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obsidian in having less silica in its composition. Obsidian has from 00 to 80 per cent silica; tachylite from 50 to 55.

Tacitu§, Marcus Claudius, 200-276. Roman senator of high character and patriotic aims, supposed descendant of the historian; emperor from Sept. 275.

Tacitus, Publius Cornelius, ab.54-ab.118. Prastor 88, consul suffectus 98, proconsul of Asia ab. 114; author of Dialixjusde Oratoribus, Agricola, Germania, Histories, and Annals. The two latter, which survive only in part, are remarkable for condensed and vigorous style, deep thought, and vehement hatred of tyranny and corruption. After Thucydides he is the first, as he is one of the greatest, of philosophic historians.

Tack, Nautical. Course of a ship with reference to the position of the sails. Starboard tack when the vessel is closehauled with the wind on the starboard side, larboard when on the other.

Tacking. Rule enforced by English (but not by American) courts of equity, that a third or subsequent incumbrancer may buy the first incumbrance and tack his to it, so as to compel intervening incumbrancers to pay both, if they would redeem from the first.

Tacoma. Capital of Pierce co., Wash.; on a bay e. of Pu«;et Sound, 41 m. s. of Seattle; founded 18(58. chartered 1883; of recent growth. It has a fine harbor, a large commerce, especially with Japan, considerable manufactures, and three colleges. Pop., 1890. 36,006, since much increased.—Mt. Tacoma or Rainier near by has a height of 14,440 ft.

Tacon, Miguel, 1777-1855. Spanish officer, b. in Colombia; Gov.-gen. of Cuba 1834-38.

Taconic. Rocks of the Taconic range, chiefly in e. N. Y., and now known to belong to different ages. The term, proposed by Emmons, is passing out of use.

Tactlci. Science of organizing troops in proper formation for the march and for battle, and the art of handling them on the battlefield; called grand tactics when applied to large bodies comprising different arms of the service, and minor tactics when restricted to a single arm or to small bodies. Drill tactics pertains to the different formations of line or column and the methods of passing rapidly from one to the other, and at the same time keeping the troops under the complete control of their commander. The essential principles of all tactical movements are unity of command, concentration, and mobility consistent with the least loss and exposure when under tire. Historically the infantry formations exhibit an improvement in one or more of these essentials. The Greek phalanx of 1,024 files front and 16 ranks deep, comprising 16,384 men, was unwieldy and capable of moving only on selected ground. Greater mobility was obtained by the Roman legion, which was composed of "three lines, each of ten maniples, each maniple having ten ranks deep and twelve files front in the first two lines and six files in the third line, the maniples being arranged in quincunx order to facilitate concentration and to give mobility. The Roman cohort followed, it being formed of ten ranks, each of 50 to 100 men front: the legion was made up of two or three cohorts, with light troops as skirmishers on the flanks. The formations of the early Germans and Franks more nearly resembled that of the phalanx, their troops being massed in large bodies until about the time of Charles Martel. Under Charlemagne cavalry began to assume more prominence, and infantry, then considered of less importance, suffered in its organization until about the commencement of the 12th century. It was then armed with the lance or pike and retained its' depth until the middle of the 16th century, when, owing to a more general use of firearms, its depth gradually decreased from ten ranks to six or even three in the time of Gustavus Adolphus. With the adoption of the bayonet the number of ranks was reduced to four. Marshal Saxe introduced the cadenced and lock step: Frederick the Great adopted the three-rank formation, fully developed the marching and maneuvering power of his infantry, and greatly increased the accuracy and rapidity of musketry fire. In 1810 the English, and also the French and Swiss shortly afterward, adopted the two-rank formation. Other changes, increasing the flexibility of formations and mobility in handling troops, were brought about by introducing the various subdivisions of the army, such as corps, divisions, brigades, regiments, battalions and companies: these permitted the maneuvering of an army in fields which were formerly impossible when the army moved as a whole or by its wings. Battalion tactical units permitted the combinations of deployed lines and columns, giving a rapid extension for fire and mass formation for attack, as frequently exhibited in the Napoleonic wars. The introduction since 1861 of the modern rifled small arm and field gun have brought about fundamental changes in tactical formation for battle, eliminating all deep formations and bringing into prominence the open or skirmish order for the front of attack: the main element of weakness being a loss of unity

and of concentration, and requiring in the individual soldier I much finer qualities than ever before. Taddeo. See Gaddi.

Tadmor. City founded by Solomon as a trading-post in the Syrian desert: later, as Palmyra (q.v.), a city of great wealth and magnificence, seat of Zenobia; now in ruins.

Tadou§ac. Oldest town in Canada, famous as a summer resort, near the confluence of the St. Lawrence and Saguenay Rivers. Pop. of the district 2,400.

Tacl. Chinese monetary unit, equivalent to ab. 1,250 copper cash, or li oz. silver.

Taenia. See Tapeworm.

Taenladae. Family of Cestoda, which includes the Tapeworms. Each worm consists of a small head armed with suckers and hooks, for holding to the wall of the intestine of its host; from this grows out a chain of segments (proglottides), that increase in size toward the posterior end, where the oldest are. Each segment has its own reproductive organs; the eggs begin development before the proglottis is set free. The e<?gs finally may be eaten, with the food of some animal, and the gastric and other juices dissolve the shell and set the larva free. This then burrows into the tissues, becoming encysted, and changed to a sac, in which several tapeworm heads are budded out. This is the cysticercus stage. The flesh of this host being eaten, the scolices are set free as tapeworm heads that fasten on the alimentary canal of the new host. The cysticercus stage in man and domestic animals is also called the Echinococcus. See Tenia Solium and Tapeworm.

Taenia Echinococcug. Tapeworm infesting the dog It has hooks and suckers, but only four segments, the last of which contains mature eggs. The ripe proglottis becomes freed, and new ones take its place successively. The eggs develop in water, and become proscolices in the intestine of any animal (including 1 man) which drinks water containing them. The proscolex then bores into some internal organ and becomes a scolex, about yJiy of an inch in diameter. This has the power to produce other scolices indefinitely, all gifted with a similar power, until Ta,ma echroococcus. the organ becomes infested with a hydatid tumor, that may reach the size of an orange. If the flesh infested with hydatids be eaten by a dog. the scolices become tapeworms. Another tapeworm that infects the dog has its scolex stage in the common louse of the dog. Another species produces hydatids in the brain of sheep, which consequently suffer from staggers.

Taenia Solium. Commonest of Tapeworms infesting man. On its head is a double circle of 26 hooks. The proglottides (joints) are i in. long, i in. broad, and there are ab. 850 of them in a mature worm. The last hundred or so have ripe egps. which are thrown off with the excrement: if swallowed by a pig, they hatch and become encysted in its flesh, causing the pork to be measly. Each cyst "is ab. i in. long. Similar

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cysts may form in man or other animals swallowing the egjrs: sometimes they form in the brain. If some vital nerve cell is disturbed, death results, but otherwise, unless the cysts are very numerous, no serious disturbance may be felt. The measly flesh, when eaten uncooked, gives rise to the mature worm by simple growth from the back part of the head, which constitutes the main part of the cyst. Taeniatae. See Cestid^e.

Taenlodonta. Suborder of Bunotheria. including Eocene Mammals, with Edentata-like molars and Rodent-like inferior incisors, but with the upper incisors faced on both sides with enamel, and growing from persistent pulps.

Taenioglogga. Group of ctenobranchiate Gastropods, in1486

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eluding forms having two small jaws and a long- radula with seven plates in each transverse row of teeth. Some are holostomutous, others are siphonostomatous. Examples of the former are the Winkles (Littorinida), freshwater Snails (PaludinuUx) and Vermetus. To the latter belong Cyprcea, Strombus, Natica, etc. By a different division of the group we have the Chiastoneura (Littorina, Paludina, Vermetus, etc.), and Orthoneura (Natica, Cyprcea, Strombus).

Tneniolae, or T-eniolata. See Scyphomedusje.

Taffeta. Plain silk, of varied quality and color, and sometimes mixed with wool.

TafTrail, or Tafferkl. Upper part of a ship's stern.

Tafl, Alphonso. LL.D., 1810-1891. Jud»e Cincinnati Superior Court 1866-72; U. S. Sec. of War 1876, and Atty.-gen. 1876-77; Minister to Austria 1882, and to Russia 1884-85.

Tag. Child's game, in which one player, known as It, pursues the others and endeavors to catch them. The one caught in turn becomes It and continues the game. There are many varieties, as Cross-tag and Squat-tag. In Japan, Tag is called Oni gokko or "Devil Touching," and It is Oni or Devil. In Corea, it is called Watchman-catching, the pursuer being the Watchman. In Canton the game is played between "soldiers" and "thieves."

Tagala. Most important of the Malay tribes of the Philippine Islands. They are of medium size, with straight black hair, low forehead, large eyes and mouth, flat nose, small hands and feet. The women wear pure white clothing. They are gentle, but love gambling, opium-smoking, and music. They can read and write, and are skilled carvers and weavers. They are closely related to the Formosans, but more civilized.

Taganrog. Seaport of Russia, on the shore of the Gulf of T., an inlet n.e. from the Sea of Azov; founded by Peter I. ab.1720. It has a large export trade. Pop. ab.50,000.

Tagliamento. River in Lombardy, near which Bonaparte defeated the Austrians under Duke Charles, March 16, 1797.

Taglioni, Maria, 1804-1884. Italian dancer, famous through Europe 1822-47; Comtesse de Voisins 1832.—Her father, Filippo, 1777-1871, and brother, Paul, 1808-1884, were noted ballet-masters.

Tagu§. River of Spain, heading in the Castilian Mts., e. of Madrid, and flowing mainly s.w. across Portugal to the Atlantic, near Lisbon. Length 566 m., drainage area 34,000 sq. m.

Tahiti. Chief of the Society Islands: in the Pacific, ab. 2.100 m. n.e. of New Zealand; held bv France. Area 400 sq. m., pop. ab. 10,000.

Tahitian§. Polynesian Malays, celebrated for physical beauty. Morally they stand low. The women are much smaller than the men. The principal weapon is the sling.

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Tahoe, Lake. In the e. foothills of the Sierra Nevada, on the boundary between Cal. and Nevada. Elevation 6,225 ft., area 195 sq. m.

Tahpanhes. Town in Lower Egypt, seat of PharaohHophra, the ruins of whose palace, with the brick pavement (mistranslated kiln) on which Jeremiah propliesied (Jer. xliii. 9) have lately been discovered.

Tail. In Botany, long, slender appendage, as to a seed or achene.

Tailed men. A Devonshire superstition attributes a tail to Cornishiuen. which was referred to divine vengeance upon them for having insulted St. Thomas a Becket. Lord Monboddo argued that a tail was a desideratum. Common report attributed tails to the Niam-niams, and many stories are told of the belief in tailed men in Abyssinia. Among the American Indians there are stories of men once having tails, which they forfeited by some misdemeanor.

Tailings. Material of lowest value, separated from the richer portions of ore in a process of concentration. The tailings from any given stage of a concentration process may be further treated on machines devised for the purpose, or may run to waste.

Taillandier, Rene Gaspard Ernest, or Saint-rene, 18171879. Prof. Montpellier 1843, and Paris 1863; Academician 1873; writer on Germany. Scotus Erigena, 1843; Servia, 1871; Etudes, 1881.

Tailor Bird. Name given to various genera of birds which skillfully construct their nests. They are found in tropical countries. The principal genera are Suthora, Suya, Prinia% Sutoria, and Orthotomus.

Tainan. See Taiwan.

Taine, Hippolyte Adolphe, D.C.L., 1828-1893. Prof, Paris 1864, Academician 1879; historian and critic. Chief among his numerous works are the familiar History of English Literature, 4 vols., 1863-64, tr. 1872-74, and Origines de la France Contemporaine. 5 vols.. 1875-90. Both are monumental works, the result alike of genius and of conscientious industry.

Talping (or Taepino) Rebellion. In China 1850-64. The head of it styled himself the Heavenly Prince, proclaimed a spurious Christianity, and aimed to set up a native dynasty in place of the ruling Manchu. COL. C. G. Gordon (q.v.) was largely instrumental in suppressing the insurrection.

Tait, Archibald Campbell, D.D.. LL.D., 1811-1882. Headmaster of Rugby 1842. succeeding Dr. T. Arnold; Dean of Carlisle 1850, Bp. of London 1856, Abp. of Canterbury 1868; a moderate and judicious primate. Modern Tlieology, 1861.

Tait, Arthur Fitzwilliam, b. 1819. Anglo - American painter. N.A. 1858.

Tait, Lawson, M.D., b.1845. Scottish surgeon. Diseases of Women.

Tait, Peter Guthrie, b.1831. Prof. Belfast 1854, Edinburgh 1860; writer on physics and higher mathematics. Thermodynamics, 1868; Paradoxical Philosophy, 1878.

Taiwan, or Tainan. Capital of Formosa (q.v.) till 1885; 3 m. from w. coast, and connected with the sea by canals; treaty port, with considerable commerce. Pop. ab. 135,000.

Tai-j'lien. Chinese city. ab. 400 m. s.w. of Peking; capital of the Shansi province. It consists of an inner and outer

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TALAVERA DE LA REIKA-TALHIVD

ment arsenal, ponder mills, and cannon foundry. Pop. ab. 200,000.

Talavera de la Reina. Spanish town, on the Tagus, 75 m. s.vv. of Madrid; scene of a French defeat, July 27-28, 1809, by the British and Spanish armies under Wellesley.

Talbot. Breed of dogs, formerly known as St. Hubert, and probably the original stock of the bloodhound.

Talbot, John, 1645-1727. English missionary of the S.P.G., in America 1702-24; rector at Burlington, N. J., 1709-24; doubtfully alleged to have been consecrated by nonjuring bishops 1721.

Talbot, Richard. See Tyrconnel.

Talbot, Silas, U.S.N., 1751-1813. Mass. officer, distinguished in naval encounters 1776-80: prisoner iu England 1780-81; M.C. from N. Y. 1793-95; Captain 1798-1801.

Talbot, Thomas, 1818-1886. Gov. of Mass. 1873-74 and 1878-80.

Talbot, William Henry Fox. 1800-1877. M.P. 1832-34; discoverer of the calotype or talbotype process in photography 1841; decipherer of cuneiform inscriptions from Nineveh. Hermes. 1838-39; Pencil of Nature, 1844-46; Etymologies, 1846. See Photography.

Talbotype. See Talbot, W.

Talc. H,Mg,Si4011. Very soft, white or greenish white, hydrous magnesium silicate, with a greasy feel, that occurs as an essential mineral component in many schistose rocks, and also in independent masses and forms that find extensive use in the arts. A fibrous variety from n. N. Y. has been used in the manufacture of paper: the foliated forms add to the value of some solid lubricants. A coarser and more rock-like variety is known as soapstone or steatite. The latter has been quarried in large quantity in e. Pa. and Vt. for commercial uses.

Talcott, Andrew, 1797-1883. U. S. engineer officer 181836; later employed on rivers, boundary surveys, and railways. —His brother,'george, 1786-1862, was an officer of artillery and ordnance 1813-51.

Talent. See Genius.

Talent. Ancient Greek weight which was applied to silver and gold money, although no single coin could be made of this weight. Thus the Attic talent after Solon was 56 lbs., 15i oz., 14.09 grs. avoirdupois, and was divided into 100 minse. At this time the talent, when used as a commercial weight, was made heavier than the coin talent, equaling over 85 lbs. The talent of .<Egina seems to stand to the Attic in the proportion of 5 to 3. The coinage differs a little from this. The Hebrew talent was, in gold, ab.1,320.000 grs. Troy, twice the weight and ab. 24 times the value of the silver talent.

Talfourd, Sir Thomas Noon, 1795-1854. English dramatist, biographer of Charles Lamb, 1837^8; M.P. 1835^*1 and 1847-49; Judge and Knight 1849. Ion, 1835; Essays, 1842; Vacation Rambles, 1844-46.

Taliaferro, John. 1768-1853. M.C. from Va. 1801-3, 1811-13, 1824-31, and 1835-43.—His relative, "william Booth, b.1822, became Brig.-gen. C.S.A. 1862 and Major-gen. 1865.

Tallc§in. Welsh bard, probably of 12th century. Some of his reputed compositions are extant.

Talipes. See Clubfoot.

Talisman. Engraved charm intended to arrest evil influences; usually cut upon stone or metal, and referring to some planet or star; in a wider sense, all engraved charms, such as those used by the Mohammedans, with Arabic inscriptions. Among the Chinese, a common talisman worn by children bears the seven stars of the Great Bear.

Tallahassee. Capital of Fla. and of Leon co., midway between the Ga. line and Gulf of Mexico. Pop., 1890, 2,934.

Tallahatchie River. In Miss., flowing 250 m. s.s.w., and, uniting with the Yallobusha, forms the Yazoo.

Tallemant des Reaux, Gedeon, ab. 1619-ab. 1692. French author. His Historie.ttes, 376 biographic and anecdotical sketches, were written ab. 1658, and pub. in 6 vols. 1834.

Tallcyrand-Perigord, Charles Angelique, Baron, 1821-1896. French Ambassador at Berlin 1862, and at St. Petersburg 1864; Senator 1869.

Tallcyrand-Perigord, Charles Maurice. Due De, Prince Of Benevento, 1754-1838. Abbot of St. Denis 1775; Bishop of Autun 1788; Deputy to States General 1789. He

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against Napoleon from 1811; was Pres. of Council 1814-15; and Ambassador to England 1830-34. He possessed marvelous penetration of intellect and great duplicity. His Memoirs, 5 vols.. 1889-91, disappointed public expectation.

Tallien, Jean Lambert, 1769-1820. French terrorist, violent at Paris and Bordeaux till converted byMme.de Fontenay, whom he married Dec. 1794; Pres. of Convention March 1794, and chief agent in destroying Kobespierre and his faction July 27; powerful for a time, but soon relegated to obscurity.

Tallls, Thomas, ab.1516-1585. Organist of the Chapel Royal; composer of anthems, Te Deums, etc.; "father of English cathedral music."

Tallmadge, Benjamin, 1754-1835. Major 1777, Colonel 1779; Aid to Washington; especially distinguished for exploits near New York 1779-80: custodian and friend of Andre; M.C. from Conn. 1801-17. Memoirs, 1859.—His son. Frederick AuGustus, 1792-1869, was Recorder of New York 1841-46 and 1849-51, M.C. 1847^9, and Supt. of Police 1857-1862. He suppressed the Astor Place riots May 1849.

Tallmadge, James. LL.D., 1778-1853. M.C. from NY. 1817-19; member of N.Y. Constitutional Conventions 1821 and 1846; Lieut.-gov. 1825-26; pres. American Institute 1831-50.

Tallmadge, Nathaniel Pitcher, 1795-1864. TJ. S. Senator from N. Y. 1833-44; Gov. of Wis. 1844-46.

Tallow. Fat rendered from the fatty tissues of cattle and sheep; known accordingly as beef and mutton tallow. It is used as lubricant and in making soap, candles and oleomargarine.

Tallow-Tree. Stillingia sebifera. Tree of the natural family Euphorbiacecp, native of China; cultivated in warm regions for its fruit, which yields a tallow-like substance.

Talma, Francois Joseph, 1763-1826. Greatest of French tragic actors. His first appearance was in 1787. his first eminent success 1789: in 1791 he founded the Theatre de la R6publiqne. He introduced historically correct costumes, and was most eminent in classic parts.

Talmage, Thomas Dewitt, D.D., b.1832. Pastor Brooklyn Tabernacle 1869-94. where his audiences were immense; author of many volumes of sermons and addresses.

Talmud. Collection of Jewish law not included in the Pentateuch, usually regarded as comprising the Mishna or Midrash and Gemara. Two great collections exist, the Jerusalem and Babylonian, both dating from ab. 2d to 6th century. Numerous editions of both exist, with an enormous body of critical Talmudic literature. The Mishna includes the Mosaic traditions, maintained to have been transmitted orally till the early Christian centuries. The Gemara comprises commentaries and casuistical decisions as to the application of the Mishna.

TALON—TANGENT COMPASS

1487

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a, section of the habitation of the mole; 6, plan of ditto.

have also the Star-nosed Moles with longer tail and a fringe of fleshy processes surrounding the tip of the snout, and the Shrew Moles (Scalops), with elongated snout, short tail, and webbed feet.

Tall i. Pseudonym of the wife of E. Robinson' (q.v.). It is simply the initials of her maiden name, T. A. L. von Iakob.

Tamarack. American Larch. Larix larieina. Large tree of the natural family Pinacece, native of n. N. America; also known as Hackmatack.

Tamarind. Tamarindux indicus. Tall tree of the natural family Leguminoxa;, native of Arabia; naturalized in tropical America; planted for its fleshy pods, which are candied and esteemed as a delicacy.

Tamarigcineae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermai, subclass Dicotyledons, and series Polypetiilce, comprising 0 genera and ab. 45 species, distributed throughout the temperate and warm regions of the n. hemisphere and in s. Africa.

Tamarisk. Tamarix gallica and other species of the natural family Taviariscineae, natives of the Old World; planted for ornament. They are narrow-leaved shrubs with small flowers. Tambora. See Sumbawa. Tambour. Frame upon which material is stretched for embroidering; also the embroidered muslin or other material, the tambouring being performed by a small hook instead of a needle.

Tambourine. Musical instrument consisting of a hoop, on one side of which is stretched a vellum head, the other being open, with metallic clappers placed around it. It is beaten by the hand or shaken. It is probably of Oriental origin. It is much used in Spain. Tamerlane. See Timur-lenk. Tamiathis. See Damietta. nar«.k . Tamil Language. One of the Dravid

(Tamarix gallica): lan group.

a,aflower. Tammany. Political organization in

New York City, founded by Win. Mooney 1789 (ostensibly as a charitable society), as the Columbian Order; incorporated 1805, named from a Delaware chief. Since 1800 it has largely controlled the politics of New York, and often those of the State. The exposures resulting from the defeat of the Tweed Ring in 1871 brought it into discredit, but it was reorganized, and still retains much of its ancient power to control local elections and State legislation. In 1897 it carried the first election in Greater New York by a plurality, and thus obtained control of the city government for four years.

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Boeotia, on the Asopus;

Idol worshiped in Babylon with obscene rites, especially in July; identified by Jerome with Adonis; mentioned by Ezekiel, viii. 14.

Tampa Bay. On w. coast of Florida; length ab. 35 m. The upper part of the bay forms the harbor of the city of T., and is the largest on the Gulf of Mexico. T. has manufactures of cigars and is one of the places of export of Florida phosphates. Pop. 5,500.

Tampon. Any material, as sponge, muslin bandage, etc., used to plug the cavity of an organ to control bleeding after the fashion of a bandage used externally. In view of the possibility of infection, care must be taken to use material that has been made aseptic. The tampon is used chiefly to control otherwise uncontrollable haemorrhage in the uterus and the nose.

Tamsui. City of n. Formosa; seaport open to foreign commerce. Pop. ab. 95.000.

Tanagen. Small conirostral song birds, of bright colors, allied to Finches. There are over 350 species, most of which are S. American, mainly tropical: there are only 5 species in N. America, and but 2 go n. as far as Canada; viz., Piranga erythromelas (rubra), the Scarlet Tanager, and P. rubra ((estiva), the summer Redbird. They feed on beetles and are shy: the latter is rarer than the former in the U. S. The former has the cutting edge of the upper mandible toothed: the male is brilliant scarlet, with black wings and tail. The female is clear olive green above, greenish yellow below, with grayish wings and tail. The latter has mandible not toothed, male rose red, and wings dusky. The female is brownish olive above and dull yellow below.

Tunagra. Ancient city of e. scene of a Spartan victory over Athenians 457 B.C. Here were discovered 1873 many figurines, terracotta statuettes, mostly of women, ht. 6 to 9 in. They are probably from tombs.

Tanai*. Ancient name for the river Don (q.v.).

Tananarivo. See AntananaRivo.

Tancred. 1. 1078-1112. Sicilian, prominent in the first Crusade; notable for valor, wisdom, and generosity; became Prince of Tiberias 1100. and of Edessa 1112; celebrated by Tasso. 2. King of Sicily 1190, d; 1194.

Tandem Engine. Horizontal compound engine in which the pistons of high and low pressure cylinders are on the same rod, and one in front of the other. It is the Steeple Engine (q.v.) on its side.

Tandy, James Napper, 1740-1803. Irish revolutionist, in exile 1793-98; tried for treason 1800; sentenced to death 1801, but allowed to escape.

Taney, Roger Brooke. LL.D.. 1777-1804. Laywer of Md.; U. S. Atty.-gen. 1831; Sec. Treas. 1833. Pres. Jackson directed the removal of government deposits from the U. S. Bank to selected local banks, and Taney gave the necessary order, whereon the Senate refused 1835 to conlirm him as Associate Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court. He succeeded Marshall, March 1836, as Chief-justice. The most conspicuous incidents of his career in this great position were the Dred SCOTT (q.v.) decision 1857, and his effort to maintain the writ of habeas corpus against Pres. Lincoln's suspension of it 1861. Though a man of great learning and high integrity, he was long regarded in the North as a tool of tyranny and of the slave power.

Tanganyika. Lake of e. central Africa, in lat. 3°-9°S.; 420 m. long (n. to s.). and 10 to 60 wide; elevation 2.756 ft.; drained by the headwaters of the Congo; discovered by Speke and Burton 1858, explored 1871-76.

Tangent, Geometrical. Limiting position of the secant. That to any locus has one element in common with that locus, and at this element the same direction.

Tangent, Trigonometrical. Ratio of the ordinate of any point on the terminal line of an angle (the initial line being the axis of X) to the abscissa of that point.

Tangent Compass. See Galvanometer.

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Terracotta Figure from Tanayra.

1488

TANGENT SCREW—TANTALUS' CUP

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Tangier from the Market-place.

dowry of the Queen of Charles II.. and held till Feb. 1684. Outside of the town are the ruins of a Roman bridge and ab. 3 m. s.e. are the remains of ancient Tingis. Pop. ab. 25,000.

Tangle, Blue. In N. America, Gaylussacia frondosa, one of the Huckleberries.

Tangle, or Sea Tangle. Different varieties of sea-weeds, especially Laminaria digitata. It is used for food; in making iodine, and as uterine probes. That growing in N. America has been found unfit for the last purpose.

Tanhiiuser. See Tannhauser.

Tunis. See Zoan.

Tanjorc. Town of s. India, 180 m. s.s.w. of Madras. It has an old palace, a large temple or Pagoda (q.v.), and manufactures of silks, carpets, jewelry, and copper utensils. Pop., 1891. 54,060.

Tank Worm. Larval form of the Guinea Worm (q.v.), found in the E. Indian fresh waters.

Tannahlll, Robert, 1774-1810. Scottish lyric poet.

Tanner, Benjamin. 1775-1848. American engraver.—His brother, Henry S., 1786-1858, pub. many maps and atlases.

Tanner, Henry S., M.D , b. ab.1830. Subject of a noted experiment in fasting, in New York, June 28-Aug. 7, 1880.

Tanner, Thomas, D.D.. 1674-1735. Archdeacon of Norwich 1710. Bp. of St. Asaph 1732; ed. Wood's Athena*, Oxanienses, 1721. Notitia Monastica, 1695-1744; Bibliotheca BritannieoHibernica, 1748.

Tannhauser, or Tanhauser. Bavarian knight and minnesinger; describedin German legend asdwelling in the Venusberg, and then seeking pardon from the Pope; celebrated by Wagner in opera.

Tannic Acid, or Tannin. C„h,0os.2h,o. Numerous tannins of this composition exist in nature. The common tannin of the nut-galls, sumach, etc., is an amorphous mass, of astringent taste, soluble in water. Boiled with water it furnishes gallic acid, with ferric salts a dark-blue tannate of iron, and with gelatin an insoluble gelatinous precipitate. The latter property causes its use in tanning to convert the hide into an insoluble compound, Leather (q.v.). The tannic acids from other sources have like properties.

Tanning. See Leather.

Tansn. River of w. India, which supplies water to Bombay by an immense dam, completed 1892. 2 m. long, 118 ft. high, area ab. 8 sq. m., and supplies 100.000,000 gals, per day.

TaiiMllo, Luioi, 1510-1568. Italian poet.

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Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare).

Tansy. Tanacetum vulgare. Bitter, yellow-flowered herb of the Composite family, native of Europe; cultivated and introduced into America. It is a tonic. Cakes and puddings flavored with the leaves were formerly eaten in England at Easter, representing the bitter herbs at the Paschal feast.

Tantalates. Derived from the metatantalic acid HTaO, and from the hexa-acid H,Ta,0„.

Tanlalic Acid. HTaO,. Gelatinous mass, obtained by mixing the chloride with water: soluble in potassium binoxalate and hydrofluoric acid.

Tantalite. (Fe.Mn/Ta^O,. Mineral compound of iron, manganese, and tantalum, closely related to Columbite (q.v.), a compound of iron, manganese, and niobium. In nature these two compounds frequently occur together, and, being isomorphous, are often combined in the same individual crystal. Large masses have been found in the Black Hills region of S. Dakota.

Tantalum. Ta. At. wt. 182.6. sp. gr. 10.6, valence IV. V.; discovered by Hatchett 1801; rare metal, occurring in the minerals columbite and tantalite. It is prepared by fusing potassium fluotantalate with potassium. This gives a black powder which takes fire when gently heated. It is soluble only in hydrofluoric acid.

Tantalum Pentabromide. TaBr6. Volatile substance similar to Tantalum Pentachloride (q.v.); made by treating a strongly heated mixture of the pentoxide and carbon with bromine vapor.

Tantalum Pentachloride. TaClt. Yellow needles or prisms, made by heating a mixture of the pentoxide and carbon in chlorine. It decomposes in the air to form tantalic acid. Compounds of tantalum and the other halogens are known; similar in composition and properties to the pentachloride.

Tantalum Pentafluoride. TaFl5. Known only in solution; made by dissolving the pentoxide in hydrofluoric acid.

Tantalum Pentoxide. Ta,Ois. White amorphous powder, which becomes crystalline on heating. It does not dissolve in any acid.

Tantalum Tctrasulphide. Ta,S4. Lustrous, brassyellow substance, not attacked by hydrochloric acid; made by heating the pentoxide in carbon disulphide vapor.

Tantalum Tetroxlde. Ta,04. Porous grayish mass, made by heating the pentoxide in a carbon crucible in the blast furnace. It is not attacked by any acids,

Tantalus. Phrygian king, who for variously stated offenses was placed in a lake whose waters eluded his lips. Over his head hung branches of fruit which he could not reach, and a huge rock which menaced his safety.

Tantalus' Cup. If a siphon be placed in a cup, the longer leg passing water-tight through the bottom and the shorter

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