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At the outbreak of the Civil War it at first refused to secede, but joined the seceding States June 1861, furnished 50 regiments to the Confederate army, and was the scene of some of the most important battles during- the war. Pop., 1890, 1,767,518, nearly one-fourth colored.

Tennessee, University Of. At w. Knoxville: successor of Blount Coll.. chartered 1794; this became 1807 E. Tenn. Coll., in 1840 E. Tenn. Univ., and in 1879 Univ. of Tenn. The State Experiment Station is connected with it. The academic department has a faculty of 22, with 334 students; the law school has 38 students under 3 instructors; the schools of medicine and dentistry, at Nashville, have 155 students and 28 instructors. Whole number of students 516; library 13,000 vols.

Tennessee River. Branch of the Ohio, rising in s.w. Va. and e. Tenn., in a valley between the high mts. of N. C. and the Cumberland plateau. It flows s.w., w., and n. Length ab. 1.200 m., drainage area 43,897 sq. m. It is navigable to Chattanooga, except for the rapids at Muscle Shoals.

Tenney, Samuel. 1748-1816. Surgeon in Revolutionary war: M.C. from N. H. 1800-7.—His wife, Tabitha (oilman), 1762-1837, m.1788, pub. Female Quixotism, 1807.

Tenney, Sanborn, 1827-1877. Prof. Vassar 1865, Williams 1868. Geology, 1859: Zoology, 1865-75.

Tenney, William Jewett, 1814-1883. N. Y. journalist; ed. Appleton's Annual Cyclopaedia, 1861-82. Hist. Rebellion, 1865.—His wife, Sarah (brownson), 1839-1876, pub. Life of Galitzin, 1873.

Tcnniel, John, b.1820. Cartoonist in Punch since 1851; illustrator of in Wonderland, Ingoldsby Legends, and

other books.

Tenni§. Oldest of all existing games of ball; was played in Europe in the Middle Ages, coming from Italy to France, and from France to England. The ball is thrown against a wall and struck by a racket on its rebound. It was formerly played in the open air, now generally in courts with walls, or with walls and roof. See Court Tennis and Rackets.

Tennis, or Lawn Tennis. Game played by two or four players. It consists in driving a small felt-covered ball across a net so that it may strike within a certain prescribed area. The players take turns in serving, i.e., putting the ball in play; it must strike within a certain space of the opponent's court. After that, it may be struck on the fly, volleyed, or after the Ilrst rebound. A player failing to hit the ball, or hitting it and failing to place it over the net and within the confines of the opponent's court, loses the stroke.

Ten in Alfred, D.C.L., Lord. 1809-1892. Poet lau

reate 1850, Baron 1884. His first volumes, 1830-32. won little attention; those of 1842 made him famous. The Princess followed, 1847, tile greater In Memoriam, 1850. Maud, 1855. Four Idylls of the King, 1859, contained much of his noblest

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lived from 1853 at Farringford, Isle of Wight, and from 1870 in the summer at Aldworth.—His brother, Frederick, b.1807, has pub. 3 vols, of poetry, 1854-91. See also Turner, Charlest.

Tenochtitlan. Chief city of the Aztecs, founded ab.1325 on an island in Lake Tezcnco; besieged, taken, and largely destroyed by Cortes 1521. The new capital built on its site long bore the old name, since changed to Mexico. Mexitl was the Aztec name.

Tenon. See Mortise.

Tenor. Highest adult male voice; also applied to instruments of about the same compass.

Tenorc, Michele, 1780-1861. Prof, of Botany in Naples. Flora Napolitana, 1811-38; Oeographie physique et botanique de Naples, 1827.

Tellurite. CuO. Mineral compound of copper and oxygen, occurring in small scales with metallic luster; black oxide of copper.

Tenos. One of the Cvclades, s.e. of Andros. Area 70 sq. m., pop. ab.20,000. Ten Persecutions. See Persecutions. Tenpins. See Bowls. Tenrec. See Tanrec.

Tensas. River joining the Washita, at Trinity, La., after flowing 250 m. through the State in a s.e. direction.

Tense. Modification of a verbal root to express time of action. Augment and reduplication seem to have been the earliest means for indicating a change from present to past. For this purpose the Germanic tongues largely employed Ablaut, i.e., a change of the radical vowel, as in drink—drank.

Tensile Strength. Force required to tear apart a rope or bar when pulling in the direction of its length; usually measured in pounds per sq. in. of the cross-section. Values for strength are given in the accompanying table:

Brass, cast ab. 18,000

"sheets and wire "45,000

Bronze (for guns) ■• 31,000

(Tobin's, Cu,Sn,Tn.).. . " 68.000

"Phosper, cast '50.000 to 75.000

wire '• 100.000" 150.000

Copper, cast "19.000

sheets •■ 33,000

Iron, cast, ordinary "17,000

"best...." •' 26.000

"" for ordnance "35,000

"wrought, bars "42,000 to 55.000

"'• plate, best "50,000" 60.000

eve-bars "32,000" 50,000

large forgings. " 30,000" 50.000

wire •' 86,000 " 100,000

Steel, low carbon •' 50.000

"high" '• 110,000

Tin, cast '■ 35,000

Zinc, cast '• 7.500

"rolled "16,000

The strongest metal tested is a special alloy of steel with tungsten, which gave in a compressed ingot an ultimate strength of 161.000 lbs. per sq. in.

Tension. State of stress produced by two forces acting in the same line but in opposite directions, as when two men pull on the ends of a rope. In practical applications it is important that the tension should not be so great as to produce a permanent stretch, or, in engineering language, the elastic limit of the material should not be exceeded. Tension of Vapor. See Vapor Tension. Tensor. In Quaternions, coefficient of a unit vector to give any definite length.

Tent. This is a very ancient habitation,being made of bark or leaves of trees, skins of animals and textile fabrics successively. They are often made waterproof by alutn or hydrocarbons. The usual material is cotton duck, and the best form is conical. Ten Tables. See Twelve Tables.

Tentaele. In Botany, sensitive glandular hair, by which some plants, e.g., Drosera, capture insects.

Tentacles. Feelers. Among Protozoa, the Acinetans possess them. In the Jellyfish, Hydroids, and other ccelenterates they are usually flexible and long processes of the body wall, into which frequently the body cavity extends. They may be extended a great length and retracted almost like pseudopodia, except that their substance never becomes incorporated into the general body. Tentacles of this nature are common in the Worms, Holothurians, and Molluscoids.

Tcntaeulocyst. Modified tentacle of the scyphomedusan Jellyfish, containing a part of the gastro-vascular caual-system, otocysts, visual organs, and olfactory hairs.

Tciiterden, Charles Abbott, Lord, 1762-1832. Judge of 1503



Common Pleas 1816; Chief-justice of King's Bench, and Knight, 1818; Baron 1827. Merchant Ships and Seamen, 1802. Ten Thousand, Retreat Of. See Retreat. Tenulrostres. Tribe of Passerine Birds, having long thin beak and feet ambulatorii or fissi: the hind toe is long. Here belong the beautiful elamatory Hoopoes (Upupa), the Oscinal Tree-creeper (Certhia), the Humming-birds (Trochilidoz), the Nuthatch (Sitta), and the Australian Lyre-bird. Tenure. Legal form of holding land under English law. Tcoealli. Pyramidal Aztec temples, usually for human sacrifices. That of the City of Mexico, famous in the history of the Conquest, stood only 14861521: it was 375 ft. by 300, 80 ft. high, and terraced. The pyramid of Cholula. 1,440 ft. square and 177 high, is supposed to be of another and earlier class.

Teos. Ancient Greek city of Lvdia, w. Asia Minor, 25 m. s.w. of Tcoealli at Palenque. Smyrna; birthplace of Anacreon.

Tcosintc. Euchlceana luxurians. Forage plant of some value in the warmer portions of the U. S. In ordinary seasons it will not develop in the North.

Tepliroite. MnaSiO(. Mineral manganese silicate, similar to rhodonite, but of different percentage composition.

Teplitz. Town of n.w. Bohemia, noted for its hot springs, discovered 762; sanitary resort. The Triple Alliance against Napoleon was formed here Sept. 1813.

Tcraphint. Small images idolatrously used in Hebrew houses from the time of the Judges to that of Ezekiel; repeatedly mentioned in O. T.

Terashlma Munenori, 1832-1893. Japanese Minister to England 1872-73, and to the U. S. later; Count 1884.

Teratology. In Botany and Zoology, study o. monstrosities, or abnormal forms and structures, not resulting from postnatal disease.

Terbium. Tr. At. wt. 160° C, valence HI. It was discovered by Delafontaine 1860. It occurs in Lamarskite (q.v.). Rare metal, forming colorless salts. Its oxide, Tra03, is a dark orange-yellow powder.

Terbium Nitrate. Ti(NOs)3. Deliquescent substance, made by treating the oxide with nitric acid. Heated to 500° C. it yields basic nitrates.

Terbium Sulphate. Tra(SO,),+8HaO. Colorless crystals, isomorphous with yttrium sulphate; made by treating the nitrate with sulphuric acid.

Terbium Trioxide. Tr303. Terbia; dark orange-colored powder: prepared from samarskite and cerite minerals; soluble in acids forming the corresponding salts.

Terbiirg, Gerard. 1617-1681. Dutch genre painter, who affected aristocratic types and subjects, and had a marvelously

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Terceira. One of the Azores Islands. The surface is mountainous but the soil is fertile. The capital is Angra on the s. side. Exports are wine, oranges, and lumber. Area ab. 222 sq. m., pop. 45,000.

Terebenthene. See Turpentine.

Terebinth. Pistacia terebintlnis. Turpentine tree growing about the Mediterranean, from 30-40 ft. high; source of Chian turpentine and noted for its longevity. Absalom was caught in its branches (II. Sam. xviii.).

Terebra. Ovipositor, when adapted for boring.

Terebrantla. Suborder of Hymenoptera, in which the female possesses a freely projecting or a retractile ovipositor, adapted for boring. There are three tribes, Phytophaga, Gallicola, and Entomophaoa (q.v.).

Tcrcbratiilina. See Testicardi.nes.

Teredo. See Pholadid.e.

Teredo Navalis. See Shipworm and Pholadid^e.

Terence (publius Terentius Afer), ab.185-159 B.C. Latin comic dramatist; b. at Carthage; brought to Rome a slave, and soon manumitted. Scipio, Loelius, and other nobles were his patrons. We possess six plays entire: Andria; Hecyra, or Step-Motlier; Heant on-Timor eumenos, or Self-Tormentor; Tlie


Scene from the Phormio of Terence.

Eunuch; Phormio; and Adelphi, or Brothers. These were all adaptations from the Greek of Menander, Apollodorus. and Diphilus. They have often been translated, and, from the modern tone which pervades them, are interesting to-day. The diction is good, the elaboration of the plots amusing and attractive.

Terentianus Ulaurui, 2d cent. African versifier. De litteris, syllabis, metris, pub. 1836.

Terentius Scaurus, Quintus, 2d cent. Commentator on Virgil and Horace; writer on grammar.

Terephthalic Acid. See Phthalic Acids.

Teresa, or Theresa, St., 1515-1582. Spanish Carmelite nun, reformer of the order 1562: mystical writer; canonized 1622. Her day is Oct. 15. Autobiography, 1562; Way of Perfection. 1563: Book of Foundations, tr. 1853; Interior Castle, 1577, tr. 1852. Works, 1587.

Terete. In Botany, nearly cylindrical.

Tereus. See Itys and Philomela.

Terga. Posterior ventral plates of the barnacle's shell. In the position ordinarily assumed they are uppermost.

Tergum. Dorsal piece or notum of the arthropod segment.

Terhune, Mrs. Mary Virginia (hawes: "marion HarLAND''), b.ab.1832 in Va., m.1856. Author of many novels and several cook-books; founder of the Home-maker, 1888. Alone, 1853; Hidden Path. 1855; Nemesis, 1860; Husks. 1863; HisQreat Self, 1892. Her Common Sense in the Household, 1871, is widely used.

Term. Single algebraic quantity, unconnec ted with others by plus or minus sign. An aggregate of two or more terms bound together by a parenthesis may be an element in a complex term; e.g., 3a(x-(-2y)4 is a single quantity in which the base is the sum of x and 2y, while 3a and 4 are respectively coefficient and exponent.

Terin-Days. Days on which it is agreed that very frequent observations shall be made simultaneously at distant stations; first adopted 1825-30, when magnetic observations were made all over Europe.

Terminal. In Botany, belonging to the apex or end.

Terminal. Pillar, or pedestal, often in the form of a frustum of an inverted obelisk, to support a bust.

Terminal Inflorescence. Manner of flowering in which the flowers are produced at the ends of the stem and branches, instead of from the axils of leaves or bracts, as in lateral inflorescence.

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Terminator of the Moon. Ragged line which separates the illuminated from the unillurainated part of the moon's surface.

Termini. Port of n. Sicily, rebuilt as Thermae 408 B.C., on the site of Himera, destroyed by Carthaginians. Pop. ab. 23,000.

Tcrminos, Laquna De. Inlet on the Gulf of Mexico in the s.w. of the State of Campeche, Mexico. Resort for buccaneers at the beginning of the 18th century, now frequented for its woods. Length 70 m., breadth 40 m.

Terminus. Roman god of boundaries and frontiers.

Termites. White ants of the tribe Corrodentia, suborder Pseudo-neuroptera. They possess a pair of 18 to 20-jointed antenna?, a pair of ocelli as well as compound eyes, strong mandibles, and delicate wings, which lie parallel to the body when at rest. They live in communities, in passages hollowed out in wood, trees, mounds of earth, or nests of clay. Each colony has a queen, or sexually mature female, a king also,

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according to some authorities, and neuters of two sorts; viz.. soldiers, with large heads and powerful jaws, and workers, with shorter head and broader abdomen. The workers are larvae of both sexes. Only the mature sexual forms have wings, but these organs are lost by the queen after copulation. Africa and S. America are the principal habitats. See Complementary Males And Females.

Ternant, Jean Baptiste De. 1730-1816. French soldier, in the American service 1778-82; Minister to the U. S. 1790-93.

Ternate. Arranged in threes, as the parts of a compound leaf.

Ternaux-Compans, Henri. 1807-1854. French student, compiler, and writer on Spanish-American history. Bibliotheque Americaine, 1836; Voyages, etc., 20 vols., 1836-40; Archives, 1840-41.

Terne Plate. See Lead, Metallurgy Of.

Terns. Sea-birds, that with Gulls form the family Laridm. Compared with Gulls they are slenderer, have the nostrils near

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swallow-like flight, and secure their fish-food by diving from a height, and even swimming beneath the water to complete the capture. Most belong1 to the genus Sterna, as the Caspian Tern, Wilson's Tern (Sea-Swallow), Arctic Tern, Roseate Tern, and Least Tern. Other terns are Hydrochelydon nigra, the American Black Tern, and Oelochelidon nilotica, the Marsh Tern. In length terns range from 9 to 20 inches; the bill is colored red, carmine or yellow, with usually more or less of the outer end black. The feet are black, vermilion, red, or orange. The plumage is pearly-gray, marked with white and black. Some are northern, others tropical.

Ternstrwmiaceae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospervm, subclass Dicotyledons, and series Choripetalce, comprising 41 genera and ab. 300 species, almost all growing in the tropics; called the Camellia family.

Terpander, 7th cent. B.C. Greek lyric poet of Lesbos and Sparta; father of musical education.

Terpenes. 1. Volatile hydrocarbons, occurring in various plants; oil of turpentine is an example. Their composition is expressed by C10H16. They combine with hydrochloric acid, are optically active, polymerize with ease, and are closelv related tocymene. 2. Compounds of this class prepared from conifers.

Terpsichore. Muse who presided over choral song and dancing.

Terrace. Area raised before a building above the level of the ground to serve as a walk; improperly used to denotes balcony or gallery.

Terracina. Town of central Italy, 60 m. s.e. of Rome. The Roman Tarracina was an important station on the Appian Way. Pop. ab. 6,500.

Terra Cotta. Variety of pottery, frequently used at an early period for architectural decoration. Statues were made of terra cotta in the time of Pausanias. It was also used to ornament the friezes of temples. In modern times it is again used in a variety of ways for ornamental and useful purposes. It is baked at a higher temperature than ordinary ware and withstands the weather.

Terra del Fuego. See Tierra Del Fuego.

Terra Firma. 1. Land, as opposed to water. 2. Continents, as VS. islands. 3. Formerly, part of n.e. Italy subject to Venice, and n. part of S. America.

Terra Japonlca. Gambier catechu, formerly supposed to be earth from Japan.

Terrapin. See Emydid^e.

Terra Rosa. Red earth containing iron found in limestone reirions. It is the undissolved residue of the calcareous rocks; often found in caverns.

Terre Haute. Capital of Vigo co., Ind., on the Wabash: settled 1816; site of the State normal school and the Rose Polytechnic Institute. Four railroads intersect here, and the Wabash and Erie Canal >rives water communication with Like Erie. Pop., 1890, 30,217.

Terrestrial. In Botany, neither aquatic nor arboreal in habit; growing upon land.

Terrestrial Magnetism. See Magnetism.

Terrestrial Paradise. Mediaeval writers fix the location of the Terrestrial Paradise in e. Asia. Cosmas in the 7th century speaks of it as a continent e. of China; others regard it as an island s.e. of Asia, while by some it was fixed in China. Later we find it described as an island s. of India or in Armenia, and frequently as Ceylon. In the center was a fountain that watered it, near which grew the tree of life. These notions are largely drawn from the Book of Genesis but similar conceptions are almost universal.

Terrestrial Radiation. Loss or radiation of heat by the earth into space, determined by Maurer to be 0.13 calorics per sq. centimeter per minute; heat radiated from the surface of land and water. It is partly absorbed by the atmosphere and partly transmitted directly through it into space; but that absorbed by the air is subsequently radiated by it, so that all terrestrial radiation eventually passes into space. Similarly, the heat communicated to the atmosphere by the sun directly or by convection from the earth's surface is eventually lost in space by atmosphere radiation. The sum total of radiation from land, ocean and air is terrestrial radiation in a general sense, and is just able to balance the solar radiation received.

Terricol». Oligochnetous Annelids that live principally in the earth: e.g., earthworm. See LUMBRICUS Terrestris.

Terriers. Small to medium-sized dogs, of compact build, with slender but strong legs, erect ears, and tail curved Up. They are good ratters and dig readily into the ground after prey. The English Terrier is smooth, and usually black and tan; the Scotch Terrier has a rough wiry coat of dirty white;

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Scotch Terriers.

rier, an extremely savage dog, is a cross between a terrier and a bulldog.

Terrill, William Rufus, U.S.A., 1834-1862. Brig.-gen. U.S. Vols. 1862; killed at Perryville.— His brother, JamesBabBour, 1838-1864, became Brig.-gen. C.S. A. 1864.

Territellarisr. See Tetbapneumones.

Territories of the U. S. New Mexico, Arizona, Oklahoma, Indian Territory, and Alaska, the last two unorganized.

Terror, Reign Of. May 31, 1793-July 27, 1794; period in the French Revolution between the fall of the Girondists and the overthrow of Robespierre. Many eminent persons perished.

Terry, Alfred Howe, 1827-1890. Clerk Conn. Supreme Court 1854-60; Col. 7th Conn. 1861; Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862, serving in S. C. and Va.; captor (with Admiral Porter) of Fort Fisher, N. C, Jan. 15. 1865: Major-gen. U. S. Vols, and Brig.-gen. U.S.A. 1865; Major-gen. U.S.A. 1886.

Terry, Eli, 1772-1852. Clock-maker and inventor in Conn.

Terry, Ellen, b.1848. English actress, on the stage from 1856; associated with Henry Irving from 1875; repeatedly in America; eminent in Shakespeare parts.

Terry, Henry Dwight, 1812-1869. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862-65, serving in Va.

Terry, Milton Spenser, D.D.. b.1840. Prof. Garrett Inst., Evanston, 111., 1884; O. T. commentator. Hermeneutics, 188390; Sibylline Oracles, 1890.

Tersteegen, Gerhard, 1697-1769. German hymnist and mystical preacher. Spiritual Crumbs, tr. 1837.

Tertian Fever. Form of intermittent or malarial fever where the chill and fever occurs every other day. It is so named because parts of three days are occupied by the cycle. It is a common form of the disease.

Tertiaries. Lay persons, attached to an order, especially the Franciscan, without taking vows or leaving the world; distinguished from monks proper, or Primaries, and nuns, or Secondaries.

Tertiaries. Quills (remiges) borne by the joint of birds' wings which is nearest the body.

Tertiary. Division of the Cajnozoic Age, extending from the Chalk formation to the Glacial period; often called the era of Mammals. The Tertiary rocks are divided into the Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene, terms introduced by Lyell. See Column.

Tertiary Alcohols. Derived from methyl alcohol, CH3OH, by replacing the three hydrogen atoms with three similar or different hydrocarbon radicals. Upon oxidation they yield neither aldehydes nor ketones, but break down at once into an acid or acids containing a smaller number of carbon atoms. Example: Dimethylethylcarbinol, C.CH„.CH,.C,Hs.OH.

Tertiary Compounds. Formed by replacing hydrogen in a CH group by a group or radical. Tertiary butyl alcohol is (CHs),COH.* See Secondary and Primary Compounds.

Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens, ab.160-ab.235. Presbyter of N. Africa, originally a pagan jurist; from ab.200 a Montanist, but in general doctrine catholic; a fiery, stern,

powerful writer, precursor of Latin ch. literature. His works exerted great influence, and are of historical importance.

Tcrwagne, Anne Josephe, 1762-1817. French revolutionist of bad character, prominent at the fall of the Bastile.

Teschemacher, James Englebert, 1790-1853. AngloAmerican chemist, mineralogist, and geologist. Guano, 1845.

Teschemacherite. Natural acid ammonium carbonate, occurring in connection with deposits of guano.

Tescheil. Town of Austrian Silesia. Here a treaty was signed May 13, 1779, between Austria and Prussia, closing the war of Bavarian succession; Austria relinquished most of ! Bavaria. Pop. ab. 13,000.

I Tesla, NIKOLA, b.1857 in Croatia. Electrician in New York, associate and rival of Edison; T. C. Martin has described his

I Inventions, Researches, and Writings, 1894.

Tessellata. Palaeozoic sea urchins, showing transitional forms to the Cystoids. Each interambulacral zone has five or six series of plates: and the ambulacral plates may be more

I than two rows. Palachinus is an example. There are two


Palachinus ellipticus.—The left -ham! figure shows a portion of an
ambulacral area enlarged; the right-hand figure
exhibits a single interambulacral plate.

sections, the Perischoechinida and Bothrocidaridce. The former includes urchins having but one row of plates to each ambulacral zone: the latter includes forms with more than two vertical rows in each ambulacral or interambulacral zone. See Crinoids.

Tessellated. In Botany, having the surface divided into small geometric figures.

Tessellated Pavement. Roman pavement of pieces of brick or stone an inch square, forming geometrical patterns or animals and figures. See Mosaic.

Tesscroinedusae (tesseronle, Tetrameralia). Group of Jellyfishes, including Peromedus^e, Cubomedusje, and LucerNaridje (q.v.). They have their parts in fours.

Tessier, Ulric Joseph, 1817-1892. Judge of Queen's Bench, Quebec, 1875.

Tcssin. See Ticino.

Tessin, Karl Gustav. 1695-1770. Swedish official, orator, and author, tutor to Gustavus III.

Test (testa). Shell of Mollusks, Echinoderms, etc., or leathery tunic of Tunicates.

Testa. Outer seed-coat; ripened primine coat of the ovule of flowering plants; called also Spermoderm and Episperm.

Testacea. See Arcellina.

Test Acts. Passed in England 1661. 1672, and later, aiming to exclude Roman Catholics and Nonconformists from office and from membership in corporations; repealed 1829. Religious tests were enforced in the universities till 1871.

Testament. In English Law, originally, will bequeathing personal property. See Will.

Testament, Old And New. Two great divisions of the Bible (q.v.), so called by a confusion, in the Greek, between Testament and Covenant.

Testamentary Guardian. Guardian (q.v.) appointed by the father in his last will and testament.

Teste, LUCIEN AUGUSTE, 1765-1817. Swiss (German) writer on geologv; prof. Vienna 1795, and Milan 1805; explorer in Brazil 1815.

Test Galvanometer. See Galvanoscope.

Testi, Fulvio, 1597-1646. Italian poet.

Testicardincs (articulata, Clistenterata. ArthropoMATA). Brachiopoda with a calcareous shell, with hinge and brachial skeleton. There is no anus. Hhyuchonella and the allied Spirifer are ancient fossil forms. 1'erebratulina is still extant.

Testicle. See Testis.

Testimony. Oral evidence of witnesses.

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