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lost his tail by eating a special heaven-sent grain. The religion is Lamaism. a modified Buddhism, introduced ab.639.



In some parts half the population are priests. Woman holds a high place. All the land belongs to the priests. Tibet Dog. See Mastiff.

Tlbio-Tarsus. Upper leg (crus) of birds, formed by the union of the tibia with the proximal tarsal bones; separated from the pelvis by the more or less concealed femur (thigh bone), and from the toes by the scaly Tarso-metatarsus (q.v.).

Tlbullus, ALBIUS, ab.54-19 B.C. Latin elegiac poet from whom we have many love songs of great tenderness and beauty. The third and fourth books which bear his name are probably not his.

Tic Douloureux. Name given to facial neuralgia in its violent form. Certain parts of the face may be attacked, as the neighborhood of the eye, the cheek with the lips, a portion of tlie jaw, apparently following the distribution of one of the branches of the trifacial nerve. At other times the pain shoots from one region to another, as if the source of irritation were in the nerve trunk.

Ticllborne Case. Tried in London 1871-72. Arthur Orton, alias Thomas Castro, a butcher from Australia, claimed large estates in Hampshire, personating an heir, Roger Charles Ticllborne, b.1829, who had died at sea 1854, and whose mother he had deceived. He was non-suited March 6. 1872, and after another long trial convicted of perjury Feb. 28. 1874, and imprisoned for 14 years. The two trials lasted 103 and 188 days, and cost some £90,000. The claimant confessed his imposture 1895.

Tiehenor, Isaac. LL.D., 1754-1838. Jud<;e of Vt. Supreme Court 1791, Chief-justice 1795-96; U. S. Senator 1796-97 and 1815-21; Gov. of Vt. 1797-1807 and 1808-9.

Ticino, or TESSIN. S.e. canton of Switzerland; mostly Italian and R.C. Area 1,082 sq. m., pop. ab. 130.000.

Tlcinus (now Tessino). River in Cisalpine Gaul, on the bank of which Hannibal gained his first victory over the Romans, 218 B.C.

Tickell, Thomas, 1686-1740. English poet, author of the ballad Colin and Lucy, and an elegy on Addison 1721. Kensington Gardens, 1722.

Ticket of Leave. In England, since 1840, abridgment of a convict's term: previously, in Australia, partial liberty; in either case, the reward of good conduct in prison.

Tickets. See Travelers, Rights Of.

Ticknor, George, 1791-1871. Prof. Harvard 1820-35. His Hist, of Spanish Literature, 1849, is highly valued. Life of Prescott, 1864.

Ticknor. William Davis, 1810-1864. Publisher in Boston from 1832: head of a firm of high literary repute. Ticks. See Ixodid-e. Tickseed. See Coreopsis.

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again by the British 1780; dismantled at the close of the war, and now a picturesque ruin. The township has graphite and iron mines. Pop., 1890, 3,980.

Tidal Evolution. Gradual changes produced in the motions of two bodies composed wholly or in part of fluid, by the mutual tidal action upon each other. G. H. Darwin has shown that this has probably been a powerful factor in the evolution of the earth and moon.

Tidal Showers. Rains (apparently) brought up by the tide, either along the coast or up tidal rivers.

Tidball, John Caldwell, U.S.A.. b.1825. Artillery officer, in Va. 1861-65; Col. 1885. Heavy Artillery Service, 1880.

Tiddledy Winks. Modern game in which small bone disks are made to spring into a basket or receptacle placed in the center of the board, by pressing them forcibly with a slip of bone upon their edge. An analogous game, of flipping small shells into a hole in the ground, is played by children in Siam and the Liu Kiu islands.

Tides. Periodic rise and fall of the waters of the ocean, twice every 24 h. 57 m. on the average; caused by the attraction of the moon, and to a smaller extent by that of the sun. When they act together, either in the same or opposite directions, as at new and full moon, the effect is greatest, and is known as Spring Tide. When they act at rigrht angles to one

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another, i.e., when the moon is in its 1st or 3d quarter, the effect is least; Neap Tide. The tidal wave is never under the moon, but, owing to friction and the resistance of land masses, lags behind. The height of the tide in the open sea is small, being in the Pacific but 2 ft.; in gradually narrowing bays it rises to a great height. See Fcndy, Bay Of.

Tide Wheel. Form of water motor to utilize the current inshore on the rise of tide, and outward upon the ebb. It hits two forms: (1) a simple current wheel, supported on an anchored float and turned by the alternating flow through a channel which connects an arm of the sea with an inner basin; (2) an intermittent type, involving reservoirs behind dykes which are filled with the rise of the tide. When the tide recedes, gates in the dvke are closed, and gates to the wheel allow the water to fall through the wheel and turn it on the way to the lower level. Current wheels of the first type utilize ab. 40 per cent of the theoretical efficiency, and of the latter type from 50 to 60 per cent.

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Tie-Beam. Wooden lower chord of a roof truss or bridge truss; any wooden beam under a tensile stress.

Tiebout, Cornelius, 1777-ab.l830. American engraver, especially of portraits of public men.

Tieek, Ludwiq, 1773-1853. German poet, critic, novelist, and translator, long popular in his renderings of fairy tales and old traditions; leading romanticist.

Tlele,CoRNELls Petrus. b.1830. Prof. Levden 1877. Egyptian Religion, 1869, tr. 1882; History of Religion, 1876, tr. 1878.

Tiemanntte. HgSe. Rare mineral compound of mercury and selenium, found in the Harz Mts. and a few other localities.

Tien-Shan, or Thian-shan. Mountain range of Turkestan, n. of Kashgar; partial s.e. boundary of Russian territory. Length ab. 1,000 m.; greatest ht. 24,000 ft., average ab. 11,000.

Tientsin. City and port of China, the junction of the Yunling and Peiho Rivers; open to foreigners since 1863. It has a large commerce. Pop. ab. 950,000.

Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista, 1696-1770. Venetian painter, who revived to some extent the color of his predecessors. He

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was chiefly known as a wall painter; his easel pictures have great merit.—His son, Domenico, ab.1726-1804, was also a painter.

Tiernan, Mrs. Frances C. (fisher), ("christian Reid"), tn.1887. American novelist. Valerie Ayhner, 1870; Hearts of Steel, 1882; Las Cruces, 1895.

Tierney, George, 1761-1830. M.P. 1789; Whig leader; Sec. for Ireland 1806. East India Co., 1787.

Tie-Rod. Used to counteract the thrust of a rafter; any rod subject to tension. Such rods are frequently furnished with sleeve nuts or turnbuckles, so that they may be screwed up to stiffen the structure.

Tierra del Fuego. Large barren island, with many smaller ones, at s. extremity of S. America; separated from the continent by the Straits of Magellan; held by Argentina and Chili. Area ab. 21,000 sq. m., pop. ab. 8,000, savages. See Fuegians.

Tierra Firme. See Terra Firma and Spanish Main.

Tiers Etat. In France, the nobility and clergy formed, before the Revolution, the two privileged classes. The Third Estate comprised the rest of the nation, or rather the burghers, who could send representatives to the States-general (q.v.).

Tie-Strut. Bar subject to both tension and compression under different positions of the applied forces. It must be larger in cross-section than a bar subject only to one kind of stress.

Tictjens. See Titiens.

Tiffany, Charles C, Ij.d., b.ab.1838. Archdeacon of NewYork. Hist. P. E. Ch., 1895.

Tiffany, Louis Comfort, b.1848, N.A. 1874. Americanpainter, decorator, and artist in stained glass and mosaic. He has made important discoveries and improvements in this art. —His father, Charles Louis, b.1812; founder and head of a famous firm of jewelers in New York.

Tiffin. Capital of Seneca co., Ohio; on the Sandusky; seat of Heidelberg Univ. Pop., 1890, 10,801.

Tiffin, Edward, M.D., 1766-1829. Gov. of Ohio 1803-7: U. S. Senator 1807-9.

Tiflis. City of the Caucasus, Asiatic Russia, on the Kur. in a picturesque depression surrounded on all sides, except the n., by high mts.; annexed to Russia 1802; celebrated for its hot

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springs and metal work. It was for many centuries the stronghold of Eastern Christianity, against the Persians first, and later against the Moslems. A bridge across the Kur is 1,350 ft. high. Pop., 1883, 104,024; 1892, 146,792.

Tiger-Beetle. See Cincindelid^.

Tiger Eye, or Tioer Stone. See Crocidolitb.

Tigers. Largest and fiercest of the cats. They differ from the lion in lacking a mane and a tail-tuft, but have side whiskers. The coat is marked with dark vertical stripes on a tawny ground. The pupils are round. In the Royal Indian Tiger a length of 11 ft. is attained. Tigers range from Siberia to Java, and from Burmah to w. Asia. In India they are most

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Tiplll Lacing. Device of fashion to transform the human form from the harmonious lines of a Venus cle' Medici to the monstrosity exhibited in a Parisian fashion plate. Tight lacing produces a deformity of the trunk comparable to the results of root-binding among the Chinese. The cavity of the chest is contracted and the contents of the abdominal cavity are displaced downward, crowding upon the organs in the pelvis, resulting in discomfort and disease.

Tlglatll-Pileser III. King of Assyria ab.746-740 B.C.; mentioned II. Kings xv. as assisting Ahaz of Judah against Israel and Syria; conqueror of Damascus and Tyre. His inscriptions were mutilated by Sargon.

Tigranes II., The Great, d.55 B.C. King of Armenia 96; master of all Syria to the Euphrates 88; conquered by Lucullus 69, and by Pompey 66.

Tigranocerta. City of Armenia, e. of the Tigris. Near it Lucullus defeated Tigranes 69 B.C.

Tigrl, Giuseppe, 1806-1882. Italian author; compiler of Tuscan folk-songs, 1856.

Tigris. Left branch of the Euphrates, which it joins ab. 100 m. from the Persian Gulf, after a s.e. course of ab. 1,100 in, from w. Kurdistan. It is navigable to Ophir, 50 m. n. of Bagdad, by vessels having 4 ft. draught.

Tllden, Samuel Jones, 1814-1886. American lawyer and statesman; active in the struggle with the Tweed Ring; Gov. of N. Y. 1874-76; Democratic candidate for Pres. in 1876, receiving 250,960 more votes than Hayes, and 184 uncontested electoral votes, but one more being necessary for election. The case was decided against him by the Electoral CommisSion (q. v.). He bequeathed the bulk of his property to found a free library in New York City. The will was contested ami decided in favor of the heirs, but one of them relinquished over |2,000,000 to carry out his intent. In 1895 the Astor Library. Lenox Library and Tilden Trust Fund were consolidated as the New York Public Library.

Tiles. Hard-burned clay pipes, used in making underground drains. They are of two main forms, round and horseshoe, the latter usually being laid upon boards. The use of tiles in this way for draining land has long been practiced.

Tiles. 1. Thin plates of baked clay used to cover roofs. The Romans had flat tiles, turned up at the edges, with inverted semi-cylindrical tiles to cover the joints. In England curved tiles are used, each tile overlapping the next; plain tiles are also used. Fireplaces are sometimes lined with tiles. 2. Glazed decorative tiles were used in ancient times for paving sacred edifices. Encaustic tiles were used in the Middle Ages for pavements and wall decoration; for these, squares of clay 4-6 in. sq. and 1 in. thick were impressed by a stamp, with a design in relief. Into the hollows thus made colored clays were inlaid, a metallic glaze applied and the tile baked in a furnace. At present the hollows are filled with semi-liquid slips of clay and water.

Tilghman, Matthew, 1718-1790. "Patriarch of Md."; delegate to Congress 1775-77; pres. Md. Constitutional Convention 1776.—His brother, James, 1716-1798, sec. Pa. Land Office 1765-75, was regarded as a loyalist.—His son, William, 1756-1827, became Chief-justice of Pa. 1806.—His brother, Tench, 1744-1786, was sec. and aid to Washington 1776-82.

Tilgner, Victor Oscar, 1842-1896. Austrian sculptor.

Tlllaceae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermoi, subclass Dicotyledons, and series Polypetaice, comprising 51 genera and ab. 470 species, widely distributed throughout all parts of the earth; called the Linden family.

Till. Thick deposit of commingled clay, sand, gravel, and bowlders, more or less firmly compacted together, often by the grinding and pressure of ice.

Ttllemont, Louis Sebastien Le Nain De, 1637-1698. French Jansenist; ch. historian of the first six centuries. Hist, des Empereurs et des Persecutions, 6 vols., 1691-1738; Memoires pour servir d VHistoire ecclesiastique, 16 vols., 16941712.

Tiller. Beam attached to the head of the rudder, which is turned by it.

Tllley, Sir Samuel Leonard. LL.D., 1818-1896. of New Brunswick 1873-78 and 1885; Canadian Minister of Finance 1873 and 1878-85; knighted 1879.

Tillinghast, Thomas. 1742-1821. Judge of R. I. Supreme Court 1780-87 and 1791-97; M.C. 1797-99 and 1801-3.

Tillman, Benjamin Ryan, b.1847. Gov. of S. C. 1890-94; U. S. Senator since 1895.

Tillman, Samuel Dyer, 1815-1875. Prof. American Institute, New York; inventor of the revolving planisphere and musical scale or tonometer.

Tillman, Samuel Escue, U.S.A., b.1847. Prof. West Point from 1880. Heat; Cliemistry.

Tillodonta. Suborder of Bunotheria, including Eocene Mammals with affinities to the Rodetitia, in having incisors faced with enamel and growing from persistent pulps. In other respects they resemble the Insectivora. The canines are small. The molars are like those of Ungulates in their crowns, but in some cases grow from persistent pulps. The feet are plantigrade, pentadactyl, and unguiculate, as in bears.

Tlllotson, JOHN, D.D., 1630-1694. Dean of Canterburv 1672; Dean of St. Paul's 1689; Abp. of Canterbury 1691. Hissermons, pub. posthumously in 14 vols., were very popular, and are still models of style.

Tillson, Davis, b.1830. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1863-66, holding artillery commands, chiefly in the West.

Tilly, Johann Tserklaes, Graf Von, 1559-1632. Imperial general in the 30 Years' War; victor in 36 battles; Wallenstein's successor 1630; notorious for the pillage and slaughter at Magdeburg, May 1631; defeated at Breitenfeld Sept. 17, 1631; mortally wounded at the Lech, Bavaria.

Tilopterldacese. Order of filamentous brown Algae.

Tilsit. Town of e. Prussia, on the Niemen. A treaty concluded here between Napoleon and the Czar, July 1807, bestowed on Jerome Bonaparte, as King of Westphalia, the Prussian do

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minions between the Elbe and the Rhine; erected Prussian Poland into an independent Grandduchy of Warsaw, assigning it to the Elector of Saxony; closed the Prussian harbors to British trade, and reduced the Prussian army to 42,000. Pop.. 1890, 24,545.

Tilth. Finely divided and loose condition of surface soil, brought about by continued use of plow, harrow, and cultivator, to fit it for the reception of seed.

Tllton, James, M.D., 1745-1822. Surgeon in American armies 1776-82: in Congress 1783-85; Surgeon-gen. 1813-15. Military Hospitals, 1813.

Tllton, John Rollin, 1833-1888. American landscape painter, working in Italy.

Tllton, Theodore, b.1835. Ed. N. Y. Independent 1863-72. and Oolden Age 1872-74; accuser of H. W. Beecher, and plaintiff in a famous trial. 1874, in which the jury disagreed; in Europe since 1888; author of many poems, and of a romance. Tempest-tossed, 1875.

Timreus, ab.852-256 B.C. Greek historian of Sicily. Fragments of his work remain.

Timantlies, ab.400 B.C. Greek painter, whose Sacrifice of Iphigenia was much praised.

Timber. U. S. forest area is 495,000,000 acres, 26 per cent of the total area. The white pine of the Northwest and New England is practicallv exhausted; of the long-leaf pine of the South there remains'1,500,000,000 cu. ft. The first to be exhausted will be the ash, followed bv the tulip and walnut. Forest fires destroy annually $12,000,000 worth. See FORESTRY.

Timber, Strength Of. As average values, 8.000 lbs. per sq. in. in compression and 10,000 in tension may be stated for the ultimate strength, but much variation exists in different varieties and qualities. The shearing strength across the

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grain is ab. 3,000 lbs. per sq. in., while parallel with the grain it is only ab. 500.

Timber-Line. Limit in altitude of growth of trees on high mountains.

Timbre. Peculiar property of sound depending upon the number of overtones given out by the sonorous body; distinguishing feature of musical instruments and of human voices. On differences of timbre depend the characteristic sounds of bodies of different material and structure. See Overtones and Quality.

Timbrel. Small ancient musical instrument carried in the hand and similar to the modern tambourine. It was used by Miriam after the passage of the Red Sea.

Timbuctoo. Town of w. Africa, between the Sahara and the Niger, in lat. 16° 49' N.; probably founded ab. 1100, visited



by Ibn Batuta ab. 1850, and by Laing 1826; commercially important. Pop. perhaps 20,000. of mixed races.

Tlmby, Theodore Rugoles, Sc.D., b.1822. American inventor of the turbine water-wheel; of revolving turrets, and other military devices.

Time. Uniformly increasing one-dimensional variable, which in the present condition of the universe is being marked off into intervals by the constant recurrence of various natural phenomena. In the mere use of the word uniform, however, we are reasoning in a circle, as no notion of uniformity can be gained without the introduction of a timeelement. The events most commonly employed to serve as terminal points of time intervals are: 1, the transits of the first point of Aries across the meridian; and 2, the transits of the sun. The period between any two successive transits of the fixed star is practically constant and called the sidereal day; it is evidently the time taken for the earth to turn on its axis once. The corresponding interval for the sun is not uniform from day to day, but its average, taken over a very long period, is used in all physical researches, and called the mean solar day. The of the mean solar day is the unit of

time employed in science, and is called a second. See Day.

Time. See Rhythm.

Time Earning)*. Wages calculated by the time of work, not by the amount accomplished.

Time*. Leading London newspaper, founded 1788 by John Walter, and managed bv his descendants. The editors have been T. Barnes. 1816, J. T. Delane, 1841, T. Clienery, 1879, and Q. E. Buckle, 1884.

Time-Value. That which an article owes to having been kept from a time when it was less valuable to a time when it is more so.

Timgad. Site in Algeria. 65 m. s.w. of Constantine, on one of the spurs of Aures, with numerous ruins of the ancient Roman Thamugas, a colony of veterans formed after the victories of Trajan over the Parthians. It has paved streets, forum, temples, and fountains.

Timocreon, 5th cent. B.C. Greek lyric poet of Rhodes. Fragments remain.

Timoleon, d.337 B.C. Corinthian patriot and hero, who slew his brother to prevent his becoming tyrant. He headed a force sent 344 B.C., at the petition of Syracuse, for its liberation; drove the tyrants thence and from the other Sicilian cities; and gained a brilliant victory over the Carthaginians on the Crimissus 339. He is the classic model of a devoted and efficient lover of liberty.

Tinion, 5th cent. B.C. Athenian misanthrope, celebrated by Lucian and Shakespeare.

Tlmon Of Phlius, ab.280 B.C. Greek philosopher and poet of the skeptical school, at Chalcedon and Athens. Fragments of his Silloi or satires remain.

Timor. Island between Australia and Celebes; length ab. 300 m., area ab. 12,000 sq. ni.; nominally held in part by Portuguese and Dutch. Pop. ab.500,000, chiefly Papuan and Malay.

Timor-Laut, or Tenimber. Islands e. of Timor. Area ab. 2,200 sq. m., pop. ab.25,000.

Timotheus, 4th cent. B.C. Greek musician.

Timothy, Epistles To. 15th and 16th N. T. books, written probably 64 and 66 in Rome by St. Paul to his young convert and helper; making, with that to Titus, the three Pastoral Epistles.

Timothy Carats. Phleum pratense. Valuable fodder and pasture grass, native of Europe, introduced by cultivation into N. America; called also Cat's-tail Grass and Herd's Grass. It is a perennial and will grow in almost all soils and locations. It makes the best kind of hay, especially for horses, and on this account commands a price in cities above its nutritive value. Though not so well adapted to pasturing as Blue Grass, it may be successfully pastured, especially on moist rich soils. The chief objection to it is that it does not leave the land mellow and improved.

Timperley, C. H., ab.1794-ab.1848. English printer and author. Printer's Manual, 1838; Diet. Printing, 1839-42; Songs of the Press, 1845.

Timrud, Henry, 1829-1867. Lyric poet of S. C. His verse, collected 1873, has much force and fire.

Tims, Thomas Dillon, b.1825 in Ireland. Canadian official; financial inspector 1870.

Timsah, Lake. Since the completion of the Suez Canal, a lake of ab. 6 sq. m., before, a body of brackish water, on the Isthmus of Suez, and supposed to be the sea of reeds crossed by the Israelites at the Exodus. It appears to be the remains of an ancient strait separating Asia and Africa.

Tlmur. See Timur-lenk.

Timur-Lenk, or Tamerlane, ab. 1336-1405. Son of a Mongol chief; became head of his clan and ruler of Samarkand by 1369. He pushed his conquests to the Dnieper 1398; took Delhi 1398; defeated the Turks under Bajazet on the Plain of Angora July 20, 1402, and prepared 1404 to invade China. He ruled from the Chinese Wall and the mouth of the Ganges to the w. limits of Asia. He was cruel and pitiless, but sagacious and capable.

Tin. Sn. At. wt. 119, sp. gr. 7.29, sp. ht. .056, mpt. 232° C, valence II. IV.; known to the ancients; nearly silver-white metal, with a shade of yellow. It boils at a white heat; expands TtJi of its length from 0° C. to 100° C.; latent heat of fusion 14.3 calories; conductivity for heat 15.2, for electricity 14 (silver «= 100). It is harder than lead, but softer than gold; very malleable at ordinary temperatures, but brittle at 200° C., and by exposure to great cold undergoes a molecular change which renders it very brittle and granular. Commercial tin may contain iron, arsenic, antimony, lead, copper, bismuth, tungsten, molybdenum and tin oxide, all which tend to harden it and reduce its malleability. Tin is attacked rapidly by hot, concentrated hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, and by ordinary, cold nitric acid; the latter converts it into a white hydrous oxide. It is also soluble in aqua regia and hot, strong caustic soda or potassa; in the latter cases forming stannates of the alkalies. In nature it occurs only sparingly, except in combination with oxygen in the mineral Cassiterite, SnO„ (q.v.). This mineral has been found in small quantities in many parts of the world, but has been extensively utilized as a commercial source of tin only in Cornwall, Bolivia, Sumatra and the neighboring islands, and Australia. The tin mines of Saxony and Bohemia have been steady, though small, producers. The tin-bearing deposits of Cal. and the Black Hills do not appear to be in condition to pay for working at present.

Tin, Metallurgy Op. Stream tin is a deposit of grains or pebbles of cassiterite concentrated in pockets in the beds of


Timothy Grass {Phleum pratense).

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streams, and is obtained by dredging or by diverting the streams from their beds. Wood-tin is wood petrified by cassiterite. Vein tin is the mineral in veins. It is seldom that the vein rock as mined contains over 5 per cent of tinstone, the accompanying minerals being quartz, mica, fluorspar, apatite, feldspar, iron oxides, bismuth, and wolframite. The cassiterite can be separated from all these except the last by gravity concentration, as its specific gravity is so high, 6.5 to 7. "The concentrates can be freed from the Wolframite (q.v.) only by treatment with acid.

The annual production of tin in 1894 was estimated at 83,387 long tons, four-fifths of which comes from the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo; ab. one-tenth is mined in Europe, and nearly one-tenth in Bolivia. A large proportion of the ore is shipped to Europe for treatment. It is also found in Australia, Tasmania. S. Dakota and Cal.; the last two localities have not been commercially productive. The market price of tin is 13 cents per lb.

The methods of reducing tin ore are by reduction to impure metal and then refining. The ore is tirst crushed and concentrated on shaking tables. The ordinary rock, quartz, and metallic oxides are thus removed, while metallic sulphides and arsenides and tungsten compounds with iron and lime remain with the cassiterite. If the sulphides and arsenides are in considerable amount, they are next converted into oxides by roasting, followed by washing with acid to remove the oxides. In case much tungsten remains, this is sometimes removed by melting with a limited quantity of soda, which unites preferably with the tungsten and can be washed out as sodium tungstate. while not enough soda is used to attack the tin stone. Frequently the wolframite is picked out by hand. The concentrates thus obtained may contain 50 to 70 per cent of tin, from ore carrying only 1 or 2 per cent.

The reduction to metal is by a smelting with carbon. In doing this, no more slag must be formed than is absolutely necessary, as tin is always likely to form stannates, and thus pass into the slag. The furnaces used are either reverberatory or cupola, the former being preferred. In operating a reverberatory. 1 to 4 tons of ore is taken, ground fine with one-fifth its weight of anthracite coal, and a small quantity of lime or fluorspar for flux, slightly moistened, and then charged and heated upon the hearth for 5 to 8 hours, with a reducing flame and closed doors. Afterward the heat is raised for 1 to 3 hours to thoroughly separate the tin from the slag, which can then be run off very fluid. In Germany, Australia, and Malacca, shaft furnaces are largely used, of small size, in order to avoid the reduction of iron, etc., with the tin. The furnaces have a sloping bottom, so that the tin as fast as produced runs out of the furnace, and so avoids reoxidation by the blast. The furnaces are up to 10 ft. high, and about 2 by 3 ft. in horizontal section, and the blast is usually introduced by a single tuyere at the back.

The impure tin thus obtained is next refined. Careful heating on an inclined plate or the inclined hearth of a furnace will cause a purer metal to flow away, while such impurities as copper and iron remain largely as a mushy residue. The other

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Tinainoua (Rhynchotua rufescens).

has a single head: the wings are raised as in ostriches, and their flight is imperfect, being like that of a projectile, while the short rounded wings vibrate with great vigor, and the birds are quickly tired and easily captured. The pelvis also is ostrich-like, the hinder part of the ischium being free from the ilium. There are over 50 species in thp family. The largest is Rhynchotus rufescens of the Brazilian Pampas.

Tincal. Crude borax of Tibet, imported into Europe and America.

Tlnchebray, or Tenchebray. Town of Normandy, where, Sept. 28, 1106. Henry I. of England defeated and took prisoner his brother Robert. Duke of Normandy.

Tincker, Mary Aones. b.1833. American novelist, Ion? resident in Rome. Signor Monaldinis Niece, 1879; By th< Tiber, 1881; Aurora, 1885.

Tincture. In Pharmacy, an alcoholic solution of a drug, as tincture of opium; or of a combination of drugs, as the camphorated tincture of opium, the ordinary paregoric. The amount of alcohol varies with the drug employed and is determined by the formula; furnished in the Pharmacopeia.

Tlndal, Matthew, 1656-1733. English deist. His Rights of the Christian Ch„ 1706. was abused at home and valued in France and Germany: his Christianity as old as the Creation, 1730, called forth several answers.

Tindalc, William. See Tyndale.

Tinder. Inflammable substance; charred lint or rag*. German tinder is the soft Amadou (q.v.).

Tinea. Name applied to several diseases of the skin, caused by the presence of a filamentous fungus. The older writers applied the name to certain forms of disease which more recent research places under other divisions, causing some confusion in the terminology. Ringworm and barber's itch are familiar forms of Tinea.

Tin el. Edgar, b.1854. Belgian composer; organist at Mechlin 1881.

Tinfoil. Very thin sheets of tin, sometimes alloyt-d with lead, used for lining tea-chests and for wrapping tobacco and chocolate; also, with the addition of mercury, used in manufacturing mirrors. It is obtained by rolling the metal or by shaving it by machinery from block tin.

Tlnjtoy,Thomas, 1750-1829. Captain U.S.N. 1798; in charge of Washington Navy-yard from 1804.

Tinker's Weed. Name given to Feverwort (q.v.).

Tinne. Alexandrina Petronella Francina, 1839-1S69. Dutch explorer of the Nile sources 1863-64; murdered by Arabian servants at Fezzan on another journey.

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