from Warren to Duane Street, thence northwest to Christopher Street and North River, forming an unequal triangle.

Trinity College. At Hartford. Conn.; chartered as Washington Coll. 1823; Episcopal: named Trinity 1845. Its former site is now occupied by the State Capitol, the college having been moved 1878. It has 11 professors, 9 lecturers, ab. 130 students, and a library of 37,000 vols.

Trinity College, Dublin. See Dublin University.

Trinity House, Corporation Of. On Tower Hill. London; chartered 1514: charged with the licensing of coast pilots, and the maintenance of buoys, beacons, and lighthouses.

Trinity River. In e. Texas. It heads in two forks, and flows generally s.e. to Galveston Bay. Drainage area 17,960 sq. m., length 550 m.

Trinity Sunday. Next after Whitsunday; locally ob

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served from ab.1000, more generally from ab.1200; approved by Popes 1305 and 1334. The Sundays following till Advent are numbered from it.

Trinius, Karl Bernhard, 1778-1844. German botanist. Fundamenta Agrostogi-aphice, 1820; Clavis Agrostographiai antiquioris, 1822; De graminibus paniceis, 1826; Species graminum iconibus et descriptionibus illustratnt, 1828-36; .4otostidea. 1840-41.

.' Trlod. Sponge spicule having three equal rays making equal angles with each other.

Triolein. See Oleines.

Trlonychidae (soft-shelled Tortoises). Family of CheIonia, characterized by having the carapace covered with soft skin in place of epidermal plates: the webbed toes have three claws; the body is flat and circular. They are carnivorous, fond of mussels, and burrow in the mud, especially during drought. Aspidonectes spinifer has pointed nostrils on a flexible snout: it abounds in salt water creeks. A. ferox of the Gulf Coast grows to a length of 18 in. It lays over 60 eggs, and is palatable as food. It is aquatic and carnivorous, destroying many young alligators.

Tripalmltin. See Palmitines.

Tripe. Dish prepared from the stomachs of sheep or cattle. Plain tripe is the paunch or rumen; honeycomb tripe is the reticulum. See Ruminants.

Tripe de Roche. Large, fleshy lichens of the genus Umbillicaria, natives of rocky, mountainous regions; sometimes used as food.

Tripegtone. Variety of the mineral anhydrite, presenting a peculiar irregular appearance that suggested the name.

Trlplienylmethane. CH ; (C«H,)i. Solid hydrocarbon, crystallizing in beautiful white plates; mpt. 93° C; prepared from chloroform and benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride. The amido compounds derived from it are important coloring matters. See Parafuchsine.

Triphenylrosanlline. C,shj«n,. Product of the action of aniline upon rosaniline. See Spirit Blue.

Tripitaka. Sacred books of Buddhism, named from their having arranged in baskets the leaves of the palm, in time replaced by written paper.

Triple Alliance. 1. Between England, Sweden and the Netherlands, against France, Jan. 23, 1668. 2. Between England, France and Holland, against Spain and the Pretender, Jan. 1717. 3. Between England, Austria and Russia, Sept. 28, 1795. 4. Between Germany, Austria and Italy, 1883, intended to check Russia and France.

Triple Expansion. Compound engines in which expansion takes place in three cylinders instead of two. Higher

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coast, but arid and sandy in the interior, which is imperfectly known. Area ab.400,000 sq. m. This region was anciently subject to Phoenicians, Cyrenians, Carthaginians, and Romans; was known in the 3d century as Regio Tripolitana, from its three chief cities, then leagued together: was conquered with the rest of n. Africa by the Arabs, and by the Turks 1551; became partly independent 1714, and was made a province of the Turkish empire 1835. It is governed by a pasha, appointed by the Sultan. War with the U. S. was begun 1801, to obtain increase of tribute; the Bashaw was brought to terms by a successful attack on Derne and the bombardment of Tripoli 1806. Pop. ab.1,000,000, chiefly Berbers and Arabs.

Tripoli. 1. Capital of Tripoli; on the Mediterranean, ab. 200 m. e. of the Tunisian boundary. It has a shallow harbor,

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but a large trade with the interior. Pop. ab. 35,000. 2. Seaport of Syria, 40 m. n.n.e. of Beyrout; anciently Tripolis, a Phoenician city; taken by Crusaders 1104, by Mamelukes 1289. Pop. ab. 20,000.

Tripoli, or Tripolite. Diatomaceous earth; rotten stone, in part a decomposed siliceous limestone from which the calcareous portions have been removed, leaving the silica behind; used for the cleaning and polishing of metals. Some tripoli is an aggregation of the siliceous remains of minute animal and vegetable organisms, or infusorial earth.

Tripos. Examination for honors at Cambridge Univ., ab. June 1; covering ten or more subjects.

Tripp, Bartlett. b.1843. Chief-justice of Dakota 1885; Minister to Austria 1893.

Triptych. Three tablets joined by hinges, to hold a painting or inscription. See Diptych.

Trlqueti, Henri, Baron De, 1802-1874. French painter and sculptor.

Triquetrous. See Trigonous.

TrirectanRular (or Triquadrantal) Triangle. Spherical triangle having all its angles right angles and all its arcs quadrants. It subtends a right trihedral, and is one-eighth the surface of the sphere.

Trireme. Galley with three banks of oars, first used 664 B.C. by Corinthians against Corcyra; it had a crew of 200 men; largest known to the ancients till ab. 350 B.C. Later, five (quiquireme) and even ten rows were used in war vessels.

Trtsagion. Greek doxology, found in the Syriacand other liturgies.

Trismeglstus. See Hermes.

Trissino, Giovanni Giorgio, 1478-1550. Italian poet, reformer of the alphabet; author of a tragedy, Sofonisba, 1524, and an epic, Italia liberata, 1548.

Tristan, or Tristram. Legendary nephew of King Mark of Cornwall, and lover of Yseult of Ireland; celebrated by M. Arnold and other poets. The story is of Celtic origin, and existed from 1100 or earlier in various forms.

Tristan da Cunha. Island in s. Atlantic, lat. 37° 6' S., long. 12° 19'W.; named from its discoverer, 1506; occupied by England 1817. Area ab. 40 sq. m.: pop., 1895, 61.

Trlstearln. See Stearines.

Tristlchous. Three-ranked, as the arrangement of the

alternate leaves in the Sodges and some other plants.

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