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Those of Caracal la accommodated 1,600 bathers at once, those of Diocletian 3,200. The ruins of these remain. A theater was connected with the latter. See Baths, Roman.

Thermal Constant. Number expressing, according to Linsser, 1860, and Hoffmann (q.v.). the total amount of heat necessary for a plant in order to ripen its fruit. See Phrenology.

Thermal Springs. See Springs.

Thermal Unit. British thermal unit is the amount of heat necessary to raise 1 lb. of water from 39° F. to 40° F. The French and metric Calorie (q.v.) is the heat required to raise 1 kilogram of water from 4°C. to 5°C.

Thermic Balance. See Bolometer.

Thermic Fever. See Sunstroke.

Thermic*. See Thermodynamics.

Thermic Wind-Rose. Diagram showing for any locality the average temperature during the prevalence of wind from each point of the compass.

Thermidor. Eleventh month of old French Republic, July 19-Aug. 18.

Thcrmoharometer. See Hypsometer.

Thermochemistry. Branch of chemistry dealing with the phenomena and laws of heat-changes taking place in chemical reactions.

Tlieriiioehrose. Property of some substances of transmitting certain radiation of lonir wave-length and of absorbing other kinds. It is now believed to be not merely analogous to color, but essentially identical with it.

Thermodynamics. Department of the science of dynamics which treats of the phenomena of heat as due to motion. The foundation of the modern theory was laid 1824 by Carnot. In 1850-60 the theory of heat was developed independently by Rankine. Clausius, and Thomson; and by the more recent investigators. Maxwell, Zeuner, Hirn, and Boltzmann. Its first law has been thus enunciated: Heat and mechanical energy are mutually convertible; and heat requires for its production and produces by its disappearance mechanical energy in the proportion of 772 foot pounds for each British unit of heat (see Thermal Unit). Heat is thus considered due to certain molecular motions in the molecules of bodies. The three assumptions of pressure, volume and temperature must be made in the case of any body to ascertain its condition as to heat. If a gas is compressed, its pressure and temperature increase, its volume diminishes; if its volume increase, pressure and temperature diminish, and besides the external work, certain interior work in the body has also to be done or accounted for. The usual assumptions of technical interest as to the variations of pressure with volume are represented graphically b3' one of the curves known as the Adiabatic, Isothermal, Isodynamic (q.v.), and the curves of constant pressure and of constant volume for a gas or vapor (see Gay-lussac and Mariottes Laws). The second law is that of the equivalence of transformations of heat and work, and may be thus stated: Equal work is performed during equal changes in the absolute temperature of a body (see Absolute Temperature); or, "If the absolute temperature of any uniformly hot substance be divided into equal parts, the effects of those parts in causing work are

equal." I.e., a variation in the living force or heat of a body doing work bears the same relation to the whole or initial heat, or living force, that the difference between the initial and final absolute temperatures (which is the variation of such absolute temperatures) bears to the whole or initial absolute temperature; i.e.,

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The formula? of thermodynamics enable many problems of the conversion of heat into work to be solved, as also many relating to the flow and action of gases pure and mixed. The fundamental principles were brought out simultaneously by Rankine and Clausius 1850.

Thermoelectric Couple. See Thermoelectricity.

Thermoelectricity. Seebeck of Berlin in 1821 discovered that the law of Volta, according to which there can be no resultant electromotive force in a circuit composed solely of different metals, is subject to exception when the junctions are not all at the same temperature. In this case a thermoelectric current flows through the circuit. If, e.g., pieces of iron wire and copper wire be joined at the ends forming a circuit and one of the junctions be heated, a thermoelectric couple is formed, and a current flows from copper to iron through the hot junction. The electromotive force developed within the closed circuit is approximately proportional to the difference of temperature of the two junctions if this difference be very small; if measured in microvolts, it is equal to the difference of temperature multiplied by a number dependent on the nature of the metals in the circuit. This number is called the thermoelectric power of the two metals at the given mean

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temperature, and varies with the temperature. The thermoelectric power of iron and copper decreases as the temperature rises till a mean temperature of 274.5° C. is reached, when it is zero, while above this the current is reversed in direction. If the colder junction be at a fixed temperature below the NEUTRAL Point (q.v.), and the other junction be heated, the electromotive force will increase till the higher temperature readies the neutral point; then it will decrease, and become zero when the higher temperature is as much above the neutral point as the lower one is below it. The temperature of the hot junction is in this case called the temperature of reversal. A thermoelectric series was arranged by Seebeck so that the thermoelectric power of any two metals was the greater the further apart these metals were in the series. Antimony and bismuth are the extremes of this series. See Thermoelectric Power. Thermobatteries, called ThermoPiles (q.v.), have been constructed on this principle.

Thermoelectric Power. Potential-difference in a circuit of two metals at the mean temperature t°, when one junction is kept half a degree above t° and the other half a degree below it. The following table gives approximately the thermoelectric powers for certain metals, the mean temperature being 20°. The potential-differences are given in microvolts per degree, and are referred to that of lead taken as zero (Jenkin):

Bismuth +97.0 Platinum —0.9
Cobalt +22.0 Copper (pure)—3.8

German silver+11.75 Antimony —6.0
Mercury +0.418 Iron —17.5

Lead * 0. Tellurium —502.0

See Thermoelectricity.
Thermograph. See Thermometry.

Thermoisoplcths. Special form of Isopleths (q.v.) in which the curves present temperatures, while the co-ordinate axes present times or places, or times and places. This term was first used by Erk of Munich, as applied to his diagram, where the co-ordinate axes are time of day and of year. S. A. Hill has given thermoisopleths for time of day and altitude above the ground.

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Thermolysis. See Dissociation.

Thermometer. Instrument for measuring temperature; i.e., determining- the condition of a body with respect to its sensible heat. Invented by Galileo before 1597. The alcohol thermometer also was invented by him ab.1612. Fahrenheit made a mercury thermometer 1721; his division of the scale dates from 1724. Linnaeus introduced the present arrangement of the Centigrade scale. The minimum thermometer was produced by Casella 1861. See Thermometry.

Thermometry. Science of measuring and comparing temperatures. The ordinary thermometer consists of a capillary glass tube terminating in a bulb, and the whole partly filled with mercury. The expansion and contraction of mercury is greater than that of grlass; so, if the tube be properly graduated, the position of the mercury surface will indicate the temperature of the instrument. Any instrument used to detect the presence of heat is called a thermoscope, and its arbitrary graduation will enable it to be used as a thermometer. An apparatus for obtaining a continuous automatic record of the indications of a thermometer is called a thermograph. A sheet of sensitive paper is made to move

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uniformly behind and at right angles to the length of a thermometer placed in front of a narrow vertical slit in a blackened screen. If this be illuminated from the front, that part of the tube above the mercury only is transparent, and the rising and falling of the mercury, combined with the horizontal motion of the paper, causes the line of separation of the affected and unaffected parts of the paper to be curved or wavy; the height of the curve above a certain datum line is a measure of the temperature at each instant of the day. Self-registering thermometers are divided into Maximum Thermometers (q.v.) and Minimum Thermometers (q.v.). Leslie of Edinburgh invented sin instrument for detecting small differences of temperature, called a Differential Thermometer (q.v.). See Centigrade, Fahrenheit, and Reaumur.

Thermophone. Electrical thermometer used to determine the temperature of a distant or inaccessible place. It is of the resistance type and depends upon the principle that the resistance of a conductor to the electrical current varies with

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was constructed of bismuth and antimony. The modern devices of Noe and Clamond are made of a zinc-antimony alloy, coupled with German silver or iron. The difference of potential due to a single couple is very small, and usually many couples are joined in series to increase the effect.

Thermopylae. Pass from Thessaly s., between Mt. GJta and the Malice Gulf. At one point it offered room for but a single carriage. Here Leonidas with 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians withstood for two days the mighty host of Xerxes, 480 B.C. Here Brennus entered Greece 279 B.C., and here Antiochus was defeated by the Romans 191 B.C.

Thermoscope. See Thermometry.

Thermostat. Self-acting instrument for regulating the temperature of a given space. Its action may depend upon the differential expansion principle, and it may be attached, e.g., to heat-regulating part of a furnace.

Thermotropism. Phenomena of curvature of growing vegetable organs, induced by the dark rays of the spectrum.

Therolgne de Mcrlcourt. Assumed named of TerWaone, Anne Josephe (q.v.).

Theromorpha. Order of extinct reptiles whose fossils are found in Permian and Triassic fresh-water deposits of s. Africa. They are connecting links to mammals. The limbs are ambulatory, the pelvis and shoulder-girdle firm. The vertebra; are biconcave, teeth few or none. LHcynodon had walrus-like tusks and a beak like a tortoise. Several suborders are here included, some of which connect with order Rhynchocephalia (q.v.). The Theromorpha were so named by Cope as possessing characters connecting them with the lowest mammals, the Monotremes; they were remarkable generalized types connecting amphibians, reptiles, and mammal), and believed by Cope and Owen to be the probable ancestors of the marsupial mammals of the Upper Triassic.

Thersltes. Character in the Iliad, deformed in body and mind. He railed at the Greek chiefs, and was slain by Achilles.

Thery, Antoine Theodore Joseph, 1807-1896. French life Senator 1875.

Theseus. Legendary hero of Attica, rival of the exploits of Hercules. He slew the Minotaur in Crete, and escaped from the labyrinth by help of Ariadne's clew; became King of Athens; fought the Amazons; was one of the Argonauts; joined in the Calydonian hunt; aided the Lapithas against the Centaurs; and was believed to have come from the grave to aid the Athenians at Marathon.

Thcsiger. See Chelmsford.

Thesmophoria. Greek festival in honor of Demeter; celebrated by the women of several cities, particularly Athens, Abdera, Sparta, and Thebes.

Thesocytes. Cells in sponges that serve the purpose of storing oil and amylin for the general use of the Bjwnge economy.

Thespis, 6th cent. B.C. Traditional founder of Greek tragedy.

Thessalonians, Epistles To. 13th and 14th N.T. books, written by St. Paul ab. 53 and 54. Thessalonica. See Salonica.

Thessaly. Largest section of Greece; e. ofEpirus; never of great importance in Greek history; subjected by Philip of Macedon 344 B.C., and by Rome at the battle of Cynocephalae

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tains and is divided by a series of transverse chains. Numerous monasteries are found here.

Thetis. Sea-nymph, daughter of Nereus. She had, like Proteus, the power of assuming any shape she pleased. Peleus, by Chiron's instruction, held her fast till she resumed her proper form and promised to marry him. By him she became the mother of Achilles.

Theudat. Leader of a Jewish revolt, mentioned Acts v. 36.

Theurgy. Supposed magical science, by which the will of the gods could be affected; believed in by some Neoplatonists ab. 400-500.

Theuriet, Andre, b. 1838. French novelist, poet, dramatist, and critic. Mdlle. Guignon, 1874; Bastien-Lepage, 1885.

Thevet, Andre, 1503-1590. French writer on America. Cosmographie, 1571; Homnies illustres, 1584.

Thian-Shan, or Tien-shan. Range of high mountains between Russian and e. Turkestan; part of the n. boundary of the great plateau of central Asia.

Thibaud, Pierre, 1739-1804. French ethnologist. Origine des lndiens, 1787-1801; Hist. Aztec. 1796.

Thibaudcau, Antoine Claire. 1765-1854. French Deputy 1792, Councilor of State 1800, Count 1803; in exile 1815-30; Senator 1852; historian of the Directory 1824, of Napoleon 1827-28, and of the Considate and Empire, 10 vols., 1835. Mimoires, 1875.

Thibaudin, Gaston Louis, 1727-1796. French botanist, in S. America and Cuba 1777-85, and from 1792. Flore du Chili. 4 vols., 1788; Flore du Perou. 4 vols., 1790.

Thlbault, Anatole Francois("AnAtole France"), b.1844. French novelist and dramatist; literary critic of Le Tempt. Jocaste; Jean Servan's Desires; Crime of Sylvestre Bonnard.

Thibaut, 1201-1253. King of Navarre 1234. French lyrical poet.

Thibaut, Anton Friedrich Justus. 1774-1840. Prof. Kiel 1798. Jena 1803, and Heidelberg from 1806; important writer on Roman law, 1799. and the Pandects, 1803.

Thibet. See Tibet.

Thick-knee (stone Plover). Plover-like intertropical

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and feeds in marshes on insects, snails, etc. In Central America it is protected because it destroys insects that attack cattle.

Thierry, Jacques Nicolas Augusttn, 1795-1856. French historian of the Norman Conquest of England, 1825, and of the Merovingian Age, 1840. His works are noted for picturesque style, and are familiar in English versions.—His brothei. Amedee Simon Dominique, 1797-1873, Councilor 1838, Senator 1860, wrote histories of Caul, 1828-47, and of Attila, 1856.

Thiers, Louis Adolphe, 1797-1877. French historian, journalist, and statesman; Deputy 1830, Minister 1832; Academician 1834; Premier 1836 and 1840; usually active in opposition; Pres. of the Republic 1871-73, Senator"l876. His Hist. French Revolution, 10 vols., 1823-27, and Considate and Empire, 20 vols.. 1845-60, are important works, but not of the highest rank.

Thiersch, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1784-1860. Classical prof, at Munich from 1812; writer on history and education.—His son, Heinrich Wilhelm Josias, 1817-1885. was prof, at Maiburg 1843-50, and thenceforth Irvingite pastor in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. Hist. Ch., tr. 1852; Genesis, tr. 1878.

Thietmar, 976-1018. Saxon chronicler; Bp. of Mersfburg. near Leipzig, 1009.

Thieve*' Jargon. Use of a special patter or dialect among thieves, partly to disguise their speech, is common throughout Europe, and in India and other parts of the East. English cant, or Thieves' Latin, is made up partly of archaic and foreign words, but in greater part of arbitrary and conventional expressions of a low, coarse and foolish character. In s. China, the secret language of thieves is characterized by the employment of substituted words in a metaphorical sense.

Thijin, Josephus Albertcs Alberdingk, 1820-1888. Dutch poet, historian, novelist, and critic.

Thllo, Johann Carl, 1794-1*53. Prof. Halle 1822; ed. N. T. Apocrypha 1832-46.

Thlmblcberry. See Raspberry.

Thin Plates, Colors Of. Iridescence is produced by the interference of rays reflected from the upper and lower surfaces of thin plates, as in soap-bubbles or oil-films. See NewTon's Rings.

Thio. Prefix used by many writers for sulp or sulpho, meaning that the compound to which it is applied contains sulphur.

Thio Acids. Acids in which more or less oxygen is replaced by sulphur. Thus thioacetic acid is CHi.COSH.

Thio Aleohols. Alcoholic compounds containing the group .SH instead of .OH; also called Mercaptans. See AlCohols.

Thio Aldehydes. Aldehydes (q.v.) containing the group .CHS instead of X'HO.

Thlocarbonates. Salts of the thiocarbonic acid; carbonates containing sulphur in place of oxygen, as K,CSt.

Thlokctonc. Ketone (q.v.) in which the group CO is replaced by CS.

Thloiilc Acids. See Dithionic Acid.

Thioninc. C.jH.oNjSCl. Hydrochloride of the substance produced by the oxidation of paraphenylenediamine in an acid solution containing sulphureted hydrogen; green powder, easily soluble in hot water.

Thlonvillc. Town of Lorraine, 18 m. n. of Metz; taken by Conde 1643. and by the Germans Nov. 1870; since German. Pop., 1890, 8,928.

Thionyl Chloride. SOC1,. Colorless or yellow fuming liquid of bad odor and irritating effect upon the mucous membrane; bpt. 82° C.; made by treating phosphorous pentachloride with dry sulphur dioxide, and fractionating the resulting compounds.

Thiophenc. C,H,S. Liquid very similar to benzene, present in coal tar; hence usually present in benzene; bpt. 84° C. In chemical properties it is an aromatic substance.

Thiosulphatcs. Salts of thiosulphuric acid.

ThlONUlphuric Acid. HaS,0,. Formerly called hyposulphurous acid; very unstable. Salts are made by dissolving sulphur in sulphites.

Third. See Intervals.

Third Estate. See Tiers Etat.

Thirion, Eugene Romain. b. 1839. French painter.

Thirlagc. In Scotland, a servitude, by which the possessor of lands was bound to carry all his grain to a certain mill to be ground, paying from a thirtieth to a twelfth part therefor, besides perquisites to the servants.

Thirling, or Thurling. Small hole or passage, cut for

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Thirlmere and Helvellyn.

of 330 acres to 584 ft. covering an area of 793 acres, by an embankment at the natural outlet. By an aqueduct having a capacity of 50,000,000 gallons a day, it supplies 10,000,000 gallons to Manchester.

Thirl wall, Connop, D.D.. 1797-1875. Bp. of St. David's 1840-74; O.T. reviser; most liberal prelate of his time, voting for Irish disestablishment and the admission of Jews to Parliament, and refusing to demand Bp. Colenso's resignation. His History of Greece. 1835-40, enlarged in 8 vols. 1845-52, is of high rank. Remains, 1875-76 j Letters, 1881-82.

Thirst. Simple desire for, or absolute want of, liquids. Its symptoms are dryness of the mouth and pharynx. It is relieved by introduction of liquid into the stomach, where it is absorbed by the veins. It is a symptom in many diseases, particularly in those of vascular excitement.

Thirty-nine Articles. Framed 1552 by Cranmer, Ridley, and other reformers, as 42; abridged, and approved by Convocation in their Latin form 1562, and in English 1571; bound with the Prayer Book in England and America, and long regarded as part of it. Subscription to them was required of members of the universities till 1871.

Thirty Tyrants. 1. After the fall of Athens 404 B.C. the Athenian assembly appointed a committee of 30 to draw up laws for the city and temporarily administer the government. They ruled eight months and earned their name by extreme violence and cruelty; 1.500 citizens are said to have been put to death without trial. 2. Usurpers in various Roman provinces during the imbecile reign of Gallienus. The chief were Postumus, Victorinus, and Tetricus, in Gaul 258-273. Gibbon could name but 17 in all.

Thirty Years' War. In Germany 1618-48. Austria, in alliance with Spain, and most of the R.C. States of Germany, contended with different powers. It began with an uprising in Bohemia, provoked by violation of the edict of toleration of July 11, 1609. Ferdinand II. was deposed as King of Bohemia and the Elector Palatine chosen in his stead. 1618-24 the war was carried on between the princes of Germany; the chief Protestant leaders were Count Mansfeld, Christian of Brunswick, and Bethlem-Gahor. The emperor recovered Bohemia, and crushed Protestantism there, but lost much of Hungary and Transylvania. In 1624, Christian IV. of Denmark came to the aid of the Protestants; he was routed by Tilly Aug. 1626, as was Mansfeld by Wallenstein April 1626. The death of Mansfeld followed a successful raid through Silesia, Moravia, and Hungary. Christian was forced to conclude peace, at LQbeck, May 1629. Ferdinand's increasing persecutions and his insulting conduct toward Gustavus Adolphus brought in the Swedish army, 1630, who soon conquered Pomerania and Mecklenburg. Gustavus routed Tilly at Beltenfeld 1631. and on the Lech April 1632; and entered Munich, but was drawn back by Wallenstein to Saxony, where he fell at Liitzen. his army gaining the victory. The defeat of Weimar at Nordlingen led to the treaty of Prague, May 1635. soon joined by all the Lutheran princes of Germany. Sweden now resigned the leadership to Richelieu, but her generals won a series of victories, till the Austrians were driven beyond the Danube. The power of Spain in the Netherlands was broken by France, and at Nordlingen, Aug. 3. 1645. Oonde and Turenne obtained a decisive victory over the leaguers. An invasion of Austria was cut short by the Peace of Westphalia, signed 1648, after 7

years of negotiation. The war was terribly destructive to life, property, and every interest of civilization, Thisbe. See Pyramus And Thisbe.

Thistle. Coarse, prickly herbs of the genus Carduns, natural order Composites, natives of the n. temperate zone. The Canada Thistle, C. arvensis, native of Europe, introduced as a weed into America, is particularly troublesome in both pastures and cultivated fields. It spreads from seeds and underground stems, and is eradicated or checked with great difficulty. When cut early it makes a hay of fair quality that is readily eaten by sheep and cattle. The other thistlesare biennials, and may be killed by cutting the second year before the seed is formed.

Thistle, Blessed. Cnicus benedictus. Native of Europe, sparingly introduced into the U. S.

Thistle, Cotton. See Thistle, Scotch.

Thistle, Order Of The. See St. Andrew,

ORDER OF. Canada Thistle (Carduus arven$it).

Thistle, Russian. Salsola tragus. Low, profusely branching, annual weed. Late in the season it breaks from the root and is blown about by the wind, thus widely scattering its abundant seeds. It has spread very rapidly on the Western prairies and is exceedingly troublesome. It is not a true thistle, but more nearly related to the pigweeds.

Thistle, Scotch. Onopordon acanthium. Coarse, pricklyleaved herb of the Composite family, with large purple flowers, native of Europe, introduced as a weed into America; also called Cotton Thistle.

Thlinkit. Pacific coast Indians from the Columbia n. to Mt. St. Elias, Alaska. They are of light color, have bristly black hair, and large eyes. They formerly inserted plugs in the under lip. Before the advent of the whites they worked copper. In war they wear wooden armor: prisoners were tortured to death. They live in houses of hewn logs, and are expert carvers. Cutting the hair is a sign of mourning; the dead are burned and their ashes preserved. Corpses are re

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Grave of Thlinkit Chief.

moved from the house by way of the loof rather than through the door. Though skilled canoeists, they knew not how to swim. Medicine men are wanting. The southern Thlinkit are the Haidah Indians; the Aht is their chief tribe. They flatten the head, live on salmon, which they cure, bury the dead in mounds, before which they burn salmon, and are noted for their theatrical performances.

Tholobate. Substructure below a cupola or dome.

Tholuck, Friedrich August, 1799-1877. Prof, of Theology at Halle 1826; evangelical leader of wide influence. His commentaries and other books have been extensively tr. and read. Sin and Redemption, 1824. tr. 1854; Hours of Devotion, 1840. tr. 1875; Rationalism. 1853-65.

Thorn, John Hamilton, ab. 1810-1894. Unitarian pastor at Liverpool. Revelation. 1859.

Thorn, William. 1799-1818. Scottish weaver-poet.

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Thomai, St., or Didymus. One of the twelve apostles; of a melancholy temperament, hut deeply devoted to his Master: said to have preached in Persia and India and been martyred. His doubt of Christ's resurrection was the demand of an honest, accurate mind for evidence. Both his names mean "twin."

Thomas Abel Charles, 1807-1880. Pastor in Phila.

Centenary of TJniversalism, 1872.

Thomas, Arthur Goring. 1851-1892. English composer of the operas Esmeralda, 1883. and Nadeshda, 1883, and cantatas Sim Worshipers and Swan and the Skylark.

Thomas Charles Louis Ambroise, 1811-1896. Director Paris Conservatoire from 1871; composer of 20 operas and many cantatas and minor pieces. Le Songe d une Nu.it d'ete, 1850; Mignon, 1866; Hamlet, 1868.

Thomas Cyrus, b.1825. Member U. S. Entomological Commission 1877, and Bureau of Ethnology 1882. Insects of Illinois, 5 vols., 1876-80; Mt. Troauo, 1882; Maya and Mexican MSS., 1884; Burial Mounds. 1888.

Thomas "avid. 1794-1882. Welsh ironmaster, in Pa. from 1839.

Thomas David, D.D.. b.1813. Independent minister in London 1845-74; ed. Homilist. 1851-82.

Thomas, Edith Matilda, b.1854. American poet and essayist.

Thomas, Francis. 1799-1876. M.C. 1831^1 and 1861-69; Gov. of Md. 1841-44; U. S. Minister to Peru 1872-75.

Thomas Sir George, ab.1705-1775. Gov. of Pa. 1738-47; Baronet 1766.

Thomas, George Henry. U.S.A., 1816-1870. Major 1855; Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861; victor at Mill Springs, Ky., Jan. 20, 1862; Major-gen. April 1862. He turned defeat into victory at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Jan. 2, 1863, and as " the Rock of Chickamauga," Sept. 20, withstood a fierce attack of the best Confederate troops, and nullified their success, in one of the most critical actions of the war. He now became commander of

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General Thomas.

the army of the Cumberland, and Brig-.-gen. U.S.A. He won the battle of Nashville Dec. 15, 16. 1864. nearly annihilated Hood's army, and was made Major-gen. U.S.A. After the war he held commands in the Southwest, and did much for reconstruction. A Virginian, his loyalty involved great though silent sacrifices, and was long under unjust suspicion. He was a noble character, and the greatest of the Union generals after Grant, Sherman, and possibly Sheridan.

Thomas, Henry Goddard, b.1837. Col. 2d U. S. colored regiment Feb. 1863; Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1864-66, serving in Va.—His brother, William Widgery, b.1839, was U. S. Minister to Sweden 1883-85 and 1897.

Thomas, Isaac, 1735-1819. Va. scout, active in border warfare and in the settlement of Tenn.

Thomas, Isaiah. LL.D.. 1749-1831. Printer and publisher of Boston and Worcester. Mass.; founder American Antiquarian Society 1812. Hist. Printing in America, 1810.

Thomas, Jesse Burgess, 1777-1853. U. S. Senator from III. 1818-29; introducer of the Missouri Compromise 1820.— His great-nephew, Jesse Burgess, D.D., b.1832. became prof, in Newton Theol. Inst., Mass., 1887. Bible and Science, 1877.

Thomas, John, 1725-1776. Mass. surgeon; Brig.-gen. 1775, Major-gen. 1776; Montgomery's successor before Quebec.

Thomas, John, 1805-1871. Founder of the Christadelphians, a non-trinitarian sect, in the U. S. ab.1855, and in England 1860.

Thomas, John, 1813-1862. English sculptor and architect.

Thomas, Joseph, M.D., LL.D., 1811-1891. American compiler. His Qazetteer, 1855, Medical Dictionary, 1864. and Did. Biography and Mythology, 1870-71, are widely used.—His brother, John J., 1810-1895, edited the Country Gentleman from 1853. Fruit Culturist, 1846.

Thomas, Lorenzo, U.S.A., 1804-1875. Brig.-gen. 1861, Adjutant-gen. 1861-63; organizer of colored regiments 1863-65.

Thomas, Mary F. (myers), M.D., 1816-1888. American reformer, champion of temperance and woman suffrage.

Thomas OP Celano. Franciscan monk of 13th century, supposed author of the magnificent requiem, Dies Ira}.

Thomas Of London. See Thomas A Becket.

Thomas, Philip Francis. 1810-1890. M.C. 1839-41 and 1875-77; Gov. of Md. 1848-51; Sec. U. S. Treasurv Dec. 1860Jan. 1861.

Thomas, Robert Baily, 1766-1846. Ed. Farmer's Almanac, Boston, 1'rom 1793.

Thomas, St., Christians Of. See Christians Of St. Thomas.

Thomas, Theodore, b.1835 in Germany. Organizer of symphony concerts in New York 1864; conductor of the Philharmonic Society 1877-90, and since of the Chicago Orchestra; director of the College of Music of Cincinnati 1878-80. of music festivals there since 1873, and of the music of World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago 1893.

Thomas, Theodore Gaillard, M.D., LL.D., b.1831. Prof. New York 1862; Pres. Gynascological Society 1879. Diseases of Women, 1868.

Thomas A Becket. See Becket.

Thomas A Kempls See Kempis.

Thomas Aquinas. See Aquinas.

Thomas-G llchrlst Process. See Steel, Metallurgy Of.

Thomaslus, Christian, 1655-1728. Prof, of Jurisprudence at Leipzig 1681, and Halle 1694. He substituted German for Latin in teaching, opposed torture and trials for witchcraft, and defended Spener and the pietists. Weisheit und Thorheit, 1693; Gedanken, 1723-26.—His descendant, Gottfried, 18021875, prof. Erlangen from 1842, pub. Origenes, 1837: Christi Person und Werk, 1852-61; and Dogmengeschichte. 1874-76.

Thomassin, Louis, 1619-1697. French oratorian. Benefices, 3 vols., 1678-79.

Thomas the Rhymer. See Rhymer.

Thomayer, Josef (-'R. E. Jamot"), b.1853. Prof, of Medicine at Prague; author of professional works and scientific novels.

Thomcs, William Henry-, b.1824. Californian writer of stories of travel.

Thomlsts. Followers of Aquinas (q.v.).

Thompson, Alexander Ramsay', D.D., b.1822. Reformed pastor in New York and Brooklyn; hymn is t and compiler.

Thompson, Augustus Charles, D.D., b. 1812. Cong, pastor at Roxbury, Mass.; devotional writer.

Thompson, Benjamin. See Rumford.

Thompson, Cephas Giovanni, 1809-1888. American painter, especially of portraits, as was his father. CEPHAS, 1775-1856.—His brother, Jerome, 1814-1886, was a landscape and genre painter. All three were mainly self-taught.

Thompson, Daniel Grf.enleaf, 1850-1897. New York lawyer and author, pres. 19th Century Club. Psychology. 1884; Problem of Evil, 1886; Social Progress, 1889; Philosophy of Fiction, 1892.

Thompson, Daniel Pierce. 1795-1868. American novelist. Green Mountain Boys, 1840; Hist. MontpeJier (Vt.), 1860.

Thompson, David, 1770-1857. Canadian explorer.

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