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TEMPERATURE— TENACITY

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sense. The general principle of expansion by heat is employed in the devices for measuring or comparing temperatures. Two bodies are said to be in thermal equilibrium, and so to have the same temperature, if when brought into thermal communication neither loses heat to nor gains it from the other. Sensations of temperature are changes of consciousness aroused by the application of stimuli of heat or cold to the surface of the body. The end organs of the temperature sense are situated in minute points scattered over the skin in great numbers, and known as "temperature spots," some reacting to stimuli of cold and some to stimuli of heat, but not to both. The corpuscles and nerve endings which serve as recipients for temperature stimuli have not as yet been differentiated from those of Touch (q.v.) or pressure.

Temperature, Critical. One in the cooling process of metals and alloys at which they have been found to have very much less tenacity than when hotter or colder. This is the temperature at which cracks occur in castings as they cool. For steel, experiments have seemed to show that this is ab. 600°, corresponding to a blue heat. For other metals such a temperature exists, but its limits have not yet been investigated. See Critical Temperature.

Temperature Constant of Plants. Total quantity of heat or total excess of temperature above 40° required to bring a plant from budding up to the point of complete ripening of its fruit; sometimes known as Hoffman's or Linnsser's Constant.

Temperature of Reversal. See Thermoelectricity.

Temperature of the Body. The normal temperature of the body averages 98.4° F. The human body can bear a high degree of heat diffused in the atmosphere, 400° F. and upward have been breathed for a short time, and cold 116* F. below freezing have been withstood. Excessive heat disposes the body to gastric and intestinal diseases, and particularly enlargement of the liver, which is of common occurrence in the torrid zone. Heat acts as an excitant, and cold as a sedative, inducing sleep, the tendency to which, after long exposure, becomes irresistible. See Animal Heat.

Temperature of the Earth. See Earth.

Temperature of the Moon. Authorities have differed greatly. Langley, from his latest researches, concludes that it can never rise above the freezing point of water.

Tempering of Steel. Operation of giving to steel just the best relation between hardness and toughness to adapt it for use in cutting implements, etc. The action seems to be in hardening by sudden cooling to send the carbon into combination with the iron; in gradual cooling the carbon seems to separate out. The hotter the steel is when suddenly cooled, the more carbon unites with the metal, and the harder and more brittle the steel. In tempering, therefore, two methods are used. In one the metal is heated from a cold state to just the right temperature for the hardness desired, and is then quenched: in the other, the whole bar is heated to cherry-red, and the particular part to be tempered is quenched and hardened outright by immersing that part only. The heat is conducted to this hardened edge from the body of the bar, and softens or draws it until the desired point is reached, when the whole is quenched. The tempering process seems to depend on the rapidity with which the part passes from the limits of 930° to a temperature below that for forging, or to 400°. The temperatures are indicated on steel by the succession of tints which appear on a bright surface of the edge. These seem to be due to oxide forming. The following table gives these tints and temperatures, and the uses for which the steel is adapted when tempered by either process.

430° | 440° j 470°

Straw yellow, very pale ""darker .

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Steel engraving tools, hammer faces, planer tools. Wood engraving tools, milling cutters. Wire-drawing dies, boring

cutters. Rock drills, taps, chasers.

penknives. Reamers, gouges, stone-cutting tools, twist drills.

Wood augers, drifts.

Cold chisels, axes.

Framing chisels, planer knives.

Circular saws, screw drivers. Springs, handsaws.

Paler " with green tinge .
See Steel, Metallurgy Op.

Temper Screw. Mechanical device attached to the upper end of the string of tools used in well-boring, by means of which

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The Temple Cliurch.

portion of it was first leased to students of the common law 1346. The Inner and Middle parts are now occupied by barristers, the Outer has been remodeled into the Exeter Buildings.

Temple, Frederick, D.D., b.1821. Author of the first and most memorable of the Essays and Reviews. 1860, on Hie Education of the World; head-master of Rugby 1858-69; Bp. of Exeter 1869. and of London 1885; Abp. of Canterbury 1898. Religion and Science, 1884.

Temple, H. J. See Palmerston.

Temple, Sir Richard. LL.D., D.C.L., b.1826. Anglo-Indian official 1846-80, knighted 1867; Gov. of Bengal and of Bombay; M.P. 1885; writer on India.

Temple, Richard Grenville. Earl, 1711-1779. M.P. 1734; Lord Privy Seal 1757-61; adherent of Chatham till 1766. Grenville Papers, 4 vols., 1852-53.

Temple, Sir William. 1628-1699. English diplomatist; Baronet 1666: Envoy to Holland 1668-70 and 1674; negotiator of several treaties. His Miscellanea, 1679-92, are notable for style: the paper on Ancient and Modern Learning led to a controversy. Memoirs, 1691-1709. Swift was his secretary and literary executor. Works, 1720, repub. 1814.

Temple, William Ernest, 1821-1889. Astronomer at Observatory Arcetre, Italy; discoverer of six asteroids and fifteen comets.

Temple, William Grenville, U.S.N., 1824-1894. Captain 1870, Commodore 1878, Rear-admiral 1884.

Temple Bar. Gate in London, between the Strand and Fleet Street, till 1878.

Temple Society. German Christians who separated from the church in Wurtemberg and settled in Palestine 1868. They await the second coming of Christ. They number ab. 5,000, of which 1,300 are in Palestine.

Temporal Bone. One of the bones of the skull forming that part of the head behind the brow and around the ear. The flat upper portion of the bone forms the temple, while the lower and more irregular part incloses the auditory apparatus. The name is given to this bone because the hair frequently first begins to turn gray in this region.

Temporal Power. Properly, the Pope's regal authority in the States of the Church, abolished 1871; also, more or less, the indirect civil authority resulting from his spiritual claims.

Temporary Stars. Stars which have appeared suddenly and after a time have again disappeared. Among recorded instances are those of Hipparchus 134 B.C., of TychoBrahe 1572, Nova Cygni 1876. a star in the nebula of Andromeda 1885, and Nova Aurigas 1892.

Tenacity'. Maximum longitudinal stress which, when gradually applied, a rod or wire can sustain without rupture.

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It is directly proportional to the breaking: weight, and inversely proportional to the sectional area. It is also affected slightly by other considerations; e.g., with the same cross section, a cylinder has greater tenacity than, a prism. The most tenacious material is drawn cast-steel; a wire 1 millimeter in diameter can sustain a weight of 80 kilograms.

Tennille. Rampart between two bastions raised in the main ditch in front of the curtain.

Tenant. Holder of lands by any title. If absolute ownerhe is tenant in fee; but he may hold for life, or for a fixed term of years, or from year to year, or at will or by sufferance. Again, he may be tenant in common, i.e., he and others may hold several titles to a piece of land, but be united in possession; or joint tenant, when he and others own land by a joint title created expressly by one and the same deed or will; or in coparceny, when he and others take by descent as one heir. An ordinary tenant holds land from another, giving some consideration, either in money, produce, or personal service; or rents another's house.

Tenant Right. Supposed right to retain the use of land as long as the tenant continues to pay the customary rent or a slight advance thereon; and, on leaving the land, to dispose of its good-will to another tenant.

Tenasserim. S. part of Burmah, between Siam and Bay of Bengal; held by England since 1825. Area 46.590 sq. m.;

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Tcncin, Mme. Claddine Alexandrine Guerin De, 16811749. French social personage, mistress of the Regent and other eminent men. mother of D'Alembert; author of three romances, 1735-47. Lettres, 1790-1806.—Her brother, Pierre, 1680-1758, was a Cardinal.

Tendai-Shin. Japanese Buddhist sect, founded from China ab.805, afterward in three branches.

Tender. Proffer of an act in accordance with the offerer's legal obligation.

Tendon. Tissue which binds a muscle to its place of attachment. It is white and fibrous; in many muscles cord-like in form. The contractile muscular tissue is attached to this inelastic substance, on which it pulls as one would pull on a rope, causing the desired movement through its attachment to the bone at the other end of the tendon.

Tendril. Slender leafless branch, or modified leaf developed into an organ adapted to aid a plant in climbing, as in the grape or pea.

Tcnebrie Faetse Sunt. Responsorium following the fifth lesson on Good Friday in R.C. Cn.; descriptive of the last agonies of Christ. The service in which it occurs breathes the spirit of gloom, penitence, and mourning. The altar is shrouded in black, the bells are dumb, the candles on the altar are extinguished one by one, not to be relighted until Easter Eve.

Tcnedos. Greek island in the iEgean Sea. off the Troad; ab. 8 m. by 3; held l>v Turkey, whose fleet was destroyed here by the Greeks Nov. 22, 1822. Pop. ab.15,000.

Tenement. Land, or anything of a permanent nature which may be holden.

Tenement HouseM. Those which accommodate several tenants; in 1893 more than 70 per cent of the population of New York City were thus housed. At the present time these houses are. at the best, well provided with all modern conveniences, and, in proportion to the conveniences, are the most economical habitations, being provided with light and heat and other conveniences at the lowest price. Being under control of the Health Board, their sanitary condition is continually improving.

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Tenlnon, Thomas, D.D., 1636-1715. Bp. of Lincoln 1691; Abp. of Canterbury 1694.

Ten Kate, Jan Jacob Lodewijk, b.1819. Dutch poet; pastor at Amsterdam from 1860. Creation, 1866, tr. 1888.

Tcnnant, William, 1784-1848. Scottish poet and Orientalist; prof. St. Andrews 1835. Anster Fair, 1812; Syriac Grammar, 1840.

TcnnantitC. Cu8As^,. Mineral copper sulph-arsenite. usually containing some antimony and passing by gradations into tetrahedrite.

Tennemann,WiLHELMGoTTLiEB,1761-1819. Prof. Marburg 1804. Hist. Philosophy, 11 vols., 1798-1819; Manual, 1812, tr.1832.

Tennent, Sir James Emerson. 1804-1869. Irish M.P. 1832; in India 1841-50: Sec. Board of Trade 1852-67; Baronet 1867. Greece, 1826-30; Belgium, 1841; Ceylon, 1859.

Tennent, William, 1673-1745. Irish immigrant ab.1717; founder in Bucks co., Pa., 1726, of the "Log College," the first Presbyterian school in America.—Of his four sons, all pastors, the most noted were GILBERT, 1703-1764, of New Brunswick, N. J., and Phila., and William, 1705-1777, of Freehold, N. J., whose trance-experiences in youth were much discussed.

Tennessee. One of the s. central States; area 42.050 sq. ni. Its e. boundary follows the crest of the Great Smoky Mts., and their w. spurs occupy its e. portion. To these succeed the valley of the T>, intersected by long, narrow, parallel ridges, succeeded on the w. by the escarpment of the Cumberland plateau, which rises to a height of ab.3.000 ft. From its summit the plateau slopes gently to the n.w., and is deeply eroded by streams. The remainder of the State is of undulating surface without decided features. The w. slopes of the Smoky Mts. are composed of Devonian beds; the T. valley is floored by Silurian, with ridges of Carboniferous sandstone. The Cumberland plateau is of the Carboniferous formation, and this extends w. to the lower T., except an area of Silurian about Nashville. It is succeeded on the w. by Cretuceous and Tertiary. Immediately along the Mississippi are Quaternary deposits. The principal river, excepting the Mississippi, which flows along the w. border, is the T., which, heading Id the mts. in the e. part, flows s.w. beyond the limits of the State, and in its w. part returns, crossing it to reach its mouth in w. Ky.; it is navigable from its mouth up to Muscle Shoals. The Cumberland also flows .across the n. part. The mineral resources consist mainlv of coal and iron. The industries are mainly agricultural, cotton, corn, and tobaiw being the principal crops. Of its area more than 20,000.000 acres are in farms, and the value of farms, farming implements and machinery is ab. $250,000,000. The value of farm products in 1889 was ab. $55,194,181. Its manufacturing interests are mainly confined to a few leading cities, and are not as vet verv extensive. The total length of railroads in operation in 1891 was 2,767 m. The capital is Nashville. The other principal cities are Memphis, Chattanooga and Knoxville. T. was originally part of N. C. The Watau<ra region, settled 176D. was the scene of sundry battles with Indians and British. The State of Franklin existed 1784-88. N. C. ceded the region to the U. S. 1790, and T. was admitted 1796 as the 16th State

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At the outbreak of the Civil War it at first refused to secede, but joined the seceding States June 1861, furnished 50 regiments to the Confederate army, and was the scene of some of the most important battles during- the war. Pop., 1890, 1,767,518, nearly one-fourth colored.

Tennessee, University Of. At w. Knoxville: successor of Blount Coll.. chartered 1794; this became 1807 E. Tenn. Coll., in 1840 E. Tenn. Univ., and in 1879 Univ. of Tenn. The State Experiment Station is connected with it. The academic department has a faculty of 22, with 334 students; the law school has 38 students under 3 instructors; the schools of medicine and dentistry, at Nashville, have 155 students and 28 instructors. Whole number of students 516; library 13,000 vols.

Tennessee River. Branch of the Ohio, rising in s.w. Va. and e. Tenn., in a valley between the high mts. of N. C. and the Cumberland plateau. It flows s.w., w., and n. Length ab. 1.200 m., drainage area 43,897 sq. m. It is navigable to Chattanooga, except for the rapids at Muscle Shoals.

Tenney, Samuel. 1748-1816. Surgeon in Revolutionary war: M.C. from N. H. 1800-7.—His wife, Tabitha (oilman), 1762-1837, m.1788, pub. Female Quixotism, 1807.

Tenney, Sanborn, 1827-1877. Prof. Vassar 1865, Williams 1868. Geology, 1859: Zoology, 1865-75.

Tenney, William Jewett, 1814-1883. N. Y. journalist; ed. Appleton's Annual Cyclopaedia, 1861-82. Hist. Rebellion, 1865.—His wife, Sarah (brownson), 1839-1876, pub. Life of Galitzin, 1873.

Tcnniel, John, b.1820. Cartoonist in Punch since 1851; illustrator of in Wonderland, Ingoldsby Legends, and

other books.

Tenni§. Oldest of all existing games of ball; was played in Europe in the Middle Ages, coming from Italy to France, and from France to England. The ball is thrown against a wall and struck by a racket on its rebound. It was formerly played in the open air, now generally in courts with walls, or with walls and roof. See Court Tennis and Rackets.

Tennis, or Lawn Tennis. Game played by two or four players. It consists in driving a small felt-covered ball across a net so that it may strike within a certain prescribed area. The players take turns in serving, i.e., putting the ball in play; it must strike within a certain space of the opponent's court. After that, it may be struck on the fly, volleyed, or after the Ilrst rebound. A player failing to hit the ball, or hitting it and failing to place it over the net and within the confines of the opponent's court, loses the stroke.

Ten in Alfred, D.C.L., Lord. 1809-1892. Poet lau

reate 1850, Baron 1884. His first volumes, 1830-32. won little attention; those of 1842 made him famous. The Princess followed, 1847, tile greater In Memoriam, 1850. Maud, 1855. Four Idylls of the King, 1859, contained much of his noblest

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lived from 1853 at Farringford, Isle of Wight, and from 1870 in the summer at Aldworth.—His brother, Frederick, b.1807, has pub. 3 vols, of poetry, 1854-91. See also Turner, Charlest.

Tenochtitlan. Chief city of the Aztecs, founded ab.1325 on an island in Lake Tezcnco; besieged, taken, and largely destroyed by Cortes 1521. The new capital built on its site long bore the old name, since changed to Mexico. Mexitl was the Aztec name.

Tenon. See Mortise.

Tenor. Highest adult male voice; also applied to instruments of about the same compass.

Tenorc, Michele, 1780-1861. Prof, of Botany in Naples. Flora Napolitana, 1811-38; Oeographie physique et botanique de Naples, 1827.

Tellurite. CuO. Mineral compound of copper and oxygen, occurring in small scales with metallic luster; black oxide of copper.

Tenos. One of the Cvclades, s.e. of Andros. Area 70 sq. m., pop. ab.20,000. Ten Persecutions. See Persecutions. Tenpins. See Bowls. Tenrec. See Tanrec.

Tensas. River joining the Washita, at Trinity, La., after flowing 250 m. through the State in a s.e. direction.

Tense. Modification of a verbal root to express time of action. Augment and reduplication seem to have been the earliest means for indicating a change from present to past. For this purpose the Germanic tongues largely employed Ablaut, i.e., a change of the radical vowel, as in drink—drank.

Tensile Strength. Force required to tear apart a rope or bar when pulling in the direction of its length; usually measured in pounds per sq. in. of the cross-section. Values for strength are given in the accompanying table:

Brass, cast ab. 18,000

"sheets and wire "45,000

Bronze (for guns) ■• 31,000

(Tobin's, Cu,Sn,Tn.).. . " 68.000

"Phosper, cast '50.000 to 75.000

wire '• 100.000" 150.000

Copper, cast "19.000

sheets •■ 33,000

Iron, cast, ordinary "17,000

"best...." •' 26.000

"" for ordnance "35,000

"wrought, bars "42,000 to 55.000

"'• plate, best "50,000" 60.000

eve-bars "32,000" 50,000

large forgings. " 30,000" 50.000

wire •' 86,000 " 100,000

Steel, low carbon •' 50.000

"high" '• 110,000

Tin, cast '■ 35,000

Zinc, cast '• 7.500

"rolled "16,000

The strongest metal tested is a special alloy of steel with tungsten, which gave in a compressed ingot an ultimate strength of 161.000 lbs. per sq. in.

Tension. State of stress produced by two forces acting in the same line but in opposite directions, as when two men pull on the ends of a rope. In practical applications it is important that the tension should not be so great as to produce a permanent stretch, or, in engineering language, the elastic limit of the material should not be exceeded. Tension of Vapor. See Vapor Tension. Tensor. In Quaternions, coefficient of a unit vector to give any definite length.

Tent. This is a very ancient habitation,being made of bark or leaves of trees, skins of animals and textile fabrics successively. They are often made waterproof by alutn or hydrocarbons. The usual material is cotton duck, and the best form is conical. Ten Tables. See Twelve Tables.

Tentaele. In Botany, sensitive glandular hair, by which some plants, e.g., Drosera, capture insects.

Tentacles. Feelers. Among Protozoa, the Acinetans possess them. In the Jellyfish, Hydroids, and other ccelenterates they are usually flexible and long processes of the body wall, into which frequently the body cavity extends. They may be extended a great length and retracted almost like pseudopodia, except that their substance never becomes incorporated into the general body. Tentacles of this nature are common in the Worms, Holothurians, and Molluscoids.

Tcntaeulocyst. Modified tentacle of the scyphomedusan Jellyfish, containing a part of the gastro-vascular caual-system, otocysts, visual organs, and olfactory hairs.

Tciiterden, Charles Abbott, Lord, 1762-1832. Judge of 1503

TEN THOUSAND—TERMINAL

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Common Pleas 1816; Chief-justice of King's Bench, and Knight, 1818; Baron 1827. Merchant Ships and Seamen, 1802. Ten Thousand, Retreat Of. See Retreat. Tenulrostres. Tribe of Passerine Birds, having long thin beak and feet ambulatorii or fissi: the hind toe is long. Here belong the beautiful elamatory Hoopoes (Upupa), the Oscinal Tree-creeper (Certhia), the Humming-birds (Trochilidoz), the Nuthatch (Sitta), and the Australian Lyre-bird. Tenure. Legal form of holding land under English law. Tcoealli. Pyramidal Aztec temples, usually for human sacrifices. That of the City of Mexico, famous in the history of the Conquest, stood only 14861521: it was 375 ft. by 300, 80 ft. high, and terraced. The pyramid of Cholula. 1,440 ft. square and 177 high, is supposed to be of another and earlier class.

Teos. Ancient Greek city of Lvdia, w. Asia Minor, 25 m. s.w. of Tcoealli at Palenque. Smyrna; birthplace of Anacreon.

Tcosintc. Euchlceana luxurians. Forage plant of some value in the warmer portions of the U. S. In ordinary seasons it will not develop in the North.

Tepliroite. MnaSiO(. Mineral manganese silicate, similar to rhodonite, but of different percentage composition.

Teplitz. Town of n.w. Bohemia, noted for its hot springs, discovered 762; sanitary resort. The Triple Alliance against Napoleon was formed here Sept. 1813.

Tcraphint. Small images idolatrously used in Hebrew houses from the time of the Judges to that of Ezekiel; repeatedly mentioned in O. T.

Terashlma Munenori, 1832-1893. Japanese Minister to England 1872-73, and to the U. S. later; Count 1884.

Teratology. In Botany and Zoology, study o. monstrosities, or abnormal forms and structures, not resulting from postnatal disease.

Terbium. Tr. At. wt. 160° C, valence HI. It was discovered by Delafontaine 1860. It occurs in Lamarskite (q.v.). Rare metal, forming colorless salts. Its oxide, Tra03, is a dark orange-yellow powder.

Terbium Nitrate. Ti(NOs)3. Deliquescent substance, made by treating the oxide with nitric acid. Heated to 500° C. it yields basic nitrates.

Terbium Sulphate. Tra(SO,),+8HaO. Colorless crystals, isomorphous with yttrium sulphate; made by treating the nitrate with sulphuric acid.

Terbium Trioxide. Tr303. Terbia; dark orange-colored powder: prepared from samarskite and cerite minerals; soluble in acids forming the corresponding salts.

Terbiirg, Gerard. 1617-1681. Dutch genre painter, who affected aristocratic types and subjects, and had a marvelously

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Terceira. One of the Azores Islands. The surface is mountainous but the soil is fertile. The capital is Angra on the s. side. Exports are wine, oranges, and lumber. Area ab. 222 sq. m., pop. 45,000.

Terebenthene. See Turpentine.

Terebinth. Pistacia terebintlnis. Turpentine tree growing about the Mediterranean, from 30-40 ft. high; source of Chian turpentine and noted for its longevity. Absalom was caught in its branches (II. Sam. xviii.).

Terebra. Ovipositor, when adapted for boring.

Terebrantla. Suborder of Hymenoptera, in which the female possesses a freely projecting or a retractile ovipositor, adapted for boring. There are three tribes, Phytophaga, Gallicola, and Entomophaoa (q.v.).

Tcrcbratiilina. See Testicardi.nes.

Teredo. See Pholadid.e.

Teredo Navalis. See Shipworm and Pholadid^e.

Terence (publius Terentius Afer), ab.185-159 B.C. Latin comic dramatist; b. at Carthage; brought to Rome a slave, and soon manumitted. Scipio, Loelius, and other nobles were his patrons. We possess six plays entire: Andria; Hecyra, or Step-Motlier; Heant on-Timor eumenos, or Self-Tormentor; Tlie

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Scene from the Phormio of Terence.

Eunuch; Phormio; and Adelphi, or Brothers. These were all adaptations from the Greek of Menander, Apollodorus. and Diphilus. They have often been translated, and, from the modern tone which pervades them, are interesting to-day. The diction is good, the elaboration of the plots amusing and attractive.

Terentianus Ulaurui, 2d cent. African versifier. De litteris, syllabis, metris, pub. 1836.

Terentius Scaurus, Quintus, 2d cent. Commentator on Virgil and Horace; writer on grammar.

Terephthalic Acid. See Phthalic Acids.

Teresa, or Theresa, St., 1515-1582. Spanish Carmelite nun, reformer of the order 1562: mystical writer; canonized 1622. Her day is Oct. 15. Autobiography, 1562; Way of Perfection. 1563: Book of Foundations, tr. 1853; Interior Castle, 1577, tr. 1852. Works, 1587.

Terete. In Botany, nearly cylindrical.

Tereus. See Itys and Philomela.

Terga. Posterior ventral plates of the barnacle's shell. In the position ordinarily assumed they are uppermost.

Tergum. Dorsal piece or notum of the arthropod segment.

Terhune, Mrs. Mary Virginia (hawes: "marion HarLAND''), b.ab.1832 in Va., m.1856. Author of many novels and several cook-books; founder of the Home-maker, 1888. Alone, 1853; Hidden Path. 1855; Nemesis, 1860; Husks. 1863; HisQreat Self, 1892. Her Common Sense in the Household, 1871, is widely used.

Term. Single algebraic quantity, unconnec ted with others by plus or minus sign. An aggregate of two or more terms bound together by a parenthesis may be an element in a complex term; e.g., 3a(x-(-2y)4 is a single quantity in which the base is the sum of x and 2y, while 3a and 4 are respectively coefficient and exponent.

Terin-Days. Days on which it is agreed that very frequent observations shall be made simultaneously at distant stations; first adopted 1825-30, when magnetic observations were made all over Europe.

Terminal. In Botany, belonging to the apex or end.

Terminal. Pillar, or pedestal, often in the form of a frustum of an inverted obelisk, to support a bust.

Terminal Inflorescence. Manner of flowering in which the flowers are produced at the ends of the stem and branches, instead of from the axils of leaves or bracts, as in lateral inflorescence.

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