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The Paris Sketch-book, 1840; Yellowpluah Papers, 1841; Irish Sketch-book. 1843: Cornliill to Cairo, 1846; Book of Snobs, 1848; Titmarsh, 1848; Humorists of 18th Century, 1852; Four Georges, 1857; and many ballads and lyrics. He was on the staff of Punch from 1842; illustrated several of his books; lectured in America 1855-50; founded the Cornhill Mag. 1859, and edited it till 1862. Though his keen satire was feared and resented, he was kindly, lovable, and eminently human, at heart "rather a sentimentalist than a cynic." For his daughter Anne, see Ritchie, Mrs. Anne I.

Thuddaeiis, or Lebb^eus. One of the twelve Apostles. See Jude.

Thais. Athenian, mistress of Alexander and of Ptolemy, son of Lagus.

Thalamiflorae. Group of polypetalous Dicotyledons, having the stamens inserted on the receptacle. Tiialauiopliora. Foraminifera plus Arcellina. Thalamus. See TORUS. TlialasMCina. See Ch.etifera.

Thalassieolla. Genus of monozoic Radiolaria. It has no skeleton, but has a very complex nucleus. See Peripyl^ea and Tiialassicollida.

Thalassieollida. Family of peripylajan Radiolaria, including forms with a complex intra-capsular nucleus. The skeleton may be wanting or may consist of extra-capsular spicules.

Thalassophora. See Basommatophora.

Thalhcrg, Sigismond, 1812-1871. Swiss-German pianist of high rank, well known in Europe and the U. S.; composer of many pieces for the piano, and of two unsuccessful operas.

Thaler. Silver coin of various German States, standard till 1871; nominal value ab. 72 cents.

Thalcs, ab.640-ab.548 B.C. Of Miletus: one of the Seven Sages; earlier of the Greek philosophers. He held that water or moisture was the principle out of which all things were developed, and is said to have brought to Greece from Egypt the earliest knowledge of mathematics.

Thalia. Muse of comedy.

Thaliacca (thalicea, Conserta). Free-swimming, transparent, barrel-shaped Tunicates. with mantle orifices at opposite ends of the body. The branchiae are band-shaped, and the animal moves by contractions of the branchial cavity. The


Salpa maxima, solitary; S. democratica, chain.

viscera are compressed into a small mass, the nucleus. They are solitary or are united in chains, in double rows usually. There are two orders, Desmomyaria (Salpa;) and Cyclomyaria (Doliolida).

Thallic Sulphate. Tl„(S04),-t-7HaO. Colorless tablets, made by dissolving thallium trioxide in dilute sulphuric acid and evaporating.

Thallium. Tl. At.wt. 204.18, sp. gr. 11.8, sp. ht. .032, mpt. 285° C, valence I. III.; discovered by Crookes in 1861: found in small quantities in a number of iron and copper pyrites anil in a few micas; prepared by boiling the fine dust of sulphuric acid factories with sulphuric acid, and then precipitating with zinc; soft, bluish-white metal. It oxidizes when heated in the air, decomposes water at a red heat, and dissolves in dilute iicids.

Thallium Carbonate. TlaC03. Long prismatic needles, obtained as a precipitate by treatiug the sulphate with barium carbonate.

Thallium Hydroxide. TIOH4-11,0. Long yellow needles, made by precipitating the sulphate with barium hydroxide.

Thallium Iodides. Similar to the chlorides and bromides.

Thallium Monobromide. TIBr. Yellow, crystalline precipitate, obtained by adding a solution of potassium bromide to a thallous salt; soluble with difficulty in water. It fuses at a red heat.

Thallium lUoitoehloride. T1C1. White crystalline substance, turning violet when exposed to light; made bv heating the metal in chlorine.

Thallium Monoxide. T1,0. Black powder, soluble in water; made by heating the hydroxide.

Thallium Nitrate. TINO,. Large, milk-white, rhombic columns, obtained by dissolving the carbonate in nitric acid.

Thallium Sulphide. Tl.s. Black, lustrous, crystalline mass, obtained on fusing the precipitated sulphide.

Thallium Trihromide. TlBr3. Yellow to brown crystalline, hygroscopic substance, soluble in alcohol; made bv treating the monobromide, suspended in water, with bromine.

Thallium Trichloride. TlCls+HaO. Colorless enstals, made by treating the monochloride with chlorine under water.

Thallium Trinitrate. TI(N03),.4H20. Colorless, transparent, deliquescent crystals, made by dissolving the oxide in nitric acid.

Thallium Trioxide. TlsO,. Reddish-brown powder, made by fusing thallium in an atmosphere of oxygen.

Thallium Trlsulphide. TLS,. Black substance, obtained by heating the metal and sulphur together.

Thallogens. See Thallophyta.

Thalloid. Having the characters of a thallus.

Thallophyta. Subkingdom or plants, having the vegetative organs in the form of a Thallus (q.v.), including the Algte or seaweeds, Fungi, and Lichenes or lichens: termed by some Thallogens.

Thallous Sulphate. TI2SO,. Rhombic prisms. Womorphous with potassium sulphate; made by treating the hydroxide with sulphuric acid; soluble in water.

Thallus. Vegetative structure in which there is no distinction between stem and leaves. The typical thallus is a flat, broad structure of one or more layers of cells, as in the devil's-apron, sealettuce, and other sea-weeds; but it may be reduced to a filament of a single row of cells, as in many others.

Thames. Largest and most important river of Gt. Britain, rising in the Cotswold Hills and flowing e.; navigable for large vessels to London. Length ab. 250 m., drainage area 5,102 sq. m.

Thames. River of Ontario, Canada, flowing ab.160 m. s.vv. to Lake St. Clair.

Thames Tunnel. At London; completed 1843;, length 1.300 ft., width 35 ft., height 20 ft.; now used by a railway. Another tunnel Section of Stratified Thallus of RiawJit was completed 1890 for the herbacea: a, cortical stratum: 6.gou

T i „ A aM.ii „i, „„:i dial stratum; c, medullary stratum.

London and couth war K railway; it is 1^ miles long and consists of two tubes, 10 ft. in diameter, one over the other; the cost was $1,500,000. See Subway.

Thamugas. See Timoad.

Thamyris. Legendary bard of Thrace, who challenged the Muses to a trial of skill, and, being overcome, was deprived of sight and the power of song.

Thane (thegn). Anglo-Saxon noble, not by blood, but by service to the king; later, land-owner, knight, or baron.

Thanet, Isle Of. At n.e. end of Kent. Area 26,180 acres: pop , 1891, 57,821. Ramsgate, Margate, and other resorts are on its shores.

Thanet, Octave. See French. Alice.

Thank-Offerings. See Peace-offerings.

Thanksgiving Day. Usually the last Thursday of November; first observed as a harvest festival at Plymouth. Mass., 1621; long peculiar to New England; now universal in the U. S.

HI Thapsus. Town on the African coast, ab. 120 m. s. of


Carthage; scene of Caesar's victory over Scipio and Juba, 46 B.C.

Thagos. Greek island in the ^Egean Sea, off the coast of Thrace; anciently noted for its gold mines; held by Turkey. Area 85 sq. m., pop. ab. 5,000.

Thatcher, Benjamin Bussey, 1809-1840. American historical writer. Indians, 1832; Tales of the Revolution, 1846.

Thatcher, Henry Knox, U.S.N., 1806-1880. Commodore 1862; engaged on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, and in both attacks on Fort Fisher; Rear-admiral 1866.

Thaumantidae. Campanularle (q.v.); by some authors restricted to one of the families of this group.

Thaumatrope. Optical apparatus or toy, depending on the principle of the persistence of visual impressions. A piece of cardboard is painted on one side with a bird, for example,



and on the other with a cage; when turned about its diameter as an axis very rapidly, the bird appears to be in the cage. See Zoetrope. Thaumaturgrus. See Gregory.

Thaxter, Mrs. Celia (laighton), 1836-1894. American poet. Among the Isles of Shoals, 1873; Drift Weed, 1879; An Island Garden, 1894.

Thayer, Abbott Henderson, b.1849. American painter. His Mary Enthroned was shown at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago.

Thayer, Alexander Wheelock, 1817-1897. U. S. Consul at Trieste 1859-82. His Life of Beethoven, 3 vols., 1866-87, was pub. only in German.

Thayer, Eli, b.1819. M.C. from Mass. 1857-61; inventor: founder Emigrant Aid Co. 1854, to promote free-state settlement in Kansas.

Thayer, Eugene, b.1838. Organist in Boston and New York; composer.

Thayer, John Milton. !>.1820. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 186265, serving in the West; U. S. Senator from Neb. 1867-71; Gov. of Wyoming 1875-78; Gov. of Neb. 1887-91.

Thayer, Joseph Henry, D.D., b. 1828. Prof. Andover 1864-82, and Cambridge (Mass.) 1884; tr. Wiener and Buttmann's N. T. grammars, 1869-73, and Wilke's N. T. lexicon, 1886.

Thayer, Sylvanus. U.S.A.. LL.D.. 1785-1872. Supt. and organizer of the Military Academy. West Point, 1817-33; pres. Board of Engineers 1838-63; fortifier of Boston Harbor; Col. 1863. Engineering. 1844.—His cousin, Martin Russell, b.1819, was M.C. 1863-67. judge in Phila. from 1867, and a historical writer.

Thayer, Thomas Baldwin. D D., 1812-1886. Pastor at Lowell, Mass., 183:3-45 and 1851-59, Brooklyn 1845-51, and Boston 1859-67; ed. Universalist Quarterly from 1862. Theology of Universalism, 1862.

Thayer, William Makepeace, b.1820 in Mass. Prolific author of biographies and tales for boys. His books are widely read, and some have been tr. into several languages.

Theaki. See Ithaca.

Theater. The early Greek plays were performed on temporary scaffoldings. The first theater of stone was completed at Athens ab.335 B.C. Plato says the play could be witnessed by 30,000 people. The tickets were small round tokens of lead, bone, or ivory, and cost two oboli (ab. 8 cts.). Dramatic representations were not given at Rome until 240 B.C., and then in the circus upon a wooden stage. Theaters of wood were erected from 145 B.C.; that of Scaurus, built 58 B.C., had 80-, 000 seats. Pompey built the first stone theater 55 B.C., seating 40,000, but wooden theaters were still erected under the Empire. After 68 B.C. the first 14 rows of the ordinary seats were assigned to the knights; admission was by ticket, but free to all citizens. Awnings shielded the spectators from sun and rain. The first theater in London was erected 1576-77. The Blackfriars and the Globe, where Shakespeare's plays were

produced, date from 1596 and 1598. The first theater in the U. S. was opened at Williamsburg. Va., 1752, the second in

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New York 1753. The state may regulate theaters under its police power.

Theatines. R.C. order, formed 1524 bv Caraffa, Bp. of Theato (Pope Paul IV. 1555); confirmed 1540. They labored against the Reformation. Orders of nuns were founded 1583 and 1610.

Theatre Francafs, or Comedie Franqaise. Organized n Paris 1680, with Moliere's troup and another; reorganized 1803. Its subvention, originally 12.000 francs, is now 240,000. In the selection and rendering of its plays, and in the ability and accomplishments of its actors, it maintains the highest artistic standards.

Thebaid. Upper Egypt, between lat. 24° and 27° 20' N.

Thebainc. C19H3,N03. Alkaloid, occurring in opium to the extent of ab. 1 per cent.

Thebaud, Augustine J., 1807-1885. French Jesuit, in the U. S. from 1838; pres. St. John's Coll., Ford ham, N. Y., 184652; writer on Irish history.

Thebes. Ancient capital of Boeotia. Its acropolis was founded, according to tradition, by Cadmus, and its walls built by Amphion. It was the scene of CEdipus' adventures, a flourishing city when first known to history, and the first


power in Greece after the battle of Leuctra, 371 B.C., but lost its supremacy by the death of Epaminondas at Mantinea 362. It was destroyed by Alexander 336, rebuilt by Cassander 316, and taken in 290 by Demetrius Poliorcetes.

Thebes. Ancient city of Upper Egypt; called in Bible No, or A'o Amman; 100-gated, according to Homer; on both banks of Nile; 140 stadia in circuit; capital of Egypt ab. 1600 B.C. The ruins of Luxor and Karnak occupy part "of the site. At Luxor are the two colossal statues of Memnon. one of which is said to have emitted a musical sound when touched by the morning sun.

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Thcca (there). Spore-containing sac; sporanges of lichens and of mosses; sacs of the anther in flowering' plants; calycle or coral cup of Actinozoa.

Thecaphora. See Calyptoblastea.

Thecaphore. Stipe supporting a single carpel or simple fruit; also pedicel of mosses.

Thecla, ST. Maiden of Iconium, converted by St. Paul; celebrated in the apocryphal Acta of Paul and Tliecla, ab. 200.

Thccodontia. Order of extinct Lizards, with biconcave vertebrae, compressed teeth situated in alveolar cavities, and crowns covered with finely serrated striae.

ThecomedimeR. Order of Eydroida, established by Allman to receive the Stephanoscyphus mirabilis, which consists of branched anastomosing chitinous tubes that ramify the substance of sponges, and open with expanded thecae on the surface; out of these cups the medusoid polyp protrudes itself. Velum and sense organs are absent.

Thccogomata. Pteropoda, with a shell, an indistinct head, with rudimentary tentacles. The foot bears the epipodia (fins). The shell may be calcareous, horny, or cartilaginous. Cymtndia is an example.

Tliccd, William. R.A., 1764-1817. English sculptor, as was also his son, William, 1804-1891. TheM. See Larceny. Thegn. See Thane. Thclne. See Caffeine.

Tlielner, Augustin, 1804-1874. Keeper of the papal archives 1851-70; voluminous writer. Clemens XIV., 1853; Monumenta Polonioz, 1860-64: Acta Concilii Tridentini, 1874.—His brother, Johann Anton, 1799-1860, of Bi eslau, was also a R. C. author.

Theism. Theory of the Divine existence, which opposes atlieism in asserting the personality of the Absolute, pantheism in asserting the transcendency of God, and deism in asserting the supernatural and providential.

Theiss. Branch of the Danube, rising in the Carpathian Mts. and flowing 825 m. w. and s. through Hungary; mostly


Fishing on the Theiss.

navigable: full of fish. It is the ancient Tibiscus. In its lower half it flows parallel to the Danube, through a marshy plain, and with many windings.

Thellusson, PETER, d.1797. Swiss - English merchant, whose curious will led to the act of 1800 limiting the devising of property for accumulation to 21 years.

Thelwall, JOHN, 1764-1834. English author and radical politician.

Thelyblasts. Supposed female part of cells, separated (1) as mature ova after the polar globules are formed, and only the female pronucleus is left; (2) as the sperm blastophores, seminal granules, etc., in the testes.

Tlielytoky. Sort of parthenogenesis which results usually in the production of females that are able to produce young without being impregnated, as in plant lice. See Arrenotokia.

Themis. Daughter of Uranus, wife of Zeus, and mother of the Hours and the Fates; personification of order and equity.

Thcmistius, 4th cent. Orator and teacher at Constantinople; writer on Aristotle.

Tliemistocles, ab.515-449 B.C. Atheninn statesman, of brilliant abilities but doubtful integrity. He procured the

ostracism of Aristides 483; persuaded the Athenians to build a fleet, and commanded it on the invasion of Xerxes; induced Xerxes to fight the battle of Salamis. and so saved Greece; was accused of treason, ostracized 471, and spent his last years at the Persian court.

Thcnard, Louis Jacques. 1777-1857. Prof, of Chemistry in Paris, at Ecole Polytechnique 1837, and Coll. tie France 1840. Chimie Elementaire, 1813-16.

Thenarditc. Na2SO,. Natural sodium sulphate, one of the products of the evaporation of salt lakes; sometimes found in large quantity, as in Arizona.

Thcnard's Salt. Blue mass, obtained by heating aluminium trioxide moistened with cobalt nitrate.

Theobald, Lewis, ab.1688-1744. English dramatist and critic, attacked bj' Pope in the Duneiad. His edition of Shakespeare, 1733, is notable for its judicious emendations.

Theobromine. C^hjnjo,. Alkaloid, present in cacao butter; closely related to caffeine; colorless crystals, which sublime undecomposed; prepared from the butter.

Theocracy. Plan of a state in which God is regarded as the only sovereign, and the laws as His commands; e.g., that of the Hebrews under Moses and the Judges.

Theocritus, 3d cent. B.C. Greek idyllic poet of Syracuse; model for Virgil; first among ancient pastoral poets.

Thcoctistus, ab. 900. Monk and hymnist of Constantinople.

Theodectcs, 4th cent. B.C. Dramatist and orator at


Theodicy. In particular, the Leibnitzian theology; in general, any philosophic theology, as opposed to dogmatism.

Theodolite. Engineer's instrument for measuring- angles and running lines; distinguished from the transit by the fact that the telescope cannot be reversed by turning it on its horizontal axis.

Theodora, ab.508548. Wife of Justinian 524, over whom she had great influence; of low birth: Empress from 527; noted for beauty, ability and courage; heroine of Sardou's play 1884. The reflections on her character in a work ascribed to Procopius. and pub. 1623, may be slanderous. She patronized the Monophysites.

Theodora, d. 855. Empress of Theophilus; Regent 842; protector of icons. She convened the Synod of Constantinople, broke with the Pope, persecuted the Paulicians, and endangered the Empire through wars with the Saracens.

Theodore (baron De Neuhoff), 1686-1756. German adventurer, "King of Corsica" for brief periods 1736, 1738. and 1743; in London from 1749.

Theodore Of Constantinople, 6th cent. Historian of the period 450-565. Fragments remain.

Theodore Of Mopsuestia (in Cilicia). ab.350-428. Presbyter at Antioch 383, Bp. in Cilicia 392; commentator. His writings were unjustly condemned 431 and 553. Some remain.

Theodore Of Tarsus, 602-690. Greek monk, sent to England as 7th Abp. of Canterbury 668. He did much for unity, ecclesiastical and civil.

Theodore, St., Of The Studium, ab.759-826. Monk of Constantinople, thrice banished. Dr. Neale tr. several of his hymns.

Theodore I. Pope 642-649. He excommunicated two patriarchs of Constantinople as Monothelites.

Theodore II., 1818-1868. Kingof A byssinia. He usurped the throne 1855. and while influenced by John Bell, an Englishman, ruled well. On Bell's death I860, he became a tyrant.



and imprisoned the English missionaries and ambassadors. Lord Napier with 10.000 men stormed his capital, Magdala. April 13, 1868. T. killed himself the same day. A period of anarchy ensued, till Prince Kassai was crowned as Johannes II. 1872.

Tlieodoret, ab.892-457. Bp. of Cyrrhus in Syria 423; deposed as a Nestorian by the "robber Council" of Ephesus 449; restored by that of Chalcedon 451; called by C. Kingsley "wisest and holiest man in the East." His works include commentaries, a Hist. Ch. 32JM29, tr. 1851, Hist. Heresies, and many letters.

Tlieodorlc, 455-526. King of the Ostrogoths. He entered Italy 489, defeated Odoacer, and ruled ably, though at the last tyrannically, as in the execution of Boethius. See GOTHS.

Theodosius, d.376. 1. Spanish-Roman general, victorious in Britain 367, on the Danube 370, and in Africa 372; executed at Carthage. 2. His son, Theodosius The Great, ab. 346-395, became Emperor of the East 379, made peace with

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the Goths 382, defeated and executed Maximus 388. suppressed paganism and Arianism, had 7,000 massacred at Thessalonica 390 in punishment of a riot, and submitted meekly to temporary excommunication by Ambrose. 3. His grandson, 401450, was Emperor of the East from 408.

Thcoduir, ab.753-821. Bp. of Orleans 801; deposed 819; poet. Some of his hymns are still in use.

Theognis, ab.570-ab.485 B.C. Greek gnomic and elegiac poet of Megara.

Theogony. Greek poem, ascribed to Hesiod, on the generation of the gods. Others, not extant, bore the names of Orpheus and Musaeus.

Theologia Gcrmanlca, Pietistic German treatise of unknown origin, pub. 1516 and 1851; tr. 1854.

Theology. Doctrine of the divine nature and works; alleged science of religion. The term was used by Plato and Aristotle, but not in N. T. The serious and continuous effort to formulate and systematize Christian doctrine began ab. 300, l:isted for some two centuries, chiefly in the East, and was revived with great zeal at the Protestant Reformation. This is properly Dogmatic Theology; other departments (so-called) are Biblical or Exegetic. Apologetic, Practical, and Historical. Natural Theology is preliminary, meaning the effort to prove the being and attributes of God from the light of Nature: the others deal with revelation and its results. The claim of theology to be a science is much disputed, and its influence and honors have greatly decreased of late; but for many centuries it was one of the most powerful factors in human life and history.

Theon, 4th cent. Greek mathematician of Alexandria; father of Hypatia. He edited Euclid's Elements, and put forth a commentary on the Almagest,

Theopaschites. Greek for Patripassians (q.v.).

Thcophanes, ab. 758-816. Abbot of Ager. n.w. Asia Minor; banished 813. His Chronographia, extending ab.300800. was pub. 1839.

Theophanes, ab.1020. Bp. of Tauromenium in Sicily; author of 62 Greek homilies, pub. 1644.

Tlieopliania. Daughter of Romanus of Constantinople; wife of Otho II. 972; Regent 983: introducer of some Greek customs into Germany.

Tlieophany. Appearance of God to O. T. patriarchs and saints, in brief visions; distinguished from the incarnation in Jesus.

Thcophilanthropists. French deistical sect, formed 1796, abolished 1802. A similar body, probably small and short-lived, arose later in England.

Thcophilus. 1. Christian of rank to whom St. Luke addresses his Gospel and its sequel, the Acts of the Apostl'S.

2. Bp. of Antioch 171-185; author of an apology, pub. 1861.

3. Mythical Bp. of Adana, s.e. Asia Minor; hero of a legend popular in the Middle Ages and similar to that of Faust.

4. Byzantine emperor 829-842; • /arlike, just, and powerful.

ThcophrastllS, ab.368-288 B.C. Philosopher of Lesbos and Athens, successor of Aristotle. His History of Plants, Tlie Causes of Plants, and, still more, his Characters, have been repeatedly edited.

Theopliylact, d.ab.630. Bvzantine author of a history of the reign of Maurice Tiberius^ 582-602, pub. 1604 and 1834, and of 85 letters, pub. 1499.

Theopliylact, d.ab.1110. Metropolitan of Bulgaria 1078; eminent as a biblical theologian. His works, including commentaries based partly on Chrysostoni, were pub. 1754-63.

Theopompus, ab.378-305 B.C. Greek historian and rhetorician, of Chios and Athens. Fragments only remain.

Theory. Systematic explanation of a phenomenon or phenomena, usually implying a degree of uncertainty about its truth, until verified.

Theory of Exchange*!. Originally promulgated by Prevost of Geneva, who called it the theory of mobile equilibrium of temperature; developed by Prof. Balfour Stewart. It asserts that all bodies are constantly giving out radiations at a rate depending upon their substance and temperature, but independent of their surroundings: and that, when a body is kept at a uniform temperature, it receives back as much heat as it gives out. Accordingly two bodies at the same temperature and exposed to mutual radiation exchange equal amounts of heat; but if two bodies have unequal temperatures, that which is at the higher temperature gives to the other more than it receives.

Thcosophy. Mystical hybrid of philosophy and theology, found among ancient Oriental races; cultivated especially by the Neoplatonists (q.v.); revived in varying forms by Paracelsus, Cornelius Agrippa, and later by Behmen. Swedenborg, and others, as in 1875 by Mme. Blavatsky. who founded in the U. S. a Theosophical Society, now claiming a large membership in many lands. It resorted to internal revelation, as opposed to external authority, for its doctrine. In modern times it rejects both philosophic method and religious revelation, as traditionally accepted, and relies upon certain ill investigated and abnormal or exceptional facts to establish a kind of pantheistic idealism,

TheolokO§. God-bearer; title conferred by the Third General Council (Ephesus, 431) on the mother of Christ.

Thera. See Santorin.

Thcramenes, d. ab.403 B.C. Athenian orator and soldier; one of the 30 Tyrants, but opposed to their excesses, and condemned to the hemlock. His previous career was less creditable.

Therapeutae. Ascetic seci of Egyptian Jews, described in a book doubtfully ascribed to Philo, On Contemplative Life.

Therapeutics. Brauch of medicine which treats of modes of curing diseases.

Thcrapic Acid. C,,HJ60,. Form of glyceride found in Cod-liver oil, which contains ab. 20 percent.

Theremin, Ludwig Friedrich Franz, 1780-1846. Pastor 1810 and prof. 1839 iti Berlin. Abendstunden, 1^-33-39; Eloquence, tr. 1850.

Thcreslopel, or Maria Theresiopel. German city of Maria Theresa; the Hungarian Szabadka (q.v.).

There Am. Christina Maria. 1822-1889. Empress of Brazil and wife of Pedro II. See PEDRO I.

Theriaea. Originally, as the derivation of the word indicates, an antidote to poisoning by beasts, more particularly to I serpents' venom. As such, the various products known by this I name were compounded with all the complexity of the pharmacopeia of the Middle Ages: the most noted of these mixtures was the Venice theriaea, containing ab. 70 ingredients mixed ! in honey. A preparation of opium flavored with spices and I made in Persia also received this name, which survives in the I Electuarium theriaea of the German pharmacopeia, corresponding to the Confectio opii of the British pharmacopeia. It is not now officinal in the U. S. Another meaning is attached to the word, as seen in the British pharmacopeia where theriaea is the officinal name for molasses; indeed treacle is a corruption of theriaea.

Theriodontia. Order of carnivorous, Triassic Reptiles, having affinities with carnivorous Mammals. Three kinds of teeth are present, large pointed canines, incisors and molars. There is also a supra-condyloid foramen on the humerus for the transmission cl the brachial artery and median nerve as in

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