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TAHITI It ERGO—TARDIGRADA

1489

be made continually to drop into the cup, the cup will be filled to the top of the siphon tube, and then will be almost entirely emptied through the tube; this process is repeated indefinitely. If the siphon be concealed within the figure of a man whose mouth is just above the top of it, the water will continually rise nearly to his lips and then descend.

Tanliiin Ergo (So Great Therefore). Fifth and sixth stanzas of Thomas Aquinas' hymn Pange Lingua, Eucharistic hymn in the R.C. church.

Tanyatomata. Tribe of Muscaria, including flies with a long proboscis with stylet-shaped jaws. The larva; have hooked jaws inclosed in a sheath. Here belong the bloodsucking, stinging Gadflies.

Taoism. System of philosophy founded upon the teachings of a Chiuese mystic, Lao-tse or Lau Tsz', ab.600 B.C.; also a native religion. In the former, the search for purity, virtue and tranquillity of mind was urged as conducive to absorption in the great principle of Tau, or Nature. The religion, as it exists to-day, has largely borrowed from Buddhism. Only its priests are considered as members of this sect. They are permitted to marry, and take charge of the temples of the state gods of China. A trinity called the Three Pure Ones, which may be regarded as manifestations of its founder, hold the first place in the Taoist pantheon.

Taorniina. See Sicily.

TapaJOM. River of central Brazil. It receives the Arinos and the Jaruena, and flows ab.900 m. n.n.e. to the Amazon.

Tape. Steel measure used by surveyors instead of the CHAIN (q.v.). Very accurate measurements of base lines can be made by a tape if the errors due to temperature, stretch and sag be taken into account, as can be done by computation.

Tape-Grass. See Eel-grass.

Taper-Pointed. See Acuminate.

Tapetum. Epithelial lining of the pollen-sac of flowering plants.

Tapeworm. See Botriocephalid^e, Cestoda. CysticerCUS, T.<ENIAD/E, and TAENIA SOLIUM. Besides these, man is infested by the Pork-measle, Fish-ineasle, and Beef-measle, Ttenia saginata or Cystieerens bovis of cattle. The last is f of an in. long in its first stage and grows in man to ab. 20 ft.,with over 1,200 segments, the last 200 of which may contain ripe eggs, that escape by pores at the edge of the worm, placed alternately on opposite sides in successive segments. This tapeworm has suckers, but no hooks. Careful meat inspection and proper cooking are the precautions needed to prevent the development of these parasites.

Tapioea. Starch (q.v.) from the root of the Manihot palmata and M. utilissima; prepared by pressing the roots under water. It is obtained in granular form by heating the meal upon plates. It is used as an article of food. The name is sometimes given to Sago (q.v.).

Tapiridae. Family of Perissodactyla. See Tapirs.

Tapirodont Dentition. Form of molar teeth belonging to the antio-lophodont series, as seen in the upper jaw of the tapir, rhinoceros, and hyrax. In this the outer tubercular ridges on the crown are crescentic, compressed longitudinally, while the inner are transverse ridges, extending to the outer ones.

Tapirs. Odd-toed ungulates, resembling swine and liv

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feed on shoots, and are hunted for their hides. The largest is the Indian Tapir, 8 ft. long by over 3 ft. high, of a black color, girdled with a broad belt of white, which also extends back over the rump. Its upper jaw ends in a prehensile snout. The S. American Tapir is uniform grayish black, has an erect mane and short hair, but the young are born (one to each female) marked with white, after ab. 4 months' gestation. The female is the larger, and attains a length of 7 ft. In the high Andes is the Hairy Tapir (ab. 5 ft. long), with hair an inch long, and white markings. In Central America is a still smaller Tapir. The earliest fossil tapirs were no larger than rabbits.

Tappa. Bark cloth of the South Pacific Islands, beaten by the natives from the bark of the paper mulberry, prepared by steeping, by means of wooden mallets. It constituted the chief article of dress among the Polynesians, and was usually ornamented by painted or stamped patterns. Although still made, the art has declined and the present manufacture is inferior to the ancient fabrics.

Tappan, Benjamin, 1773-1857. U. S. Judge for Ohio 1833; U. S. Senator 1839-15.—His brother, Arthur, 1786-1865, merchant and philanthropist, founded the Journal of Commerce 1828 and the Emancipator 18^3. and was first pres. of the New York and American Antislaverv Societies 1833-34.—His brother and biographer. Lewis, 1788-1873, was associated in these activities, and founded tin? first mercantile agency in the U. S.

Tappan, Henry Philip. D.D.. LL.D., 1805-1881. Prof. Univ. New York 1832-38; Chancellor Univ. Mich. 1*52-63. Doctrine of the Will, 1840-41; Logic. 1844-58.

Tappan, William Bingham, 1794-1849. American sacred poet.

Tapping. Surgical operation performed when it is necessary to evacuate the collecttd fluid of some internal oigan, as in dropsies of the chest and abdomen. A small bavonet-like instrument covered with a tube, called a trochar and cannula, is thrust into the cavity, the trochar withdrawn and the fluid allowed to run out through the tube.

Taprobane. Ancient name of Ceylon.

Tap-Root. One which grows nearly vertically downward and becomes the largest and most important; generally the primary root, as in the Beet.

Taps. Sound of a trumpet or of three taps of a drum given shortly after tattoo as a signal to extinguish lights in camp or in quarters.

Tar. Thick viscid oleoresin, obtained by distillation of pinetrees and used for coating the planks and cordage of ships. It is produced wherever pitch pine grows, chiefly in S. C Va. and Oa. Turpentine, pitch and rosin are manufactured in connection. The oily distillate of tar is called oil of tar.

Tarantass. Russian vehicle, consisting of a seatless boatshaped body on wooden bars, carried on four wheels, and drawn by three horses abreast.

Taranto. Town of s. Italy, on the gulf: anciently Tarentum; founded 708 B.C. from Sparta; long rich and powerful; held by Rome from 272 B.C. At the end of the 10th cent

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Coin of Tarentum.

ury it was rebuilt by Nicephorus and again became a Greek town. It is sheltered by the isles of St. Peter and St. Paul, each having a lighthouse. It trades in olive-oil and shellfish. Pop., 1891, 25.246.

Taranto, Gulf Of. Arm of the Mediterranean, extending into s. Italy.

Tarantula. Large spider, Lycosa tarantula apulice of Europe, fabled to cause tarantism, a mania like St. Vitus' dance; in America any mygalid spider.

Taraxacum. See Dandelion.

Tarbox, Increase Niles. D.D., 1815-1888. Sec. American Education Society 1815-84; author of juvenile and other books.

Tardigrada (arctisca or Macrobiotid^;). Group of Arachnids of small size, aquatic, hermaphrodite, and without respiratory organs or heart. The body is vermiform, and bears a suctorial proboscis and four pairs of clawed, stumpy legs, the 1490

TARDIGRADA—TARTARIC ACID

last pair being at the posterior end of the body. These animals are popularly known as Water-Bears, and require a lowmagnifying microscope to see them. They live on moist moss.

Tardigrada (sloths). See Bradypodid^;.

Tare. See Vetch.

Tare and Tret. Deductions made from gross weight of goods; allowance for the packing. Tarentuni. See Taranto.

Target. Mark to aim at in shooting. They are of different kinds, as, self-marking, swinging, disappearing, and running man target, the latter consisting of a figure running on wires. See Sharpshooter.

Targlllll. Aramaic versions of parts of O. T., credited to Onkelos, Jonathan ben Uzziel, and others, ab.100 and later.

Tarifa. Seaport of s. Spain, 21 m. s. w. of Gibraltar; named from Tarif, leader of Saracens, who landed there 710; taken from the Moors 1292, by them 1340, and by the French 1812. Pop. ab. 13,000.

Tariff Classified list of prices, charges, or rates; more specilically, rates of duty on various articles of importation. The first U. S. Congress passed a tariff act 1789. laying on import duties which averaged ab. 8 per cent. These were slightly increased 1790 and 1792. The tariff of 1816 imposed duties of ab. 25 per cent on some manufactures. In 1824 a new act was passed, raising the duties on metals and products of the soil. The "tariff of abominations." so called by its opponents, was passed 1828, laying duties on raw materials. That of 1832 returned nearly to the rates of 1824. Lower tariffs were enacted 184(i and 1857. The Morrill tariff, with its high protective duties, went into effect 1861: its rates were set still higher 1862 and 1864. Some reductions were made 1883. The McKinley act was passed 1890, strengthening the protective system, but removing the duty on sugar. This was succeeded by the Democratic tariff of 1894. which admitted man}* raw materials free, the most important of which was wool, but laid a duty on sugar: it effected also a slight lowering of the general schedule. The Diugley act, 1897, placed most duties higher than the act of 1894.

Tarir ibn Zeyad, or Abu Zora. Moslem general, gov. of Tangier and n. Africa. He invaded Spain with 10,000 men, landing at Jabal-Tarik, or Gibraltar, anil routed Roderick near Xeres. With Musa he conquered all Spain in less than 3 years, and returned to Damascus 718.

Tarlatan. Variety of thin cotton cloth, made in France and Switzerland.

Tarleton, Sir Banastre, 1754-1833. English major, in America 1776-81; noted in S. C. and N. C. for daring and ferocity, so that his name was a terror to children; victor in many raids and skirmishes; defeated by Sumter Nov. 20. 1780, and by Morgan at Cowpens Jan. 17. 1781; M.P. 1790-1806 and 1807-12; intimate with the Prince of Wales, and habitual critic of Wellington; Lieut.-gen. 1817, Baronet 1818. Campaigns of 1780-81, 1787.

Tarlton, Richard, d.1588. Famous clown.

Taro, Arenaceous plant, Alocasia macrorhiza, of Polynesia, the tops of which are used as pot herbs, and the roots, which contain considerable starch, as food.

Taroeehino. Tarot cards of Bologna; diminutive of tarocchi, any game with tarots. The pack consists of 62 cards, 22 tarots proper, and 40 numerals, the 2, 3, 4, and 5 of each numeral suit being suppressed. This modification of the tarots game was invented at Bologna by Fibbia ab.1420.

Tarots. Kind of European playing cards in which the ordinary numeral suits are supplemented by 22 numbered cards with emblematic devices, which are traced to certain old Italian prints known as the Tarocchi of Mantegna, not, apparently, originally for card games. The earliest of European cards, tarots are still played in Italy, France, and parts of Germany.

Tarpaulin. Cloth or canvas covered with tar or some other substance to make it waterproof.

Tarpeia. Roman maiden, who admitted theSabines to the fortress on the Capitoline hill, of which her father was governor, on condition that she should receive what they bore on their left arms (meaning their gold bracelets), and was crushed under their shields, which they threw upon her. The Tarpeian rock was named from her.

Tarpon. Megalops thrissoides. Large fish reaching a length of 6 ft. and weighing 150 lbs., found off the Florida coast. In spite of its size, it is taken with rod and line, furnishing rare sport, as it is very game and a vigorous leaper.

Tarquinii. See Corneto.

Tarquinius, Lucius Priscus. In Roman legends, king 616-578 B.C.—His son, SUPERBUS, became king 534: slighted

the Senate and oppressed the people; was banished 510, because of rape of Lucretia by his son, and d. at Cumae 495 B.C.

Tarragon. Artemisia dracunculus. Shrub of the Composite family, native of Siberia, cultivated in gardens for flavoring dishes.

Tarragona. Seaport of n.e. Spain, 60 m. w. by s. of Barcelona; anciently Tarraco; founded from Carthage; prominent under Roman rule; taken by the French 1811, by the British 1813. It has some manufactures and a large trade. Pop. ab. 27,300.

Tar River. Rapid river rising in N. C, flowing e.s.e. into Pamlico Sound. Its estuary for ab. 40 m. is called Pamlico River. Length 180 m.

Tarshish. Probably Tartessus in Spain; often mentioned in O. T. as a far distant port.

Tarsia-Work. Inlaying of geometrical figures in wood, practiced in Italy in the 16th century.

Tarsiidre. Family of Prosimim (Lemurs), including but one species, Tarsi us.

Tarsius. Lemur of Sumatra, Borneo, etc., with long jerboa-like hind legs, due to a long calcaneum. It has suction pads on the ends of its fingers and toes, and lives like a tree frog. The tail is long and tufted at the end; its ears and

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muzzle are short. The color is brownish-yellowish gray. The eyes are remarkably large. It feeds on iusects and by night. There are only 2 lower incisors, and the middle upper incisors are developed beyond the others. It is 7 in. long, and shows some close affinities to human structure.

Tarso-Metatarsus. Lower leg of birds, formed by the union of the long metatarsals with the distal row of tarsal bones; usually called the tarsus.

Tarsus. Ancient capital of Cilicia; long the most important city of s.e. Asia Minor; seat of learning and center of commerce; birthplace of St. Paul. Pop. ab.30,000, but much less in summer.

Tarsus. 1. Group of seven bones, forming the ankle joint, articulating with the leg above and the foot below. 2. Cartilage of the eyelid, usually called the tarsal cartilage. Hence the inflammation at the edge of the eyelids is frequently called tarsal ophthalmia.

Tartaglia,NiccoLO Fontana, 1500-1557. Teacher of mathematics in Venice; real author of the solution of cubic equations known as Cardan's Method. A'ora Scienza, 1537; Arithmetic, 1556; On Number, 1560. Works, 1606.

Tartans. Scotch plaid of various patterns, made either of cotton, silk, or worsted, or a combination of two of these. Tartar. See Cream Of Tartar.

Tartar Kinetic. C.H.O.KSbO. White salt, somewhat soluble in water: prepared by boiling a solution of cream of tartar in water with oxide of antimony. It is a tartrate of potassium and antimony. It is used in textile coloring, and in pharmacy: i gr. reduces the pulse; larger doses act as an emetic; 10 grs. act as a poison. Tannic acid, as in tea or oak bark, is an antidote.

Tartaric Aeid. C,H, j (OH);.(COOH),. Dibasic acid, known in four modifications. That found in fruits, in the juice of the grape, etc.. from which it is prepared, is the dextrotartaric acid which rotates polarized light to the right. Laevotartaric acid rotates polarized light to the left. Paratartaric

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tribes of Siberia and w. central Asia. Cossacks, Kirghiz, and Turks are included. The name Tatar is derived from a more easterly tribe, which drove the others w., but it has been erroneously extended to include also such tribes as the Chinese Tartars and the inhabitants of Tartary. The Tatar branch has been admixed on all sides with other Turanian tribes, Finns, Samoyeds, Kalmuks, Mongolians, Magyars, etc. All are nomadic, except the Osmanli or Turks proper. They number a million or more in Russia, and as many in the Caucasus. Nearly all are Mohammedans, but with pagan and tribal customs retained.

Tartarus. In Mythology, abyss far below Hades; in later poets, Hades.

Tartary. Part of Turkestan; name loosely and variously applied, mainly to e. or central Asia.

Tartary, Channel Of. N. arm of Japan Sea, between Saghalien and s.e. Siberia.

Tartini, Guiseppe, 1693-1770. Italian violinist, composer and theoretician. His sonata, Tlie Devil's Trill, has held its place in the repertory of most violinists. He composed it under the inspiration of a dream in which he heard the devil ••play with consummate skill a sonata of such exquisite beauty as surpassed the boldest Bight of imagination."

Tartrazine. CnH,,N,O10S,Na,. Sodium salt of the compound formed by the action of phenvlhvdrazine sulphonic acid upon dihydroxy-tartaric acid (COOH.'C(OH)a.C(OH.)aCOOH); yellow powder, which dyes wool yellow.

Tartuffc. Religious hypocrite and impostor who uses religion as a means of gaining money, covering deceit, and promoting self-indulgences. So named from the chief character of a comedy by Moliere.

Taschcreau,ELZEAR Alexandre, b.1830. Abp. of Quebec 1871; Cardinal 1886.—His relative, Henri Elzear. b.1830. became Judge of the Supreme Court of Quebec 1871. and of that of the Dominion 1876. Criminal Law for Canada, 1874-88.

Tasehereau, Jules Antoine. 1801-1874. Parisian journalist and librarian; editor of Moliere, 1833; biographer of Moliere and Corneille, 1835-39.

Tashkent!. Capital of Russian Turkestan: city of Asiatic Russia, on the Saralka. a branch of the Sir Daria; independent till 1810, then held by Khokand till 1867. It has a large trade and some manufactures. Pop. ab.135.000.

Tasimeter. Instrument invented by Edison which detects changes of temperature by the variation of a current of electricity passing through a disk of soft carbon, fixed between metallic supports and exposed to varying pressure produced by temperature changes.

Tasmaii. Abel Janszoon, ab. 1603-1659. Dutch voyager, discoverer of Tasmania and other islands 1642-43.

Tasmania. Formerly Van Dieman's Land; island s. of Australia, separated from it by Bass Strait, and belonging to Gt. Britain; discovered 1643; settled from Sydney 1803; penal colony 1804-53. Its extreme dimensions are in each direction ab.200 m., and its area 26.215 sq. m. Most of the island is a table-land, averaging 3,000 ft. in height, with nits. 4,000 to 5,000 ft. high in w. part. The products are chiefly agricultural. Gold, silver, copper, tin and cdal are mined. Capital, Hobart Town, on the s. shore. Pop. ab. 155,000.

Tasmania!! Devil (dasyurus 0RSINUS). Bear-like marsupial of Tasmania, ab. the size of a badger. It has a bushy tail, black coat with narrow white throat band, and two small shoulder spots; is nocturnal, carnivorous and untamable. The dentition is J } f j.

Tasinanians. The aborigines of this island in 1800 numbered ab. 7,000, but through wars were rapidly reduced; the last pure blooded native died 1876. They were related to the aborigines of Australia but contained admixture of Negrito blood. In civilization they ranked lower than the Australians, but they were timorous and chaste. Their only manufactures were weapons of bone, wood, and stone, the latter not equal to those made by Neolithic man. The average height was a little over 5 ft.

Tasman Sea. Sea between New Zealand and the islands to the n.w. on the one hand and Australia and Tasmania on the other.

Tasso, Torquato, 1544-1595. Italian poet, ranking next to Dante. His fame rests on Jerusalem Delivered, 1581, tr. by E. Fairfax 1600. and in much less degree on his pastoral drama. Aminta. 1573. and a youthful epic. Hinaldo. 1562. He lived at the court of Ferrara 1572-77, but became the vic tim of morbid delusions, and was confined in a madhouse 1579-86. His last production, Gernsalemme Conquistata, 1593, was unworthy of his genius. Death prevented his being crowned by the Pope.

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His works were collected in 33 vols. 1821-32.—His father, BerNardo, 1493-1569, was an epic and lyric poet of repute in his time.

Tassonl, Alessandro. 1565-1635. Italian poet, essayist, and political writer. Pensieri, 1608-20; Secchia rapita, 1615-32.

Taste, Sensations OF. Changes of consciousness aroused by stimulation of certain specific end organs, situated in the mucous membrane of the tongue and soft palate. The usual classification of tastes is, sweet, bitter, sour, salt, and possibly alkaline and metallic, though the latter two are not so well defined as the other four and may be only modifications of them. The physical condition of taste is that the substance to be tasted be soluble in the fluids of the mouth. The end organs of taste are small modified nerve endings, known as taste-buds, situated on small papilla?, and directly connected with the special nerves of taste. The mucous membrane of the tongue is also sensitive to impressions of touch and temperature, which are apt to be confused with tastes in the case of pungent, astringent, hot, or cold substances. Taste is also

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commonly confused with smell. The so-called flavor of most edible substances is largely smell and not taste.

Tate, Nahum, 1653-1715. Irish dramatist, poet laureate 1692: author, with N. Brady, of the New Version of the Psalms. 1696, long- used in the Ch. of England and in America. This, with its Supplement of a few hymns, 1703, contains his best work.

Tateno Gozo, b.1841. Gov. of Osaka 1880-90; Japanese Minister to the U. S. 1890-94.

Tatliam, William. 1753-1819. Va. author. Inland Canals, 1798; Tobacco, 1800.

Tatian, ab.115-ab.180. Christian apologist, b. in Assyria; disciple of Justin Martyr. His Ad Grazcos svas written in Greek and probably at Rome; his Diutessaron, probably in Syriac, was the first attempt at a harmony of the Gospels, and was much used in Syria. His other works are lost. After 167 he became a Gnostic and returned to the East.

Till in*. Achilles. Alexandrian Greek romancer, probably of 3d century. Leucippe and Cleitophon.

Tatler. Tri-weekly founded and conducted 1709-11 by Sir R. Steele, to which he contributed essays.

Tallinn, Josiah, 1763-1803. U. S. Senator 1796-99; Gov. of Ga. 1800.—His son. Josiah. U.S.N, and C.S.N.. 1795-1871, became Captain 1850, and as Commodore C.S.N, defended the waters of Va. 1861-62 and of Ga. 186:3-65.

Tall a in, Henry, D.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 1788-1868. Archdeacon of Bedford 1844; author of a Coptic grammar and lexicon 1828-35: editor of Coptic versions of Job and the Prophets 1847-52.

Tattersall's. Horse-market in London, chiefly for racers; founded 1766 by Richard Tattersall, 1724-1795.

Tattlers (tell-tales, Sandpipers, etc.). Plover-like birds with slender, straight, stiff, sharp bills and long legs. Yellow Shanks has yellow legs; the Solitary Tattler has blackish ones; the Semipalmated Tattler has its toes webbed at the base.

Tattoo. Sound of the trumpet or the music of the fife and drum at the close of the evening: a signal to the troops to attend roll-call preparatory to going to bed in camp or garrison.

Tattooing. This widespread primitive custom appears to have originated in the desire to lix permanently the various devices painted upon the human skin as family and tribal designations, and for ceremonial and religious purposes. It now exists especially among the natives of the Pacific Islands and s.e. Asia, in S. America, and in n. Africa. Among the black

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Tauclniitz,KARLCHRiSTOPHTRAUGOTT, 1761-1836. Printer at Leipzig 1796; publisher of superior editions of Greek and Latin classics from 1809; introducer of stereotyping 1816; succeeded by his son, Karl C. P., 1798-1884.—His nephew, ChrisTian Bernhard, Baron, 1816-1895, founded 1837 a yet more famous house in Leipzig, and from 1831 pub. ab. 3.000 English books. He was ennobled 1860, and made a Saxon Peer 1877.

Tauler, Johannes, ab.1300-1361. German mystic, Dominican monk, and famous preacher. His sermons were pub. 1498; 25 were tr. 1857.

TanIiay - Alfredo D'escragnolle, b.1843. Brazilian novelist, poet and critic; of French ancestry; Senator 1886.

Taunton. City and capital of Bristol co., Mass., on T. River, 34 m. s. of Boston. Its industries consist largely in iron and steel manufactures. Pop., 1890, 25,448.

Taurecs. See Centetid^e.

Taurine. NHJ.C,H,.HSO!. Amidoethylsulphonic acid; mpt. 240° C; white crystalline compound, soluble in hot water; found in combination in considerable quantities in the bile, kidneys, etc., of oxen and other animals; made by treating chlorethylsulphonic acid with ammonia.

Taurus. See Zodiac.

Taurus Mis. Range of e. Asia Minor, extending from the frontier of Transcaucasia s.w. to the Mediterranean. Greatest height ab. 10.000 ft.

Tausig, Karl. 1841-1871. Polish-German pianist and composer, pupil of Liszt; unsurpassed as a technician.

Taussig, Frank William, b.1859. Prof. Harvard 1887. Tariff Hist. U.S., 1888: Silver Situation, 1892.

Tautog. See Labrid^e.

Tautphwus, Baroness Jemima Von. 1808-1893. English novelist of Irish birth (b. Montgomery), resident in Bavaria. Tlie Initials, 1850; Cyrilla, 1853; Quits, 1857; At Odds, 1863.

Tavern. Public house where both food and drink are sold. See Hotel.

Tavernler, Jacques, ab.1025-1673. French buccaneer, executed at Havana.

Tavernicr, Jean Baptiste. 1605-1689. French traveler in Asia. Six Voyages, 1676, repub. in 7 vols. 1810; Travels in India, tr. 1890. His specialty was precious stones.

Tavsen, Hans. 1494-1561. Leader of the Reformation in Denmark; Bp. of Ribe 1542.

Tawing and Tanning. See Leather.

Tax. Public burden imposed generally on the inhabitants of a community, for governmental purposes; to be distinguished from an assessment for local improvements. It is not a lien on property unless made so by statute. The methods of imposing and collecting, including the sale of personal and real property for delinquent taxes, are regulated by statute.

Taxeopoda. Order of placental Mammals, forming a connecting link between the Bunotheria and the true Ungulates (Diplarthra). The toes are hoofed: the two series of bones in the carpus and tarsus are placed so that each member of the proximal row articulates with but one member of the distal row (a primitive arrangement). The suborders are Condylarthra, Taxodontia, and Hyracoidea.

Taxidermy. Art of preparing and arranging the skins of animals intended for preservation in such a manner as to represent their natural appearance. The skin after its removal is rubbed with some preservative, as arsenious acid alone or mixed with alum, and a framework, with wires running to the different extremities of the body, is inserted. Cotton is then placed around the framework, and wires to fill the skin give therequired shape. Butterflies and other insects are kept in close drawers in which camphor or petroleum is placed to preserve them and keep off moths.

Taxis. When any prolapsed organ, e.g., the bowel in a hernia, is replaced by manipulation without the aid of instruments, the operation is known as taxis.

Taxonomy. Systematic arrangement (classification) of living beings. Its object is to make the general distribution of animals and plants conformable to the order of nature in their production.

Tax Sale. Sale of property of a deli nquent taxpayer, made by authority of law, as a means of collecting or enforcing an unpaid tax. Power to make such sales is statutory.

Tay. River of Perthshire, largest in Scotland; flowing 118 m. e. and s.e. to the North Sea.

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failure was the insufficient bracing of the structure against the action of wind. A new bridge was completed 1887, in length 10,780 ft, costing $3,200,000.

TaygetllR. Mt. range of s. Greece, extending ab. 70 m. s. to Cape Matapan.

Tayler, John James, 1798-1869. Prof. New Coll.. Manchester, 1840, and its head 1853. Religious Life of England, 1845; Faith and Duty, 1851; Fourth Gospel, 1867; Letters, 1872.

Taylor, Alfred. U.S.N.. 1810-1891. Captain 1862, Commodore 1866, Rear-admiral 1872.

Taylor, Alfred Swaine. M.D.. F.R.S., 1806-1880. Prof. Guy's Hospital, London; ed. Medical Gazette. Medical Jurisprudence. 1843-65; Poisons, 1848.

Taylor, Bayard, 1825-1878. American traveler, poet, journalist, and novelist; Minister to Germany 1877. Beginning with Ximena, 1844, and Views Afoot. 1846, he produced many volumes of travel and of verse, and four novels. Hannah Tlinrston. 1863; John Godfrey's Fortunes. 1864; Kennett, 1866; and Joseph and his Friend, 1870. His chief ambition was poetical, and his chief success the translation of Faust, 1870-71. The Masque of the Gods, 1872, and Tlie Echo Club, 1876, though not popular, are more memorable than his longer poems. The Picture of St. John, 1866, Lars, 1873, and The Prophet. 1874.— His wife, Marie (hansen), b.1829. edited and tr. into German several of his works, and with H. E. Scudder wrote his Life, 1884.

Taylor, Benjamin Franklin. LL.D.. 1819-1887. American journalist, lecturer, and poet. Tlieophilus 'Trent, 1887.

Taylor, BROOk, F.R.S., 1685-1731. English mathematician. Methodus Incrementorum Directa et Inversa, 1715; Linear Perspective, 1719.

Taylor, Dan, 1738-1816. English preacher, founder and leader of the General Baptist New Connection 1770.

Taylor, Edward Thompson (" Father Taylor"). 1793-1871. M.E. missionary to sailors in Boston; noted for wit, eloquence, and efficiency.

Taylor,Georoe, 1716-1781. Iron-master near Easton, Pa.; delegate to Congress 1776-77; signer of the Declaration of Independence.

Taylor, Hannis. b.1852. U. S. Minister to Spain 1893. Origin and Growth of English Constitution, 1892.

Taylor, Sir Henry, D.C.L.. 1800-1886. English poet, dramatist, and essayist; clerk in the Colonial Office 1824-72; knighted 1869. Philip van Artevelde, 1834, is his best play. 77ie Statesman, 1836; Notes, 1847-49; Autobiography, 1885; Correspondence. 1888. Works, 5 vols., 1878.

Taylor, Isaac, 1759-1829. Independent minister at Ongar in Essex from 1811; author of some 20 vols.—His daughter, Jane, 1783-1824, wrote Contributions of Q. Q., 1826, and with her sister Ann (mrs. Gilbert), 1782-1866. the long popular Original Poems, 1805, and Hymns for Infant Minds. 1809.— Their brother, Isaac, LL.D., 1787-1865, pub. Natural History of Enthusiasm. 1N29, and of Fanaticism, 1833; Spiritual Despotism. 1835; Physical Theory of Another Life, 1836; Ancient Christianity and the Oxford Tracts, 1839; Wesley and Method

ism. 1851; and other books.—His son, Isaac, LL.D.. b.1829, Canon of York 1885, has pub. Words and Places, 1864; Taylor Family of Ongar, 1867; Greeks and Goths, 1879: The Alphabet, 1883; Origin of the Aryans, 1890.

Taylor. Isidore Severin Justin, Baron, 1789-1879. French writer of books of travel; Senator 1869.

Taylor, James Hudson, b.1832. English missionary in China 18513-60 and since 1866; founder of the Inland Mission 1865.

Taylor, Jeremy. D.D.. 1613-1667. Bp. of Down and Connor 1660; most brilliant of Anglican writers; called by Emerson "the Shakespeare of divines." His Liberty of Prophesying, 1647, is a powerful argument against persecution. More popu

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lar were his Great Exemplar (Life of Christ), 1649, and Holy Liinng and Dying. 1650-51. His few hymns are in Golden Grore, 1655. Ductor Dubitantiiim, 1660, is an immense book on casuistry. His works were collected in 15 vols. 1820-22.

Taylor, John, 1580-1654. English "water" poet. His works were collected 1630 and repub. 1868-78.

Taylor, John, LL.D., 1703-1766. Canon of St. Paul's 1757; editor of Lysias, 1739, and other Greek orators.

Taylor, John, 1750-1826. English hymnist.

Taylor, John, 1808-1887. Mormon apostle 1838; long missionary in Europe; Brigham Young's successor as pres. 1877; indicted for polygamy 1885, and thenceforth in hiding.

Taylor, John Louis, 1769-1829. Judge N. C. Superior Court' 1798; Chief-justice from 1808; reviser of N. C. statutes 1817. Cases, 1802; Reports, 1818; Executors, 1825.

Taylor, John W., 1784-1854. M.C. from N. Y. 1813-33; Speaker 1820-21 and 1825-27.—His nephew, John Orville, 1807-1890, was prof. Univ. New York 1837-52, and a writer on education.

Taylor, Mary Cecilia (mrs. W. O. Ew-en), 1827-1866. American actress.

Taylor, Nathaniel William. D.D.. 1786-1858. Prof. Yale from 1822; author of the "New Haven theology," a mitigated form of Calvinism, which exerted great influence and caused much commotion in New England. Works, 4 vols., 1858-59.

Taylor, Philip Meadows, 1808-1876. English officer, in India 1826-66; author of Confessions of a Thug. 1839; Tara, 1863; Secta, 1873; and other romances. Cromlechs. Cairns. etc., 1853; Hist. India, 1870; Story of my Life, 1877.

Taylor, Richard Cowling. 1789-1851. English geologist, in the U. S. from 1830; surveyor of Pa. coal fields. Fossil Fuel, 1841; Statistics of Coal, 1848.

Taylor, Rowland, LL.D.. d.1555. Martvr of the Reformation; chaplain to Cranmer; Archdeacon of Exeter; burned, after a year's imprisonment.

Taylor, Samuel Harvey, LL.D., 1807-1871. Principal of

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