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Tinned Meats. See Preservation Of Food.

Tlnneli (athabascans. Chippewayans). Great group of Indians of related linguistic stock of w. N. America, including: 1. Apaches (q.v.) and Navajos of the s.w. U. S. 2. Group of tribes of region centering in Oregon: of these were probably the Modocs, nearly annihilated in war with U. S. 1873. 3. Indians of the Mackenzie River basin. 4. Alaska Indians, located between the Aleut and the Eskimo. The Canadian Tinneh shape the infant skull into sugar-loaf form. The nose is aquiline, sight keen, features large, and beard considerable. They are bloodthirsty and uncleanly, but temperate and frugal. They subsist by hunting, fishing, and trade in furs. They were polygamous, but have been converted to the R.C. faith. Wives are slaves. They are subject in summer to contagious illusions and dancing manias. The tribes nearest the Eskimo imitate the underground houses of the latter with long low passage. They were cannibals, and human sacrifices were offered.

Tinnitus Aurium. Ringing of the ears, heard in health and sickness. Commonly of no consequence, but often an accompaniment of cerebral disorder. It may be brought on by a large dose of quinine or salicine.

Tino. Same as Tenos (q.v.).

Tinoceras. See Dinoceras.

Tin Ore, or Tin Stone. See Cassiterite.

Tin-Plate. Carefully rolled sheet-iron, cleansed from oxide by dipping in dilute sulphuric acid, annealed in iron boxes and polished with emery and oil between rolls, is dipped in melted tin, covered with tallow. It is then dipped in another pot of tin, the excess of tin removed in a pot of hot tallow and polished with bran. Tin-plate was invented in Bohemia ab. 1500; in England it was first made 1670.

Tin Pyrites. See Stannite.

Tin Sail*. See Stannous Chloride.

Tinsel. Thin sheets of glittering metal, used for decorations and theatrical costumes.

Tinstone. See Cassiterite.

Tintagel. Ruined castle in w. Cornwall, legendary seat of King Arthur.

Tintern Abbey. In Monmouthshire, Eng., on the Wye, founded 1131 by Cistercians. Its ruins, especially those of its church, built ab.1290, are famed for beauty.

Tint of Passage. See Transition Tint.

Tintoretto(robusti), Jacopo, 1518-1594. Venetian painter, unduly exalted by Ruskin, but possessed of great originality and ambition, though occasionally lacking the solid quality of the preceding generation. He has fine works in the Doge's

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at the ends; otherwise, it is placed beside a small depression in the ground. Tip-cats with pointed ends were found with tops by Petrie in the Fayum, Egypt (ab.1600 B.C.). In Russia, tip-cat is called the goat game; among the Persians, the frog game. It is played as an apparently indigenous game by the Zuni children of New Mexico, who call it the jumpingfrog game. It also occurs in parts of Japan, where the bat is called father and the billet son.

Tippeeanoe. River of Indiana, ab. 200 m. long, branch of the Wabash; famous from a battle fought on its banks, Nov. 7, 1811, when the Indians were defeated by Gen. W. H. Harrison: his nickname during the Presidential campaign of 1840.

Tippoo Satb, 1749-1799. Son of Hyder Ali; Sultan of Mysore 1782; allv of the French; at war with the British till 17*84, 1790-92, anil 1798; defeated and slain at Seringapatam.

Tipton, John, 1786-1850. U. S. Senator from Ind. 1831-39.

Tipton, Thomas W., b.1817. U. S. Senator from Neb. 1867-75.

Tlpula. See Daddy-longlegs.
Tlpulariae. See Nemocera.

Tiraboselii, Girolamo. 1731-1794. Prof. Milan; librarian atModenafrom 1770; historian of Italian literature. His chief work, 13 vols., 1772-82, extends to 1700; it was continued by Lombardi.

Tlrard, Pierre Emmanuel, 1827-1893. French Deputy 1876, Minister 1879-81, Premier 1887-88 and 1889-90.

Tiresias. Theban seer, blind and aged; connected with many events in the mythical history of Greece.

Tlrhakah, d.664 B.C. King of Ethiopia 702, and of Egypt ab.693 B.C.; at war with Assyria: ally of Hezekiah of Judan; called Taracus by Manetho, and Tearcho by Strabo. II. Kings xix. 9.

Tiro, Marcus Tullius, 1st cent. B.C. Freedman of Cicero, and editor of his works; reputed inventor of Latin shorthand writing.

T-Iron. Wrought-iron or steel bar whose cross-section has the shape of a letter T; used in bridge and roof construction.

Tironian Notes. See Shorthand and Tmo.
Tlrso de Molina. See Tellez.

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mann 1884-85. The Cyclopean walls of Tiryns and of the neighboring city of Mycenae are the grandest in Greece. The early life of Hercules was spent here.

Tlschbein, Johann Heinrich Wilhelm, 1751-1829. German painter and engraver, in Naples 1787-99.

Tisehendorf, Lobegott Friedrich Konstantin Von, D.C.L.. LL.D., 1815-1874. Prof. Leipzig from 1845: ed. N. T. text; discoverer, at the monastery on Mt. Sinai, of the CodejSinaiticus (in instalments), 1844-59, pub. 1862.

Tisrl. Hebrew month corresponding to part of Sept.-Oct. The 1st of the civil and the 7th of the ecclesiastical Hebrew year.

Tissandier, Gaston, b.1843. French aeronaut, who ascended 54 m. 1875.

Tissaphernes, assassinated 395. Satrap in Asia Minor I 414 B. C; defeated by Agesilaus.

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Tlsserand, Francis Felix, 1845-1896. Director observatory at Toulouse 1873, and Paris 1892.

Tissof, James, b.1836. French painter, long in London; noted of late for his biblical scenes.

Tissues. Vegetable or animal structures composed of cells.

'Tis the last Rose of Summer. Song- by Moore, adapted by him to an old Irish tune, "The Groves of Blarney," which he greatly changed in character. Flotow introduced it in his opera Martha with fine effect; Beethoven arranged it for voice, pianoforte, violin, and violoncello, with words beginning "Sad and luckless was the season"; and Mendelssohn wrote a fantasia (Op. 15) on the melody.

Tisza, KOLOMAN BOROSJENO, b.1830. Hungarian Premier 1875-90.

Titanta. Queen of the fairies and wife of Oberon (q.v.).

Titanic Acid. White powder; soluble in the common acids; varying in composition from Ti(OH)t to Ti,Os(OH),; prepared by precipitating atitanate. On ignition it yields titanium dioxide.

Tilaiiichthys. Hugest Placoganoid yet known; found in the Devonian rocks of Ohio. The head-shield alone is ab. 5 ft. long by 5 wide: the jaws, a yard in length, are set with formidable teeth. See Placoderm.

Titaniferous Iron Ore. Known as ilmenite, menaccanite, and by other names, according to the quantity of titanium present and its effect on the quality of the ore.

Titanlte. See Sphene.

Titanium. Ti. At. wt. 48. sp. gr. 3.58, sp. ht. .13, valence II. III. IV.; discovered by Gregor 1789; prepared by fusing potassium fluotitanate with potassium or sodium; gray amorphous powder, resembling reduced iron. It has not been prepared in pure condition. It unites energetically with oxygen, and readily with nitrogen at high temperatures. It is soluble in the common acids. It occurs combined with oxygen in several minerals, the more important of which are rutile and brookite, both having the composition TiO,. It is frequently found in iron ores, increasing the difficulty of the smelting process by its infusibility, and sometimes in quantity so large as practically to destroy the value of the ore. It is used in porcelain painting and in the preparation of enamels.

Titanium Bromide. TiBr,. Amber yellow, well crystallized substance; nipt. 39° C, bpt. 230° C; made by passing bromine vapors over a heated mixture of carbon and titanium dioxide.

Titanium Chlorides. Dichloride. TiCl,. Brown powder, which burns like tinder on exposure to the air.—Sesquichloride. TijCI,. Violet scales, made by passing the vapor of the tetrachloride and hydrogen through a red-hot tube: powerful reducing agent.—Tetrachloride. TiCl,. Mobile, colorless liquid, made by heating a mixture of the dioxide with carbon, in chlorine.

Titanium Dioxide. TiO,. Found in nature as rutile, anatase, and brookite; white powder, prepared by heating titanic iron ore with hydrochloric acid and chlorine; soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid.

Titanium Dlsulphlde. TiS,. Substance resembling pyrites; made by fusing together rutile, sulphur, and sodium carbonate.

Titanium Iodide. Til,. Brownish-red octahedra or prismatic needles; mpt. 150° C; made by passing iodine vapor over heated titanium.

Titanium Sesquisulphide. Ti,S,. Metallic looking, grayish-black substance; made by passing carbon disulphide vapor over the heated dioxide.

Titanium Tctrafluoride. TiF,. Yellow oil, formed in small quantities by treating fluorspar with sulphuric acid.

Titanium Trifluoride. TiF3. Violet powder, obtained by heating potassium fluotitanate in a stream of hydrogen.

Titanol licrium. Genus of extinct mammals found in the Bad Lands of S. Dakota. Brontotheri um is an allied genus. See BRONTOTHERHX«i.

Titans. 1. Twelve children of Uranus and Gnea. who deposed their futher; cast into Tartarus by Zeus. 2. Their descendants, as Prometheus and Hecate.

Tltcomb, Timothy. See Holland, Josiah G.

Tite, Sir William. F.R.S.. 1802-1873. English architect and banker; M.P. 1855, knighted 1869.

Tithes. Tenth of produce, devoted to religious uses; first mentioned Gen. xiv. 20 and xxxiii. 22; paid to the Levites. and from ab.350 irregularly to the clergy; not enjoined in N. T. The connection of Church and State in England and elsewhere is based on a commutation of tithes.

Tlthing-iflan. In England, a kind of constable; in New England, a yearly elected officer who enforced attendance at public worship.

Titlionus. Son of Laomedon, beloved by Aurora (Eos), who obtained for him the gift of immortality but without eternal youth; changed to a grasshopper.

Titian (titiano Veccelli or Vecellio), 1477-1576. Greatest Venetian painter. His masterpieces are: in Rome, Borghese Gallery, Divine and Earthly Love, Blindfolding of Cupid; in Florence, the Flora and Venus of the Uffizi. the Bella of the Pitti; in Dresden. Christ and the Tribute Money, and Fentu; in Venice, the Presentation of the Virgin, the Assumption; in

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the National Gallery, London, Bacchus and Ariadne. There are many fine Titians in Madrid, and others in galleries already named and elsewhere. The excellence of this artist is his coloring, which is unrivaled except by contemporary Venetians, none of whom are wholly his equals, except Giorgione, whose works are extremely rare.

Titicaca. Lake on the Andean plateau, in Peru. Area ab. 3,200 sq. m., elevation 12,846 ft., greatest depth ab. 750 ft.

Titlens, or Tieljens, Teresa Caroline Johanna, 18311877. Hungarian-German soprano singer, well known in England; in the U. S. 1876.

Tltinlus. Roman dramatist, writer of comediae togat<e ab.170 B.C. Fragments remain.

Title. Means by which one becomes lawful owner of property. It includes, when complete in one person, possession, right of possession, and right of property.

Title-Dceds. Deeds evidencing a person's right or title to lands, otherwise muniments of title.

Tits (tom-tits, Titmice). True tits include birds of the family Paridce, mostly Old World forms, highly colored with azure, white, red, and black. They breed in holes in trees, but the Long-tail or Bottle-tit makes a pendent nest. 5 species are found in Gt. Britain, and 15, which are dull colored, are American: e.g., the Chickadee and the white and red-breasted Nuthatches or Sap-suckers: they feed exclusively on insects. The Hill-tits, belonging to the family Leiotrichida, include 60 species of bright-colored birds of the Oriental region. Of these the Red-bill, falsely called Japanese Robin, is often kept in confinement: it is not native to Japan. The Ground-tit (Wrentit) of Cal. lives on shrubby hillsides that are almost devoid of rain, and belongs to the family Troglodytidce.

Tit-Tat-To. Child's game, played by two persons on a 1531

TITULAR BISHOP—TOBACCO

slate, or with pencil and paper, on a diagram formed hy two straight lines crossed by two lines at right angles. The players alternately put down a cross and a circle in the divisions, the object being to get three marks of the same kind in a row. There is no historical explanation of the game, but the form of the diagram and the symbols used, from comparative studies, suggest a divinatory origin and a primitive cosmical significance. See Noughts And Crosses.

Titular Bishop. Formerly bp. "in partibus infidelium"; one consecrated to a merely titular diocese, now occupied by Mohammedans.

Titus, Epistle To. 17th N. T. book; written ab.65 by St. Paul to a Gentile convert and helper. See TIMOTHY.

Titus Flavin* Sabinus Yespaslanus, 40-81. Tenth Roman emperor; son of Vespasian. He ended the Jewish

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war by the capture of Jerusalem Sept. 8, 70. became Caesar ab.71, and emperor 79. In his reign occurred an eruption of Vesuvius, a destructive fire at Rome, and a pestilence. He finished the Colosseum, reigned wisely and well, and was called "the delight of mankind." See Rome.

Titus Llvlus. See Lmus, T.

Titusvllle. City of Crawford co., Pa., 100 m. n. of Pittsburg. It has been an important oil center since 1859, when Drake drilled the first successful well on Oil Creek, 2 m. s. of the city.

Tluchev, Fedor Ivanovich, 1803-1873. Russian diplomat and writer of short poems, which suddenly became popular in 1854.

Tivoli. Ancient Latin town, 18 m. e. of Rome. As Tibur it was the summer-resort of Marius, Scipio, Maecenas, Horace, and other Romans. It has some notable ruins, and works, opened 1892, for the electric lighting of Rome. Pop. ab. 11,000.

Tivoli. Simple form of bagatelle, played upon an inclined board set with pins, with a marble, which is either shot with a spring or shoved with a stick from a channel at one side. The marble, in rolling down the board, rebounds among the pins, and stops either in a hole on the board, or in numbered compartments at the bottom, which determine the count.

Tiza. Commercial name for an impure Ulexite (q. v.) found in S. America.

Tlaloc. Mexican god of rain; worshiped with sacrifices of prisoners and children.

Tlascala, or Tlaxcala. Former republic and town near Mexico city. Its warriors fought the Mexicans, and aided Cortes in his conquest.

Toad-Fish. See Hatha' Hid E.

Toad-Flax. See Snapdragon and Butter-and-eggs.

Toads. See Oxydactylia and Bufonid^e.

Toad's-Eye. Variety of wood-tin, occurring in small rounded grains with a concentric and radiated structure. See Tin, Metallurgy Of.

Toadstone. 1. That of antiquity, so named from some fancied resemblance of form, was probably a fossil. 2. That of Derbyshire, England, is a dark, compact rock, like basalt, intruded among Carboniferous strata. The name may be a corruption of the German todtstein (dead stone), with allusion to the absence of ore. 3. Varieties of rock with peculiar mottled surfaces.

Toadstool. Varieties of Fungi of the class Hymenomycetes, of very wide geographical distribution, many of them poisonous. See Mushroom.

Toast. Bread that has been toasted loses some of the water of composition, one evidence of this being the carbonizing or browning, and the starch is partially changed into compounds more quickly digested. To accomplish this the bread should be slowly browned. A very pleasant drink for invalids is made by pouring hot water over some well-browned toast and serving after it has cooled.

Toast. This was an addition to English drinks in the 16th century, sack and punch being drunk with it. In the 17th century it was customary to drink to the health of the host and guests, and especially woman, who was called the toast.

Tobacco. Nicotiana tabacinn. Annual herb of the Potato family, native of America; widely cultivated for its leaves. It thrives best on rich alluvial soils. The young plants are started in beds, and transplanted to the field, ab. June 1, on soil that has been thoroughly prepared and well fertilized. Clean culture is given, and the seed stalk removed when it appears. When the leaves are mature, the plant is cut and hung up under cover to cure. When cured, the leaves are taken off, assorted, and packed in bundles for fermenting. A. rustica is the only other species much cultivated, and is grown in Asia, Africa and Europe. Tobacco contains 2 to 6 per cent of the alkaloid Nicotine (q.v.). a cerebro-cardiac poison. Taken internally tobacco causes nausea; when smoked or chewed it is sedative or narcotic; in excess it affects the pulsations of the heart. Tobacco removes a large amount of mineral matter from the soil, and is therefore an exhausting crop. It was found to be in use by the Indians in all parts of America. Oviedo says the peculiar Y-shaped tube by which they inhaled the fumes was called tabaco; Benzoni says tabacco is the Mexican name of the herb. It is said to have been used by Spaniards in Yucatan 1520. It was first brought to Spain 1558, and to England ab. 1565. In 1586 Ralph Lane, Gov. of Va., and Sir Francis Drake

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into 4,341,240,981 cigars, and 12,497,183 lbs. into 3,660.755.959 cigarettes. See Pipes, Tobacco.

Tobacco, Indian. Lobelia inflata. Low, blue-flowered herb of the Lobelia family, with an intensely bitter foliage, native of e. N. America. The powdered leaves and seeds affect the brain and spinal marrow, and irritate the stomach and bowls; they have produced death. It contains a narcotic alkaloid, lobelin, a non-volatile oil, which forms crystalline salts.

Tobago. One of the Windward Isles, W. Indies; area 114 sq. m.; held by Dutch and French 1632-1763, and since by Britain; connected witli Trinidad. Pop., 1891, 18,353.

Toblt. Apocryphal book, describing sundry marvelous deliverances and cures in the family of a Jewish exile; called in the Vulgate Tobias.

Tobler, Titus, 1806-1871. Swiss traveler in Palestine. Topographio von Jerusalem. 1853-54; Nazareth. 1868; Palestince Descriptiones (300-1500), 1867-74.—His son, Adolf, b.1835, prof. Berlin since 1867, is an authority on Romance philology.

Toboggan. This was originally an Indian pack-sled, peculiar especially to the Canadian-French. It was made of thin strips of wood curled up at the front. From this was developed the sled of sport, of birch ± in. thick, 16 in. wide, and carrying 3 to 8 persons; made to run on snow or ice with runners, or rollers to run in chutes. The term tobogganing is now used to include all sliding by means of low sleds on artificial hills of various kinds, some of which end in a prepared water-plunge.

Tobolsk. Capital of a district of w. Siberia; on the Irtish and the Tobol. It has manufactures of tallow, soap, and leather, and shipbuilding. Pop., 1891, 22,651.

Tocantini. River of e. Brazil, flowing ab. 1,500 m. n. to the Para; partly navigable. Its tributary, the Araguay, is ab. 1.300 in. long.

Toccata. Composition for keyed instruments of the organ and pianoforte kind; piece of persistent movement, with little variation in the time value of the notes, and frequently sounding like improvisations.

Tocogonia (biogenesis). Production of living things (children) from pre-existing living things (parents).

Tocology. Science of child-birth: Obstetrics (q.v.).

Tocqueville, Alexis Charles Henri Clerel De, 18051859. French author; Deputy 1839, Academician 1841. His Democracy in America, 4 vols.. 1835-40, is highly valued. The Old Regime and the Revolution. 1856; Remains, 1861; Works, 9 vols., 1860-65; Recollections, tr. 1897.

Tod, David. 1805-1868. U. S. Minister to Brazil 1847-52; Gov. of Ohio 1862-63.

Toda, or Tudawa. Dominant race of a section of s. India, though in number less than 750. They have a language, religion, and customs of their own.

Todd, Charles Scott. 1791-1871. Officer in the war of 1812: Ky. Sec. of State 1817; U. S. Minister to Russia 1841-45.His father, Thomas. 1765-1826, became Judse of Kv. Court of Appeals 1801, and Chief-justice 1806; Justice U. Supreme Court 1807.

Todd, David Peck, b.1855. Prof, of Astronomy at Amherst since 1881; member of several expeditions to observe eclipses from distant points.

Todd, Eli, M.D., 1769-1833. Founder and supt. Retreat for the Insane at Hartford, Conn.

Todd, Henry John, 1763-1845. Archdeacon of Cleveland 1832; editor and biographer of Milton and Spenser.

Todd, John, D.D., 1800-1873. Cong, pastor at Pittsfield, Mass.. 1842-72; prolific writer. Student's Manual, 1835; Lectures to Children, 1834-58; Autobiography, 1876.

Todd, John Blair Smith, 1814-1872. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861-62; M.C. from Dakota 1863-65; Gov. 1869-71.

Toddy. In the E. Indies, the fermented juice of the palm from which arrack is distilled. In Scotland, whisky punch, a mixture of hot water, sugar and whisky.

Todhnnter, Isaac, 1820-1884. English mathematician. Author of a valuable series of text-books. Researches in the Calmlus of Variations, 1872; Attraction and the Figure of the Earth. 1873; Hist. Theory of Elasticity, 1886.

Todlcbcil, Franz Eduard, 1818-1884. Russian officer, whose engineering skill rendered possible the long defense of Sevastopol (349 days) against the Allied armies; Lieut.-gen. 1860. He besieged and took Plevna 1877. Defense of Sevastopol, 1863.

Toe of Switch. Ends of the movable rails of a railroad switch.

To ran a. See Aqua Tophania.

Toggle Joint. Made by two hinged bars meeting at an angle of almost 180°; if a side force then acts upon the hinge, a large force of compression can be produced in the two bars. Such a joint is used in the stone crusher and in many printing presses.

Togo. Town of German W. Africa in Togoland, a German protectorate, on the e. shore of Lake T. It is one of the principal trading stations of Togoland. Pop. 3.000.

Tokay. Town of n.e. Hungary, on the Theiss; pop. 5,012. The wines hence exported are of high repute. Analysis of a Tokay wine showed 16 per cent alcohol, 74 grs. sugar per oz., and acidity equivalent to 9 grs. tartaric acid per oz. The annual product of the best varieties amounts to 4,000,000 gals, and of the second-class 2,500,000 gals.

Token Money. Coins whose intrinsic value is much less than their face value, as the 1-cent and 5-cent copper and nickel coins, and the silver coins of the U. S.

Tokens. Metallic cards, made in various countries for ad" vertising and other purposes; especially those formerly issued in Scotland, admitting the holder to communion. They have an obscure place in numismatics.

Tokio (formerly Yedo). Capital of Japan; seaport, at the head of Yedo Bay, on the e. coast of Niphon; settled in 15th century, and important since 1590. It has a large trade and

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famous for its sword-blades; now decayed. Its university, founded 1498, was suppressed 1807: its palace was burned 1887. Its fine cathedral, erected 1227-1493, is 404 ft. by 204, with a tower 329 ft. high. Pop. ab.21,000.

Toledo. Capital of Lucas co., Ohio, on the Maumee, at the w. end of Lake Erie; settled ab.1795, chartered 1837. It has 25 m. of docks, providing for a large lake trade, and extensive railroad connections, being touched by 23 lines. Its manufactures are varied. It has 356 m. of streets, and 95 m. of street railways. Water is supplied by pumping. Pop., 1890, 81,434.

Toledo, Antonio Sebastian De, Marquis De Mancera. Viceroy of Mexico 1664-73.

Toledo, Francisco De, ab. 1517-1584. Viceroy of Peru 1569-81; able ruler; executioner of the last Inca; imprisoned in Spain.—His cousin, Garcia, ab.1510-1583, drew up a code for Peru, and was provincial of the Dominicans there 1577-81.

Toledoth Jeshn (generationsOf Jesus). Mediaeval Hebrew book, similar to the apocryphal gospels, but satirical and anti-Christian. Two forms exist, tr. into Latin 1681 and 1705.

Toledo War. Dispute as to Ohio-Mich, boundary, 1836-37. Mich, received the n. peninsula in lieu of her claim to the region about Toledo.

Toleration. Exemption from persecution; partial or entire liberty granted to dissenters from an established church. The idea scarcely existed before the Reformation, and thenceforth made its way slowly, being proclaimed by a few French, Swiss, and Polish thinkers, and enforced, so far as he could, by William the Silent in Holland. Religious freedom was secured in some degree in France bv the Edict of Nantes 1598, and in Germany by the Peace of 'Westphalia 1648. The notions and practices of the past in this respect were practically antipodal to those which now prevail in civilized lands.

Tolldine. C„H,.(CH3),.(NH,) . Diamidoditolyl; compound analogous to benzidine, and similarly used in the preparation of dye-stuffs; prepared by the rearrangement of hydrazotoluene; known in various forms, as orthotolidine, mpt. 128° C, used in the manufacture of cotton dyes, e.gr., benzopurpurin, azoblue.

Tolima. Peak of the central Cordilleras in Colombia. It is a quiescent volcano, 18.425 ft. high, which showed signs of activity in 1595, 1826 and 1829.

Tollen§, Hendrik, 1780-1856. Dutch poet and dramatist, best known by his lyrics.

Tolly. See Barclay De Tolly.

Tolon, Miguel Teurbe, 1820-1858. Cuban poet, in New York 1848-57.

Tolosa. Town of n. Spain, taken by the French 1794 and

1808. Near it the kings of Castile, Aragon, and Navarre defeated the Moors July 16, 1212.

Tolsa, Manuel, ab.1750-ab.1810. Spanish sculptor and architect, in Mexico from 1781; noted especially for an equestrian statue of Charles IV., erected in Mexico City 1803.

Tolstoi, Alexei, Count, 1817-1875. Russian dramatist and lyric poet. Death of Ivan, 1865, tr. 1869. His only novel, Prince Serebryani, was tr. 1893.

Tolstoi, Dimitri, Count, 1823-1889. Russian Minister of Education, noted as a zealous instrument of tyranny. Romanism in Russia, tr. 1874.

Tolstoi, Leo or Lyeff, Count, b.1828. Russian novelist of highest rank. His chief works are War and Peace, 1865-68, and Anna Karenina, 1875-78. He has also pub. many shorter tales, sketches, and tracts, intended for the peasants to whom his later years have been devoted, or for the propagation of his peculiar religious ideas. Some venerate him as the chief apostle and model of realism, others as a missionary and reformer: whatever may be thought of his judgment, his genius and sinceritv are alike undoubted. The Kreutzer Sonata, 1888; Ivan Ilich, 1884; Master and Man, 1895.

Toltecs. Indians of Mexico who emigrated s. into Yucatan, where they may have introduced the Mayan civilization, or perhaps gained their own from a more ancient type. Later they went n. and established a predecessor of the Aztec civilization in Mexico. They were conquered by the Nahuatt, also

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from the n., who as Aztecs were overthrown by Cortes. The theory that the T. culture was introduced from the Orient does not appear well supported. Their empire is said to have lasted ab.686-1070: its downfall was due in part to dissensions between priests and nobles.

Tolu Balsam. Viscid substance, obtained from trees of Myroxylon toluifera, found in S. America. Upon exposure it hardens to a vitreous mass. Its flavor suggests vanilla. It contains cinnamic and benzoic acids, benzyl benzoate, and cinnamate. It is used in perfumery and confectionery, and as a mild tonic in bronchial affections.

Toluene. C«H,.CH,. Toluol. Methylbenzene; liquid hydrocarbon with pleasant odor; bpt. 110° C.; present in coal tar, and prepared from it by distillation. Oxidizing agents convert it into benzoic acid. It is used as a solvent, as a source for nitrotoluene, toluidine, and Saccharin (q.v.).

Tolnic Acid. CH,.C,H,.COOH. Known in three forms, prepared by the partial oxidation of the xylenes. a-Toluic acid is an isomer.

Toluidine*. CH,.C„H,NH,. Bases closelv resembling aniline; known in three forms, ortho, meta, and para; prepared by the action of reducing agents upon the three nitrotoluenes. Orthotoluidine is a liquid, boiling at 199°C.; metatoluidine boils at 197° C.; paratoluidine is a solid melting at 45° C. The ortho and para compounds are much used in making coal-tar colors.

Toluylene. CHj.C.H,. Group or radical, recognized in

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