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tribes of Siberia and w. central Asia. Cossacks, Kirghiz, and Turks are included. The name Tatar is derived from a more easterly tribe, which drove the others w., but it has been erroneously extended to include also such tribes as the Chinese Tartars and the inhabitants of Tartary. The Tatar branch has been admixed on all sides with other Turanian tribes, Finns, Samoyeds, Kalmuks, Mongolians, Magyars, etc. All are nomadic, except the Osmanli or Turks proper. They number a million or more in Russia, and as many in the Caucasus. Nearly all are Mohammedans, but with pagan and tribal customs retained.

Tartarus. In Mythology, abyss far below Hades; in later poets, Hades.

Tartary. Part of Turkestan; name loosely and variously applied, mainly to e. or central Asia.

Tartary, Channel Of. N. arm of Japan Sea, between Saghalien and s.e. Siberia.

Tartini, Guiseppe, 1693-1770. Italian violinist, composer and theoretician. His sonata, Tlie Devil's Trill, has held its place in the repertory of most violinists. He composed it under the inspiration of a dream in which he heard the devil ••play with consummate skill a sonata of such exquisite beauty as surpassed the boldest Bight of imagination."

Tartrazine. CnH,,N,O10S,Na,. Sodium salt of the compound formed by the action of phenvlhvdrazine sulphonic acid upon dihydroxy-tartaric acid (COOH.'C(OH)a.C(OH.)aCOOH); yellow powder, which dyes wool yellow.

Tartuffc. Religious hypocrite and impostor who uses religion as a means of gaining money, covering deceit, and promoting self-indulgences. So named from the chief character of a comedy by Moliere.

Taschcreau,ELZEAR Alexandre, b.1830. Abp. of Quebec 1871; Cardinal 1886.—His relative, Henri Elzear. b.1830. became Judge of the Supreme Court of Quebec 1871. and of that of the Dominion 1876. Criminal Law for Canada, 1874-88.

Tasehereau, Jules Antoine. 1801-1874. Parisian journalist and librarian; editor of Moliere, 1833; biographer of Moliere and Corneille, 1835-39.

Tashkent!. Capital of Russian Turkestan: city of Asiatic Russia, on the Saralka. a branch of the Sir Daria; independent till 1810, then held by Khokand till 1867. It has a large trade and some manufactures. Pop. ab.135.000.

Tasimeter. Instrument invented by Edison which detects changes of temperature by the variation of a current of electricity passing through a disk of soft carbon, fixed between metallic supports and exposed to varying pressure produced by temperature changes.

Tasmaii. Abel Janszoon, ab. 1603-1659. Dutch voyager, discoverer of Tasmania and other islands 1642-43.

Tasmania. Formerly Van Dieman's Land; island s. of Australia, separated from it by Bass Strait, and belonging to Gt. Britain; discovered 1643; settled from Sydney 1803; penal colony 1804-53. Its extreme dimensions are in each direction ab.200 m., and its area 26.215 sq. m. Most of the island is a table-land, averaging 3,000 ft. in height, with nits. 4,000 to 5,000 ft. high in w. part. The products are chiefly agricultural. Gold, silver, copper, tin and cdal are mined. Capital, Hobart Town, on the s. shore. Pop. ab. 155,000.

Tasmania!! Devil (dasyurus 0RSINUS). Bear-like marsupial of Tasmania, ab. the size of a badger. It has a bushy tail, black coat with narrow white throat band, and two small shoulder spots; is nocturnal, carnivorous and untamable. The dentition is J } f j.

Tasinanians. The aborigines of this island in 1800 numbered ab. 7,000, but through wars were rapidly reduced; the last pure blooded native died 1876. They were related to the aborigines of Australia but contained admixture of Negrito blood. In civilization they ranked lower than the Australians, but they were timorous and chaste. Their only manufactures were weapons of bone, wood, and stone, the latter not equal to those made by Neolithic man. The average height was a little over 5 ft.

Tasman Sea. Sea between New Zealand and the islands to the n.w. on the one hand and Australia and Tasmania on the other.

Tasso, Torquato, 1544-1595. Italian poet, ranking next to Dante. His fame rests on Jerusalem Delivered, 1581, tr. by E. Fairfax 1600. and in much less degree on his pastoral drama. Aminta. 1573. and a youthful epic. Hinaldo. 1562. He lived at the court of Ferrara 1572-77, but became the vic tim of morbid delusions, and was confined in a madhouse 1579-86. His last production, Gernsalemme Conquistata, 1593, was unworthy of his genius. Death prevented his being crowned by the Pope.

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His works were collected in 33 vols. 1821-32.—His father, BerNardo, 1493-1569, was an epic and lyric poet of repute in his time.

Tassonl, Alessandro. 1565-1635. Italian poet, essayist, and political writer. Pensieri, 1608-20; Secchia rapita, 1615-32.

Taste, Sensations OF. Changes of consciousness aroused by stimulation of certain specific end organs, situated in the mucous membrane of the tongue and soft palate. The usual classification of tastes is, sweet, bitter, sour, salt, and possibly alkaline and metallic, though the latter two are not so well defined as the other four and may be only modifications of them. The physical condition of taste is that the substance to be tasted be soluble in the fluids of the mouth. The end organs of taste are small modified nerve endings, known as taste-buds, situated on small papilla?, and directly connected with the special nerves of taste. The mucous membrane of the tongue is also sensitive to impressions of touch and temperature, which are apt to be confused with tastes in the case of pungent, astringent, hot, or cold substances. Taste is also

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commonly confused with smell. The so-called flavor of most edible substances is largely smell and not taste.

Tate, Nahum, 1653-1715. Irish dramatist, poet laureate 1692: author, with N. Brady, of the New Version of the Psalms. 1696, long- used in the Ch. of England and in America. This, with its Supplement of a few hymns, 1703, contains his best work.

Tateno Gozo, b.1841. Gov. of Osaka 1880-90; Japanese Minister to the U. S. 1890-94.

Tatliam, William. 1753-1819. Va. author. Inland Canals, 1798; Tobacco, 1800.

Tatian, ab.115-ab.180. Christian apologist, b. in Assyria; disciple of Justin Martyr. His Ad Grazcos svas written in Greek and probably at Rome; his Diutessaron, probably in Syriac, was the first attempt at a harmony of the Gospels, and was much used in Syria. His other works are lost. After 167 he became a Gnostic and returned to the East.

Till in*. Achilles. Alexandrian Greek romancer, probably of 3d century. Leucippe and Cleitophon.

Tatler. Tri-weekly founded and conducted 1709-11 by Sir R. Steele, to which he contributed essays.

Tallinn, Josiah, 1763-1803. U. S. Senator 1796-99; Gov. of Ga. 1800.—His son. Josiah. U.S.N, and C.S.N.. 1795-1871, became Captain 1850, and as Commodore C.S.N, defended the waters of Va. 1861-62 and of Ga. 186:3-65.

Tall a in, Henry, D.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 1788-1868. Archdeacon of Bedford 1844; author of a Coptic grammar and lexicon 1828-35: editor of Coptic versions of Job and the Prophets 1847-52.

Tattersall's. Horse-market in London, chiefly for racers; founded 1766 by Richard Tattersall, 1724-1795.

Tattlers (tell-tales, Sandpipers, etc.). Plover-like birds with slender, straight, stiff, sharp bills and long legs. Yellow Shanks has yellow legs; the Solitary Tattler has blackish ones; the Semipalmated Tattler has its toes webbed at the base.

Tattoo. Sound of the trumpet or the music of the fife and drum at the close of the evening: a signal to the troops to attend roll-call preparatory to going to bed in camp or garrison.

Tattooing. This widespread primitive custom appears to have originated in the desire to lix permanently the various devices painted upon the human skin as family and tribal designations, and for ceremonial and religious purposes. It now exists especially among the natives of the Pacific Islands and s.e. Asia, in S. America, and in n. Africa. Among the black

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Tauclniitz,KARLCHRiSTOPHTRAUGOTT, 1761-1836. Printer at Leipzig 1796; publisher of superior editions of Greek and Latin classics from 1809; introducer of stereotyping 1816; succeeded by his son, Karl C. P., 1798-1884.—His nephew, ChrisTian Bernhard, Baron, 1816-1895, founded 1837 a yet more famous house in Leipzig, and from 1831 pub. ab. 3.000 English books. He was ennobled 1860, and made a Saxon Peer 1877.

Tauler, Johannes, ab.1300-1361. German mystic, Dominican monk, and famous preacher. His sermons were pub. 1498; 25 were tr. 1857.

TanIiay - Alfredo D'escragnolle, b.1843. Brazilian novelist, poet and critic; of French ancestry; Senator 1886.

Taunton. City and capital of Bristol co., Mass., on T. River, 34 m. s. of Boston. Its industries consist largely in iron and steel manufactures. Pop., 1890, 25,448.

Taurecs. See Centetid^e.

Taurine. NHJ.C,H,.HSO!. Amidoethylsulphonic acid; mpt. 240° C; white crystalline compound, soluble in hot water; found in combination in considerable quantities in the bile, kidneys, etc., of oxen and other animals; made by treating chlorethylsulphonic acid with ammonia.

Taurus. See Zodiac.

Taurus Mis. Range of e. Asia Minor, extending from the frontier of Transcaucasia s.w. to the Mediterranean. Greatest height ab. 10.000 ft.

Tausig, Karl. 1841-1871. Polish-German pianist and composer, pupil of Liszt; unsurpassed as a technician.

Taussig, Frank William, b.1859. Prof. Harvard 1887. Tariff Hist. U.S., 1888: Silver Situation, 1892.

Tautog. See Labrid^e.

Tautphwus, Baroness Jemima Von. 1808-1893. English novelist of Irish birth (b. Montgomery), resident in Bavaria. Tlie Initials, 1850; Cyrilla, 1853; Quits, 1857; At Odds, 1863.

Tavern. Public house where both food and drink are sold. See Hotel.

Tavernler, Jacques, ab.1025-1673. French buccaneer, executed at Havana.

Tavernicr, Jean Baptiste. 1605-1689. French traveler in Asia. Six Voyages, 1676, repub. in 7 vols. 1810; Travels in India, tr. 1890. His specialty was precious stones.

Tavsen, Hans. 1494-1561. Leader of the Reformation in Denmark; Bp. of Ribe 1542.

Tawing and Tanning. See Leather.

Tax. Public burden imposed generally on the inhabitants of a community, for governmental purposes; to be distinguished from an assessment for local improvements. It is not a lien on property unless made so by statute. The methods of imposing and collecting, including the sale of personal and real property for delinquent taxes, are regulated by statute.

Taxeopoda. Order of placental Mammals, forming a connecting link between the Bunotheria and the true Ungulates (Diplarthra). The toes are hoofed: the two series of bones in the carpus and tarsus are placed so that each member of the proximal row articulates with but one member of the distal row (a primitive arrangement). The suborders are Condylarthra, Taxodontia, and Hyracoidea.

Taxidermy. Art of preparing and arranging the skins of animals intended for preservation in such a manner as to represent their natural appearance. The skin after its removal is rubbed with some preservative, as arsenious acid alone or mixed with alum, and a framework, with wires running to the different extremities of the body, is inserted. Cotton is then placed around the framework, and wires to fill the skin give therequired shape. Butterflies and other insects are kept in close drawers in which camphor or petroleum is placed to preserve them and keep off moths.

Taxis. When any prolapsed organ, e.g., the bowel in a hernia, is replaced by manipulation without the aid of instruments, the operation is known as taxis.

Taxonomy. Systematic arrangement (classification) of living beings. Its object is to make the general distribution of animals and plants conformable to the order of nature in their production.

Tax Sale. Sale of property of a deli nquent taxpayer, made by authority of law, as a means of collecting or enforcing an unpaid tax. Power to make such sales is statutory.

Tay. River of Perthshire, largest in Scotland; flowing 118 m. e. and s.e. to the North Sea.

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failure was the insufficient bracing of the structure against the action of wind. A new bridge was completed 1887, in length 10,780 ft, costing $3,200,000.

TaygetllR. Mt. range of s. Greece, extending ab. 70 m. s. to Cape Matapan.

Tayler, John James, 1798-1869. Prof. New Coll.. Manchester, 1840, and its head 1853. Religious Life of England, 1845; Faith and Duty, 1851; Fourth Gospel, 1867; Letters, 1872.

Taylor, Alfred. U.S.N.. 1810-1891. Captain 1862, Commodore 1866, Rear-admiral 1872.

Taylor, Alfred Swaine. M.D.. F.R.S., 1806-1880. Prof. Guy's Hospital, London; ed. Medical Gazette. Medical Jurisprudence. 1843-65; Poisons, 1848.

Taylor, Bayard, 1825-1878. American traveler, poet, journalist, and novelist; Minister to Germany 1877. Beginning with Ximena, 1844, and Views Afoot. 1846, he produced many volumes of travel and of verse, and four novels. Hannah Tlinrston. 1863; John Godfrey's Fortunes. 1864; Kennett, 1866; and Joseph and his Friend, 1870. His chief ambition was poetical, and his chief success the translation of Faust, 1870-71. The Masque of the Gods, 1872, and Tlie Echo Club, 1876, though not popular, are more memorable than his longer poems. The Picture of St. John, 1866, Lars, 1873, and The Prophet. 1874.— His wife, Marie (hansen), b.1829. edited and tr. into German several of his works, and with H. E. Scudder wrote his Life, 1884.

Taylor, Benjamin Franklin. LL.D.. 1819-1887. American journalist, lecturer, and poet. Tlieophilus 'Trent, 1887.

Taylor, BROOk, F.R.S., 1685-1731. English mathematician. Methodus Incrementorum Directa et Inversa, 1715; Linear Perspective, 1719.

Taylor, Dan, 1738-1816. English preacher, founder and leader of the General Baptist New Connection 1770.

Taylor, Edward Thompson (" Father Taylor"). 1793-1871. M.E. missionary to sailors in Boston; noted for wit, eloquence, and efficiency.

Taylor,Georoe, 1716-1781. Iron-master near Easton, Pa.; delegate to Congress 1776-77; signer of the Declaration of Independence.

Taylor, Hannis. b.1852. U. S. Minister to Spain 1893. Origin and Growth of English Constitution, 1892.

Taylor, Sir Henry, D.C.L.. 1800-1886. English poet, dramatist, and essayist; clerk in the Colonial Office 1824-72; knighted 1869. Philip van Artevelde, 1834, is his best play. 77ie Statesman, 1836; Notes, 1847-49; Autobiography, 1885; Correspondence. 1888. Works, 5 vols., 1878.

Taylor, Isaac, 1759-1829. Independent minister at Ongar in Essex from 1811; author of some 20 vols.—His daughter, Jane, 1783-1824, wrote Contributions of Q. Q., 1826, and with her sister Ann (mrs. Gilbert), 1782-1866. the long popular Original Poems, 1805, and Hymns for Infant Minds. 1809.— Their brother, Isaac, LL.D., 1787-1865, pub. Natural History of Enthusiasm. 1N29, and of Fanaticism, 1833; Spiritual Despotism. 1835; Physical Theory of Another Life, 1836; Ancient Christianity and the Oxford Tracts, 1839; Wesley and Method

ism. 1851; and other books.—His son, Isaac, LL.D.. b.1829, Canon of York 1885, has pub. Words and Places, 1864; Taylor Family of Ongar, 1867; Greeks and Goths, 1879: The Alphabet, 1883; Origin of the Aryans, 1890.

Taylor. Isidore Severin Justin, Baron, 1789-1879. French writer of books of travel; Senator 1869.

Taylor, James Hudson, b.1832. English missionary in China 18513-60 and since 1866; founder of the Inland Mission 1865.

Taylor, Jeremy. D.D.. 1613-1667. Bp. of Down and Connor 1660; most brilliant of Anglican writers; called by Emerson "the Shakespeare of divines." His Liberty of Prophesying, 1647, is a powerful argument against persecution. More popu

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lar were his Great Exemplar (Life of Christ), 1649, and Holy Liinng and Dying. 1650-51. His few hymns are in Golden Grore, 1655. Ductor Dubitantiiim, 1660, is an immense book on casuistry. His works were collected in 15 vols. 1820-22.

Taylor, John, 1580-1654. English "water" poet. His works were collected 1630 and repub. 1868-78.

Taylor, John, LL.D., 1703-1766. Canon of St. Paul's 1757; editor of Lysias, 1739, and other Greek orators.

Taylor, John, 1750-1826. English hymnist.

Taylor, John, 1808-1887. Mormon apostle 1838; long missionary in Europe; Brigham Young's successor as pres. 1877; indicted for polygamy 1885, and thenceforth in hiding.

Taylor, John Louis, 1769-1829. Judge N. C. Superior Court' 1798; Chief-justice from 1808; reviser of N. C. statutes 1817. Cases, 1802; Reports, 1818; Executors, 1825.

Taylor, John W., 1784-1854. M.C. from N. Y. 1813-33; Speaker 1820-21 and 1825-27.—His nephew, John Orville, 1807-1890, was prof. Univ. New York 1837-52, and a writer on education.

Taylor, Mary Cecilia (mrs. W. O. Ew-en), 1827-1866. American actress.

Taylor, Nathaniel William. D.D.. 1786-1858. Prof. Yale from 1822; author of the "New Haven theology," a mitigated form of Calvinism, which exerted great influence and caused much commotion in New England. Works, 4 vols., 1858-59.

Taylor, Philip Meadows, 1808-1876. English officer, in India 1826-66; author of Confessions of a Thug. 1839; Tara, 1863; Secta, 1873; and other romances. Cromlechs. Cairns. etc., 1853; Hist. India, 1870; Story of my Life, 1877.

Taylor, Richard Cowling. 1789-1851. English geologist, in the U. S. from 1830; surveyor of Pa. coal fields. Fossil Fuel, 1841; Statistics of Coal, 1848.

Taylor, Rowland, LL.D.. d.1555. Martvr of the Reformation; chaplain to Cranmer; Archdeacon of Exeter; burned, after a year's imprisonment.

Taylor, Samuel Harvey, LL.D., 1807-1871. Principal of

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Phillips Academy at Andover, Mass., from 1837; editor of classical text-books.

Taylor, Thomas, 1758-1835. English Platonist; translator of Plato. 1804, Aristotle, 1806-12, the Neo-platonists Iamblichus, Porphyry, Plotinus, Proclus, and other Greek writers.

Taylor, Thomas Rawson, 1807-1835. English hymnist.

Taylor, Tom, 1817-1880. English playwright; ed.Punch 1874.

Taylor, William, 1765-1836. English author and translator. Synonyms, 1813; German Poetry, 1828-30.

Taylor, William, D.D., b.1821. M. E. bp. for Africa 1884; prolific writer.

Taylor, William Mackergo, D.D., LL.D., 1829-1895. Pastor in Scotland, at Liverpool, and 1872-93 in New York; author of Scripture biographies and other works. Knox, 1885; Parables, 1886; Miracles, 1890.

Taylor, William Rogers, U.S.N., 1811-1889. Captain 1862; active on the Atlantic coast; Commodore 1866, Rearadmiral 1871.—His father, William Vigneron, U.S.N., 17811858, became Captain 1841.

Taylor, Zachary, U.S.A., 1784-1850. Twelfth Pres. U. S.: Captain 1810; defender of Ft. Harrison, Ind., 1812; Major 1816. Colonel 1832; distinguished in the Black Hawk war, 1832, and against the Seminoles, Fla., 1836-38; victor atOkechobee, Dec. 25, 1837; commander on the Texas frontier 1845. and in the Mexican war 1846; victor at Palo Alto May 8, Resaca de la Pahna May 9, and Monterey Sept. 21-24; Major-gen. June 1846; weakened bv transfer of his best troops to Gen. Scott, yet victorious at Buena Vista Feb. 23, 1847; popular and fa


Zachary Taylor.

mousas"Old Rough and Readj-": Whig candidate for Pres. June 1848; elected by plurality over Cass and Van Buren. His brief administration is memorable for the admission of Cal. as a free state, the struggle over the extension of slavery, and the Clay compromise.—His son, Richard, 1826-1879, a brilliant and accomplished man. became Brig.-gen. C.S.A. 1861, Majorgen. 1862, and Lieut.-gen. 1864, serving in the southwest, and fighting Gen. Banks in two battles. April 8-9, 1864. He pub. Destruction and Reconstruction, 1879.

Taylor, Mt. Volcanic peak in w. New Mexico. Altitude 11,391 ft.

Taylor's Theorem. Formula, devised 1715 by Brook Taylor (q.v.), for developing a function of the sum of two variables in a series of the ascending powers of one variable with coefficients which are functions of the other.

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Tchelynskin, Cape. Northernmost point of the mainland of Asia, lat. 78°.

Tcherevln, d.1896. Russian general, prominent against the Poles 1863 and the Turks 1877; head of secret police 1878-80.

Tchernaya. River in Crimea, scene of a battle Aug. 16, 1855. The Russians, under Gortschakoff, were repulsed with loss of 5,000 killed and wounded and 600 prisoners; loss of allies, 1,200.

Tchernyshevsky, Nikolai Gavrilovttch, 1828-1889. Russian economist, sent to Siberia for life 1864, after two years' imprisonment, during which he wrote a novel, Que Fairef It exerted a deep influence in Russia, and was tr. 1886 as A Vital Question.

Tea. Shrubs of the genus Thea, of the natural family Ternstromiacece, natives of e. Asia, extensively cultivated


Tea {Thea chinensts). for their leaves. The leaves of numerous other plants have been used as substitutes. It contains 2.57—4.89 per cent of

THElNE(q. v.), the active principle. Tea is supposed to have originated in Assam, thence been introduced into China ab.400, and

from China into Japan^ .

ab.850. It was broughtj
to Europe by the Dutch jj
1610, and was sold in!-
England at $30 to $50 j
a pound; in 1606 the
price had fallen to $15.
It began to be culti-
vated in India 1834, in
Ceylon 1876. Gt. Brit-
ain and Ireland in 1894
consumed 214,000,000
lbs.; the U. S. in 1896
imported 93.998,372 lbs.
The consumption in the
U. S., 1897, was 1.55 lbs.
per capita. Production
in 1888, in millions of
pounds, was estimated.
China 290, India 90.
Japan 40, Ceylon 19,
Paraguay 10, Java 7.

Tea, Paraguay. See

T e a b e r r y. See


Teachers' College. At Morningside Heights, New York; founded 1887, chartered 1892. It has 11 profes- View m the sors, 40 assistants, and ab. 350 students; it was made the school of pedagogy of Columbia Univ. 1897.

Teachers' Institutes. Begun in the U. S. 1843, with informal precedents from ab.1834.

Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. Greek MS., discovered 1873 at Constantinople by Bp. Bryennios; pub. 188S, tr. 1884. As perhaps the earliest Christian document outside the N. T. canon, it is of great importance for the light it casts on primitive church usages.

Teak. Tectona grandis. Large tree of the natural family Verbenaceoz, native of India, yielding a very hard and durable wood, used in shipbuilding. Sp. gr. 5.85.

Teal. Ducks of several species in U. S. and Europe.

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Tear. In Botany, resinous or grim my exudation from a plant in the form of a teardrop.

Tear Gland. See Lachrymal Gland.

Tears. Secretion of the lachrymal gland. They assist in lubricating1 the eyeball, and strong emotions and odors produce an excessive flow, especially in the human race, but few animals shed tears at all. The normal discharge escapes through the nose. Tears are of alkaline reaction, have a saline taste, and consist of water and ab. 1 per cent common salt.

Tears of Strong Wine. Phenomenon first explained by Prof. J. Thomson. The alcohol evaporating from a layer of wine on the sides of a glass causes an increase of the surface tension at points where the evaporation is most rapid. The remaining liquid is thus drawn up in drops, the motion always taking place from the stronger wine to the weaker.

Tear-Thumb. Prickly, climbing herbs of the genus Polygonum; especially P. sagittatum and P. hastatum, natives of N. America.

Teasel. Coarse herbs of the genus Dipsacus, natural order Dipsaceoe, with lavender-colored flowers subtended by a prickly or spiny involucre; natives of the Old World, introduced into America. D. fullonum is cultivated for its | dense flower heads, furnished with recurved bristles, and used by fullers in raising the .jrj nap on woolen cloth. Its cultivation is a 'local industry of some importance in parts of Onondaga co. and Cayuga co., N. Y., the headquarters of the trade being at Skeneateles. The plant also grows wild in many parts of the country as a wayside weed.

Teclie Bayou. Large bayou of the Mississippi River in La., issuing from the Atchafalaya Bayou to the s. of lat. 31° N., and flowing into the s. end of Grand Lake. Technical Schools. These are schools 'of applied science in distinction from industrial schools, which latter instruct in handicraft, as carpentry, blacksmithing, etc. They include civil, mechanical, mining, electrical and chemical engineering, industrial chemistry, metallurgy and architecture. The Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Trov, N. Y., established 1834, was the first in the U. S. The Sheffield Scientific School at New Haven was founded in 1847, Lawrence Scientific School at Cambridge, Mass., in 1847, Chandler Scientific School at Dartmouth Coll. in 1852, School of Mines of Columbia Coll., N. Y., 1864. the Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, Pa., 1866, Stevens Institute 1871, Mass. Institute of Technology, and many others.

Technology. Science of the industrial arts, as brewing, spinning, calico-printing, etc.; a general name for industrial science. See Industrial Schools and Technical Schools.

Teetlbranchiata (palliata). Suborder of Ojrixthobranchiaiti. including forms having the gill on the right side, in a special cavity or covered by the mantle-edge. A shell is usually present, though it may be concealed, as in Aplysia, by lobes of the foot. There are two groups, Phyllidiobranchia (Phyllidiitice) and Ctenobranchia (Bulla, Aplysia, Sea-Hare).

Tectology (comparative Anatomy, or Morphology). Study of the relations and development of animal units, of grades above the antimere (see Individuality): includes Histology, Organology, Blastology, Prosopology, and Cormology.

Tectonic. In Geology, structural arrangement of the materials of the earth considered as a whole. Tectospondyli. See Sharks.

Tectrlces (coverts). Short feathers overlapping the bases of the remiges of the wing of birds.

Tccumsell, ab.1768-1813. Shawnee chief: with his brother, Elskwatawa, "the Prophet," he sought to form an alliance of the western tribes against the whites, and in the battle of Tippecanoe, Nov. 7, 1811, was defeated by Gen. Harrison. In 1812 he joined the British, was made Brig.-gen., and was killed at the Thames.

Te Dciim. Latin hymn of 5th century, perhaps based on a Greek original; valued as the noblest of Christian poems, and in universal use; sung as part of Morning Prayer and on special occasions of thanksgiving. The legendary ascription to Ambrose and Augustine is unsupported. See Ambrosian Hymn.

Teeswatcr. See Cattle.

Teeth. Principal organ of mastication: bony bodies placed in sockets in the upper and lower jaws. In man (and most mammals), there are two sets: the first, the milk or temporary teeth, 20 in number, appear in the first three years of life, beginning with the central incisors at from the 6th to the 8th month and ending with the last molar at from the 20th to the 30th month. The permanent teeth number 32, arranged sym

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Vertical Section through a Tooth lodged in its socket: o, enamel; 6,

dentine; c, crusta petrosal cement: d, lin

A, the separate human teeth as they occur in the half-jaw of the adult; B, the human teeth in eitu in the upper jaw; a, a, incisors; b. b, canines; c, c. premolars; d, d, true molars.

ing of the cavity in the gum; e, bony socket m gum; /, pulp cavity.

The permanent teeth appear in the following sequence: the 1st molar, the central and lateral incisors, the 1st and 2d bicuspids, the canine and the 2d and 3d molars. This last seldom appears before the 17th or 18th year, and is known as the wisdom tooth. The upper canines are sometimes called the eye-teeth; the lower, the stomach teeth. See Dentition.

Teething. Process of eruption or cutting the teeth. The teeth are developed in the sockets, and, as they grow, are pushed up through the gum. This pressure is apt to cause great pain, with constitutional disturbances of more or less severity caused by the irritation. This, in part, accounts for the added dangers in the second summer of a child's life.

Teeth of Wheels. See Gear Wheels.

Tectotalisnt. Total Abstinence (q.v.) from intoxicating drink.

Teclotuin, or Spinning Die. Common gaming implement usually having four or six faces, which are marked either with letters, numbers, or dots like dice. Among German Jews, one marked with Hebrew characters is used in the sports of the children at the Feast of Purim. In India, one (chukree) with six dotted sides is permitted at the Diwali Festival. The Chinese implement, ch'e me, is apparently borrowed from India. In Japan it is called Coma, and used in the popular game of Sugoroku or Double Sixes.

Tegern See. Mountain lake in s. Bavaria, 30 m. s.e. from Munich, 3J m. long; it is frequented as a summer resort.

Tegmcn, or Endoplkura. Inner seed-coat of flowering plants, resulting from the ripening of the secundine coat of the ovule.

Tcginiiia. Elytra (q.v.) of the Grasshopper, etc.

Tegner, Esaias, 1782-1846. Swedish poet, called the "greatest of the Gothic School"; prof. Lund 1812, Bp. of Wexio 1824. Svea, 1811; Axel, 1821; Frithiofs Saga, 1825.

Tegucigalpa. Capital of Honduras, 125 m. e. by n. of San Salvador. Seat of Congress since 1880. Pop. ab. 18,000.

Tcgulre. Two small scales of the mesothorax, projecting over the bases of the wings in insects (Hymenopters).

Teheran. Capital of Persia; near the ElburzMts., ab. 70 m. s. of the Caspian Sea. Pop. ab. 160.000 in winter; early in spring the wealthier citizens go to the aits. Its trade and manufactures are considerable. The mosques have colleges attached to them, and the king's college has European professors.

Tcheult Indians. See Patagonians.

Tehiiantcpec, Isthmusof. Narrowest part of N. America, in s. Mexico. Width 134 m. An inter-oceanic canal, and more recently a ship railway, have been projected across it. The Gulf of Tehuantepec is on its s. or Pacific side.

Teignmoiith, John Shore, Baron, 1751-1834. AngloIndian official; Baronet 1792; legislator of Bengal; Gov.-gen. of India 1793-97; Baron 1797; Privy Councilor 1807; editor'and biographer of Sir William Jones.

Teinds. Scottish tithes, secularized at the Reformation, and now chargeable on rents for support of the Kirk.

Telsias. True name of Sterichorus (q.v.).

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