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highest rock, which is said to have been built by religious penances.

Synecdoche. Figure of speech which puts a part for the whole, a species for its genus, or the reverse, as "a sail" for "ship," or "Boston" for some of its inhabitants.

Synentognathl. See Anacanthini.

Synergism. Modification of Luther's doctrine by Melanchthon, making man a coworker with God in redemption. It was opposed by Flacius, and caused much commotion at Jena and elsewhere.

Synesius, ab.375-414. African Neoplatonist, friend and correspondent of Hypatia; Bp. of Ptolemais in Cyrene 410; remarkable for liberal opinions, wide culture, and iofty independence; author of hymns, orations, and letters, collected 1558 and often reprinted; celebrated by Kingsley in Hypatia.

Syngenesla. Linnaean class of plants, distinguished by having the anthers united into a tube or ring, as in the composite flowers (natural family Composite).

Syngenesious. Stamens whose anthers are united into a ring or tube about the style, as in Composite.

Syngenesis. Theory that each egg contains in miniature the organism which is to develop from it, and this in turn the germs and homunculi that are to come from it. Thus Eve must have had in her all the members of the human race (for all time) telescoped one within the other, in successive generations.

Syngeneticae. Order of unicellular, colonial, fresh water Algas of the subclass Phmophyeem.

Syngeothernial. Lines joining places at which the temperature of the earth near the surface is the same at a given hour of Greenwich time; epithet applied by Hennessey 1867.

Syngnathous. See Lophobranchii.

Synod. Any larger church-council; especially, a Presbyterian assembly, including several presbyteries.

Synod, Holy. Governing body of Russo-Greek Ch., replacing the old Patriarchate of Moscow. It has 12 members, appointed by the Czar.

Synodic Period. Interval between two conjunctions of a pianet with the sun, as seen from the earth.

Synod of Dort. See Dort, Synod Of.

Synonym. In Botany, more recent or otherwise untenable generic or specific name which has given place to the original or earliest tenable one.

Synonym*. Words of nearly equivalent signification, but usually with some slight difference of shade: therefore important in literary use. The chief collections of them in English are those of Oabbe and Roget.

Synoptic Charts, or Weather Charts. Maps on which are displayed the meteorological conditions simultaneously prevailing over large regions. In Europe, they usually obtain for a certain hour of local time; in America, they are strictly simultaneous on standard time.

Synpelmous. Arrangement of the flexor tendons in a bird's foot, in which the tendon of the hallux unites with the common tendon of the other toes.

Synpetalous. See Gamopetalous.

Synsepalous. See Gamosepalous.

Syntax. Division of grammar (so called) treating of the arrangement of words and construction of sentences.

Synthermal. Lines connecting places throughout the world having the same average temperature at the same hour of Greenwich time; epithet introduced by Hennessy, H. (q.v.), 1867.

Synthesis. Process and method; as process, the psychological combination of different elements of consciousness to form a complex whole; as method in philosophy, the complement of Analysis (q.v.). representing the formation of a unified system of beliefs by articulating them in a systematic whole.

Synthesis, Chemical. Process by which a compound is made from its constituent elements.

Synthetic Type. Organism which connects, as a link, other organisms, because the separate characteristics of the latter are present in the one animal. Certain fossils have both bird and reptilian characters. As these appeared geologically at the beginning of the period when Reptiles and

Birds (Sauropsida) first appeared, we may suppose that such forms retain most nearly the characters of the common ancestors of Birds and Reptiles.

Syphax. See Masinissa.

Sypher, JOSIAH Rhinehart, b.1832. Journalist and lawyer in Pa. Hist. Pa., 1868.

Syphilis. Specific disease of slow evolution, propagated by inoculation (acquired), or by hereditary transmission (congenital). In the acquired form the site of inoculation becomes the seat of the special tissue change (primary lesion); after an interval of 2 or 3 months, constitutional symptoms develop with affection of the skin and mucous membranes (secondary lesion); and, finally, after a period of 3or4 years growths develop in the viscera, muscles, bones or skin (tertiary lesion). It is a disease of social impurity, and because of its contagiousness can be conveyed to the innocent. It probably causes more suffering and discomfort than any other single disease. This is an ancient disease, with the Chinese dating back to 2637 B.C., and is claimed to have existed among the ancient Greeks. In 1494 it appeared in the army of Charles VIII. of France, then besieging Naples, and later was prevalent in Europe.

Syra. One of the Cyclades: area 43 sq. m. Its central position in the ^Egean makes it an important calling-place

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of vessels in the Levant. It is the seat of a Greek Abp. and of a R. C. bishop. Its capital, Syra, or Hermonpolis, has some commercial importance. Pop., 1890, 22,104.

Syracuse. Chief city of ancient Sicily; on s.e. coast; founded ab.734 B.C. from Corinth; ruled by Gelo 484, Hiero 478-467, Dionysius 405-367, and other tyrants; attacked by an Athenian expedition 415. which was destroyed 413. ending the Peloponnesian war and the supremacy of Athens; besieged 396 by Carthaginians, who were routed by a pestilence; freed by the hero Timoleon, liberator of Sicilv, 343; ruled by Agathocles 317-289, and Hiero II. 270-216, the latter being in alliance with Rome; besieged by Romans 214 (see ARCHIMEDES); taken and sacked 212 B.C.; pillaged and burned by Saracens 878; rebuilt in later times on Ortygia, a peninsula (once an island), its first site. Its coinage of ab.300 B.C. is the most beautiful known; its remains of antiquity are important. Pop. ab.25,000.

Syracuse. Capital of Onondaga co., N. Y.; on Onondaga Lake, in a salt-producing region; settled 1797; chartered 1826 and 1847. Its industries relate chiefly to salt and soda-ash manufacture. Pop., 1890, 88,143.

Syracuse University. At Syracuse, N. Y.: known as Genesee Coll. and located at Lima, N. Y., until 1871; founded 1848; coeducational; under Methodist control; organized in four colleges of liberal and fine arts, medicine, and law. It has 1,135 students, of whom 474 are in the liberal, and 516 in fine arts, with 89 instructors and a library of 47,000 vols., including Von Ranke's collection.

Syr-Darya. River of Turkestan, rising near the Chinese border and flowing w. and n.w. to the Aral Sea. Length ab. 1.300 m., drainage area 120.000sq. m. As the ancient Jaxartes, described by Herodotus and Strabo, its outlet was into the Caspian.

Syria. Region of w. Asia, e. of Palestine; anciently occupied by Semites; long an independent kingdom, then (ab.740 B.C.) a province of Assyria, as later of Babylonia and Persia; conquered by Alexander 333 B.C.; ruled by the Seleucidse 301-64 B.C., and then a Roman province till 636; thenceforth held by Mohammedans, and in part by Crusaders 1099-1291; subject to Egypt till 1516 and 1832-41; now part of the Turkish empire.

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Antioch was its capital from ab.290 B.C., and Damascus 654752, as in Hebrew times.

Syriac. See Semitic Languages and Aramaic.

Syriac Literature. This is mostly theological writings of the Syriac Church, dating from early Christianity, flourishing from 4th to 10th centuries and declining in the 13th century. Poetry and history were much written, the latter and philosophy being often written in verse. There were many translations from the Greek. The most learned writer was Abulfaragius (q.v.).

Syrian Rite. Of R. C. Ch.; comprising United Syrians, Chaldeans, Maronites, and United St. Thomas Christians. They use a Syrian ritual, not the Latin.

Syrlllga. Showy, white-flowered shrubs of the genus Philadelphus, natural family Saxifragacece, natives of N. America. See Lilac.

Syrinx. Vocal organ of birds, situated at the point where the trachea divides into the two bronchi. The walls are modifled into tympanic membranes, and membranous septa, like vocal cords, are stretched interiorly across the openings of the tubes, so they can vibrate in the passing air current.

Syrinx. Pan's pipe or shepherd's pipe of the ancients; as such a precursor of the modern organ. It consisted of a series of cane tubes of various lengths, fastened side by side and sounded by blowing across their open ends, as boys whistle on keys.

Syrphus Files. Small two-winged flies whose larvae, colored greenish to gray, are of service in that they feed on plant lice. Syrtls. See Syrtis Major. Syrtis Major, or Gulf Of Sidra. On n. coast of Africa, between Tripoli and Barca. Syrtis Minor, or Gulf of Cubes, projects into the coast of Tunis. Both are dangerous from quicksands.

Syrup. Boiled saturated water solution of sugar, with addition of fruit juices or other flavoring substances, as vanilla-bean, ginger or sarsaparilla, and drank with addition of water or soda water. For the latter saponin or egg white is added to produce foaming. Medicinal syrups contain remedial agents dissolved in simple syrup. The term is also applied to MoLasses (q.v.). Syrus, Epbrem. See Ephrem. Syrus, Publilius, 1st cent. B.C. Roman comic playwright. Some of his Mimi Sententice survive. System. In Botany, group of the parts of an organism of the same morphological significance or physiological function.

System, In Geology. See International Congress.

System, Artificial or Linn^ean. Classification of plants according to an arbitrary rule; as Natural System, that of Jussieu, is according to their relationship.

Systematic Botany. Branch treating of the classification of plants.

Systems of Artillery. The character and arrangement of the material of artillery adopted by a nation at a particular epoch. About the middle of the 16th century France first

frouped her artillery into a system having six different caliers, varying from 33± pound shot to i of a pound shot, each requiring a different carriage without interchnngeable parts; also requiring three different sizes of powder grains. A second system, equally varied in its components, was adopted in the reign of Louis 3CIV. Valiere's system, adopted in 1732, brought about some uniformity in guns, but not in carriages. Gribeauval in 1765 separated the field and siege artillery, makiDg the former simpler and more mobile by improving the carriages; he introduced cartridges, elevating scales, and tangent screws for more rapid and correct firing. This last system was used in the wars of the French Republic and the Empire. In 1827 the stock-trail system was engrafted upon the Gribeauval and other improvements introduced. It was brought to this coun


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try by Captain Daniel Tyler, an officer of the U. S. artillery, and was made the basis of the American system, used in tfie Mexican war and in the Rebellion. In 1850 the 12-pounder bronze gun, firing shot and shell, was introduced by Louis Napoleon, and soon found its way into the services of all nations. Since 1870 the smooth-bores have been replaced by breecliloading rifled guns, so that at present the light artillery or field service systems possess the greatest mobility, simplicity and power they have ever attained. Equally valuable improvements have been made in the siege and se:icoast systems, in which uniformity, simplicity, and efficiency have been tlip qualities sought.

Systems of Fortification. The form of the general outline of the main work in permanent fortification military engineers have classified under four heads, or systems of fortification; viz., (1) the Circular or Curvilinear; (2) the Polygonal or Caponiere; (3) the Tenailled; and (4) the Bastioned. The method of fortification is applied to the manner adopted by a nation in fortifying its strategical points, as the German Method (Antwerp); or to those devised by distinguished military engineers, as, Vauban, Cormontaigne, etc. The former belong to the Polygonal system and the latter to the Bastioned.

Systyle. Intercolumniation in which the distance between the columns is equal to their diameter.

Syzygy. Duplex organism formed by external union of the bodies of two individuals that were previously separate, as in many Gregarines and in the worm Diplozoon. Except in the latter, this union is not apparently for sexual purposes; it resembles rather the Plasmodium, and may secure the advantage that underlies the phenomena of colony-formation among animals, which is usually secured by retaining the primitive connection existing in asexual multiplication.

Syzygy OF The Moon. Its conjunction or opposition with the sun.

Szabad, Emeric. b. ab.1822. Hungarian soldier, in U. S. 1861-65. Hungary, 1854; Policy of Europe, 1857; Modern War. 1863.

Szabadka. Town of Hungary, 105 m. s.s.e. of Pesth; in a farming region, with a good trade. Pop., 1890, 73,526.

Szalay, Laszlo, 1813-1864. Hungarian biographer, historian, and political writer, in exile 1849-61.

Szarvas, Gabriel. 1831-1895. Hungarian philologist; ed. Nyelvor from 1872.

Szeclicnyl, Istvan. Count, 1792-1860. Hungarian reformer and Minister of State.

Szegedlll. Town of Hungary, on the Theiss, opposite the mouth of the Maros; held by Turks 1526-1686; scene of an Au

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Taafe, Eduard, Count, 1833-1895. Austrian Prime Minister 1869 and 1879-93.

Tabard. 1. Sleeveless cloak worn by mediaeval knights over armor. 2. Official garment of heralds.

Tabari, 838-922. Moslem of Bagdad; commentator on the Koran. His Annals run from the creation to his time.

Tabasheer. Siliceous substance, of low specific gravity, secreted in the joints of the bamboo, Bambusa vulgaris.

Tabb, John B., b.1845. Prof. St. Charles Coll., Ellicott City. Md., since 1884. Poems, 1894; Lyrics, 1896.

Tabernacle. Portable sanctuary of the Israelites, in the wilderness and in Palestine, on the model of which the Temple was built ab.1000 B.C. (see Holy Place and Most Holy Place). It was made of acacia-wood, overlaid with gold, and protected by ample coverings of cloth and of seal or badger skins. The term is also applied to niches for images and sepulchral monuments, surmounted with rich canopy work.

Tabernacles, Feast Op. One of the 3 great Jewish feasts, lasting a week in Sept. or Oct., during which the people dwelt in booths, and gave themselves up to rejoicing over the ingathering of the fruits. See Passover and Pentecost.

Tabes Dorsalis. See Locomotor Ataxia.

Tableaux Ylvnnts. "Living pictures"; introduced in France ab.1785; since familiar in England and America.

Table-Lands. Elevated plains, as in central Asia, w. U. S., and Spain. See Plateau.

Tables. Backgammon, played by two persons with men or pieces, according to the throws with two dice, upon a board divided vertically into two parts, and having 24 points. A variety of games were played upon this board or "tables," the origin of which may be traced to classical antiquity.

Tablet. In Pharmacy, a cylindrical or disk-shaped body formed from powdered drugs. The tablet may be composed of the drug without admixture, or it may be triturated with some inert substance, as sugar of milk; it may be caused to adhere by compression or by making a paste of the powder by mixing with a volatile liquid. This paste is filled into molds and removed. The liquid forming the paste volatilizes, leaving the triturate.

Table Turning. Phenomenon much talked of in U. S. and England ab.1850; credited to spirits, but probably caused by unconscious muscular action of hands clasped around or resting on the table.

Table}-, John Byrne Leicester Warren De, Baron, 18391895. English poet.

Taboo. Edict by a chief among Pacific Island tribes, declaring certain acts unlawful; e.g., during a stated period certain trees, animals, crops, etc., are sacred and must not be touched or destroyed. It resembles the close season for game, etc., among civilized peoples. The penalty for violation of a taboo is death. This is supposed to explain the killing of Capt. Cook at the Hawaiian Islands.

Tabor. Instrument between drum and tambourine; associated with the fife.

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memorates this event. Scene of Bonaparte's victory over the Turks, April 16, 1799. Altitude ab. 1,000 ft.

Tabor, Horace Austin Warner, b.1830. Capitalist; Lieut.-gov. of Colorado 1878-84; U. S. Senator Feb.-March 1884.

Tabor College. Founded by Congregationalists as an academy at Tabor. Ia., 1854; chartered 1866. It has 13 instructors and ab. 230 students.

Taborites. Bohemian adherents of Huss, who took up arms ab.1420, led by ZlSKA (q.v.); so called from their stronghold Mt. Tabor; opposed to the Calixtines or moderate reformers, with whom, after the defeat of their common foes, they waged a mutually destructive war.

Tabriz. Ancient city of n.w. Persia, ab.300 an Armenian capital; injured by several earthquakes and Turkish attacks; of some commercial importance. Pop. ab. 175,000.

Tabulae. Horizontal partitions in the thecal of some corals.

Tabular Spar. See Wollastonite.
Tabular Standard. See Multiple Standard.
Tabulata. See Madreporaria.

-Tabulate Corals. Those having horizontal plates in the thecae, and weak septa; not a natural group. See HelioPorid^e.

Tbc, Sixtds Le, 1649-1699. French missionary in Canada from 1676. Hist. Nouvelle France, pub. 1888.

Taealiout. Nutgall growing on the tamarisk in India and Barbary; source of gallic acid.

Taeamabac See Poplar.

Taccaeese. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermm and subclass Monocotyledons, comprising 2 genera ana ab. 10 species, natives of the tropical lands of both hemispheres.

Tacbe, Sir Etienne Pascal, 1795-1865. Canadian official and author, knighted 1858.—His nephew, Joseph Charles, b. 1820, pub. Esquisse sur le Canada, 1855, and other books.—His brother, Alexander Antoine, 1823-1894, became Bp. of St. Boniface (Winnipeg) 1853, and Abp. 1871.

Tachbydrite. CaMg,CI,-r-12aq. Extremely soluble hydrous magnesium calcium chloride, found associated with rock salt at Stassfurt.

Tachometer. Speed indicator. Special forms are adapted for measuring variations in the velocity of revolution of machines. A small cistern of mercury, from the center of which rises tube partly full, is fixed concentric with the re

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volving part. As the centrifugal tendency depresses the middle part of the mercury in the cistern, the column in the tube will fall and the tube may be empirically graduated to indicate any speed within certain limits.

Tachycardia. Excessively rapid heart action, due to various causes: nervous excitement, violent exertion, a weakening of the inhibitory nerves of the heart from pressure by tumor, or other cause. A very rare form is known as paroxysmal tachycardia, and is characterized by spells of rapid beating, sometimes at the rate of 200 or more beats in a minute. The attacks may follow each other at regular intervals, lasting in some instances but an hour or so.

Tachygraphy. See Shorthand.

Tachj lite. Rapidly cooled Basalt (q.v.), differing from

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obsidian in having less silica in its composition. Obsidian has from 00 to 80 per cent silica; tachylite from 50 to 55.

Tacitu§, Marcus Claudius, 200-276. Roman senator of high character and patriotic aims, supposed descendant of the historian; emperor from Sept. 275.

Tacitus, Publius Cornelius, ab.54-ab.118. Prastor 88, consul suffectus 98, proconsul of Asia ab. 114; author of Dialixjusde Oratoribus, Agricola, Germania, Histories, and Annals. The two latter, which survive only in part, are remarkable for condensed and vigorous style, deep thought, and vehement hatred of tyranny and corruption. After Thucydides he is the first, as he is one of the greatest, of philosophic historians.

Tack, Nautical. Course of a ship with reference to the position of the sails. Starboard tack when the vessel is closehauled with the wind on the starboard side, larboard when on the other.

Tacking. Rule enforced by English (but not by American) courts of equity, that a third or subsequent incumbrancer may buy the first incumbrance and tack his to it, so as to compel intervening incumbrancers to pay both, if they would redeem from the first.

Tacoma. Capital of Pierce co., Wash.; on a bay e. of Pu«;et Sound, 41 m. s. of Seattle; founded 18(58. chartered 1883; of recent growth. It has a fine harbor, a large commerce, especially with Japan, considerable manufactures, and three colleges. Pop., 1890. 36,006, since much increased.—Mt. Tacoma or Rainier near by has a height of 14,440 ft.

Tacon, Miguel, 1777-1855. Spanish officer, b. in Colombia; Gov.-gen. of Cuba 1834-38.

Taconic. Rocks of the Taconic range, chiefly in e. N. Y., and now known to belong to different ages. The term, proposed by Emmons, is passing out of use.

Tactlci. Science of organizing troops in proper formation for the march and for battle, and the art of handling them on the battlefield; called grand tactics when applied to large bodies comprising different arms of the service, and minor tactics when restricted to a single arm or to small bodies. Drill tactics pertains to the different formations of line or column and the methods of passing rapidly from one to the other, and at the same time keeping the troops under the complete control of their commander. The essential principles of all tactical movements are unity of command, concentration, and mobility consistent with the least loss and exposure when under tire. Historically the infantry formations exhibit an improvement in one or more of these essentials. The Greek phalanx of 1,024 files front and 16 ranks deep, comprising 16,384 men, was unwieldy and capable of moving only on selected ground. Greater mobility was obtained by the Roman legion, which was composed of "three lines, each of ten maniples, each maniple having ten ranks deep and twelve files front in the first two lines and six files in the third line, the maniples being arranged in quincunx order to facilitate concentration and to give mobility. The Roman cohort followed, it being formed of ten ranks, each of 50 to 100 men front: the legion was made up of two or three cohorts, with light troops as skirmishers on the flanks. The formations of the early Germans and Franks more nearly resembled that of the phalanx, their troops being massed in large bodies until about the time of Charles Martel. Under Charlemagne cavalry began to assume more prominence, and infantry, then considered of less importance, suffered in its organization until about the commencement of the 12th century. It was then armed with the lance or pike and retained its' depth until the middle of the 16th century, when, owing to a more general use of firearms, its depth gradually decreased from ten ranks to six or even three in the time of Gustavus Adolphus. With the adoption of the bayonet the number of ranks was reduced to four. Marshal Saxe introduced the cadenced and lock step: Frederick the Great adopted the three-rank formation, fully developed the marching and maneuvering power of his infantry, and greatly increased the accuracy and rapidity of musketry fire. In 1810 the English, and also the French and Swiss shortly afterward, adopted the two-rank formation. Other changes, increasing the flexibility of formations and mobility in handling troops, were brought about by introducing the various subdivisions of the army, such as corps, divisions, brigades, regiments, battalions and companies: these permitted the maneuvering of an army in fields which were formerly impossible when the army moved as a whole or by its wings. Battalion tactical units permitted the combinations of deployed lines and columns, giving a rapid extension for fire and mass formation for attack, as frequently exhibited in the Napoleonic wars. The introduction since 1861 of the modern rifled small arm and field gun have brought about fundamental changes in tactical formation for battle, eliminating all deep formations and bringing into prominence the open or skirmish order for the front of attack: the main element of weakness being a loss of unity

and of concentration, and requiring in the individual soldier I much finer qualities than ever before. Taddeo. See Gaddi.

Tadmor. City founded by Solomon as a trading-post in the Syrian desert: later, as Palmyra (q.v.), a city of great wealth and magnificence, seat of Zenobia; now in ruins.

Tadou§ac. Oldest town in Canada, famous as a summer resort, near the confluence of the St. Lawrence and Saguenay Rivers. Pop. of the district 2,400.

Tacl. Chinese monetary unit, equivalent to ab. 1,250 copper cash, or li oz. silver.

Taenia. See Tapeworm.

Taenladae. Family of Cestoda, which includes the Tapeworms. Each worm consists of a small head armed with suckers and hooks, for holding to the wall of the intestine of its host; from this grows out a chain of segments (proglottides), that increase in size toward the posterior end, where the oldest are. Each segment has its own reproductive organs; the eggs begin development before the proglottis is set free. The e<?gs finally may be eaten, with the food of some animal, and the gastric and other juices dissolve the shell and set the larva free. This then burrows into the tissues, becoming encysted, and changed to a sac, in which several tapeworm heads are budded out. This is the cysticercus stage. The flesh of this host being eaten, the scolices are set free as tapeworm heads that fasten on the alimentary canal of the new host. The cysticercus stage in man and domestic animals is also called the Echinococcus. See Tenia Solium and Tapeworm.

Taenia Echinococcug. Tapeworm infesting the dog It has hooks and suckers, but only four segments, the last of which contains mature eggs. The ripe proglottis becomes freed, and new ones take its place successively. The eggs develop in water, and become proscolices in the intestine of any animal (including 1 man) which drinks water containing them. The proscolex then bores into some internal organ and becomes a scolex, about yJiy of an inch in diameter. This has the power to produce other scolices indefinitely, all gifted with a similar power, until Ta,ma echroococcus. the organ becomes infested with a hydatid tumor, that may reach the size of an orange. If the flesh infested with hydatids be eaten by a dog. the scolices become tapeworms. Another tapeworm that infects the dog has its scolex stage in the common louse of the dog. Another species produces hydatids in the brain of sheep, which consequently suffer from staggers.

Taenia Solium. Commonest of Tapeworms infesting man. On its head is a double circle of 26 hooks. The proglottides (joints) are i in. long, i in. broad, and there are ab. 850 of them in a mature worm. The last hundred or so have ripe egps. which are thrown off with the excrement: if swallowed by a pig, they hatch and become encysted in its flesh, causing the pork to be measly. Each cyst "is ab. i in. long. Similar

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cysts may form in man or other animals swallowing the egjrs: sometimes they form in the brain. If some vital nerve cell is disturbed, death results, but otherwise, unless the cysts are very numerous, no serious disturbance may be felt. The measly flesh, when eaten uncooked, gives rise to the mature worm by simple growth from the back part of the head, which constitutes the main part of the cyst. Taeniatae. See Cestid^e.

Taenlodonta. Suborder of Bunotheria. including Eocene Mammals, with Edentata-like molars and Rodent-like inferior incisors, but with the upper incisors faced on both sides with enamel, and growing from persistent pulps.

Taenioglogga. Group of ctenobranchiate Gastropods, in

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eluding forms having two small jaws and a long- radula with seven plates in each transverse row of teeth. Some are holostomutous, others are siphonostomatous. Examples of the former are the Winkles (Littorinida), freshwater Snails (PaludinuUx) and Vermetus. To the latter belong Cyprcea, Strombus, Natica, etc. By a different division of the group we have the Chiastoneura (Littorina, Paludina, Vermetus, etc.), and Orthoneura (Natica, Cyprcea, Strombus).

Tneniolae, or T-eniolata. See Scyphomedusje.

Taffeta. Plain silk, of varied quality and color, and sometimes mixed with wool.

TafTrail, or Tafferkl. Upper part of a ship's stern.

Tafl, Alphonso. LL.D., 1810-1891. Jud»e Cincinnati Superior Court 1866-72; U. S. Sec. of War 1876, and Atty.-gen. 1876-77; Minister to Austria 1882, and to Russia 1884-85.

Tag. Child's game, in which one player, known as It, pursues the others and endeavors to catch them. The one caught in turn becomes It and continues the game. There are many varieties, as Cross-tag and Squat-tag. In Japan, Tag is called Oni gokko or "Devil Touching," and It is Oni or Devil. In Corea, it is called Watchman-catching, the pursuer being the Watchman. In Canton the game is played between "soldiers" and "thieves."

Tagala. Most important of the Malay tribes of the Philippine Islands. They are of medium size, with straight black hair, low forehead, large eyes and mouth, flat nose, small hands and feet. The women wear pure white clothing. They are gentle, but love gambling, opium-smoking, and music. They can read and write, and are skilled carvers and weavers. They are closely related to the Formosans, but more civilized.

Taganrog. Seaport of Russia, on the shore of the Gulf of T., an inlet n.e. from the Sea of Azov; founded by Peter I. ab.1720. It has a large export trade. Pop. ab.50,000.

Tagliamento. River in Lombardy, near which Bonaparte defeated the Austrians under Duke Charles, March 16, 1797.

Taglioni, Maria, 1804-1884. Italian dancer, famous through Europe 1822-47; Comtesse de Voisins 1832.—Her father, Filippo, 1777-1871, and brother, Paul, 1808-1884, were noted ballet-masters.

Tagu§. River of Spain, heading in the Castilian Mts., e. of Madrid, and flowing mainly s.w. across Portugal to the Atlantic, near Lisbon. Length 566 m., drainage area 34,000 sq. m.

Tahiti. Chief of the Society Islands: in the Pacific, ab. 2.100 m. n.e. of New Zealand; held bv France. Area 400 sq. m., pop. ab. 10,000.

Tahitian§. Polynesian Malays, celebrated for physical beauty. Morally they stand low. The women are much smaller than the men. The principal weapon is the sling.

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Tahoe, Lake. In the e. foothills of the Sierra Nevada, on the boundary between Cal. and Nevada. Elevation 6,225 ft., area 195 sq. m.

Tahpanhes. Town in Lower Egypt, seat of PharaohHophra, the ruins of whose palace, with the brick pavement (mistranslated kiln) on which Jeremiah propliesied (Jer. xliii. 9) have lately been discovered.

Tail. In Botany, long, slender appendage, as to a seed or achene.

Tailed men. A Devonshire superstition attributes a tail to Cornishiuen. which was referred to divine vengeance upon them for having insulted St. Thomas a Becket. Lord Monboddo argued that a tail was a desideratum. Common report attributed tails to the Niam-niams, and many stories are told of the belief in tailed men in Abyssinia. Among the American Indians there are stories of men once having tails, which they forfeited by some misdemeanor.

Tailings. Material of lowest value, separated from the richer portions of ore in a process of concentration. The tailings from any given stage of a concentration process may be further treated on machines devised for the purpose, or may run to waste.

Taillandier, Rene Gaspard Ernest, or Saint-rene, 18171879. Prof. Montpellier 1843, and Paris 1863; Academician 1873; writer on Germany. Scotus Erigena, 1843; Servia, 1871; Etudes, 1881.

Tailor Bird. Name given to various genera of birds which skillfully construct their nests. They are found in tropical countries. The principal genera are Suthora, Suya, Prinia% Sutoria, and Orthotomus.

Tainan. See Taiwan.

Taine, Hippolyte Adolphe, D.C.L., 1828-1893. Prof, Paris 1864, Academician 1879; historian and critic. Chief among his numerous works are the familiar History of English Literature, 4 vols., 1863-64, tr. 1872-74, and Origines de la France Contemporaine. 5 vols.. 1875-90. Both are monumental works, the result alike of genius and of conscientious industry.

Talping (or Taepino) Rebellion. In China 1850-64. The head of it styled himself the Heavenly Prince, proclaimed a spurious Christianity, and aimed to set up a native dynasty in place of the ruling Manchu. COL. C. G. Gordon (q.v.) was largely instrumental in suppressing the insurrection.

Tait, Archibald Campbell, D.D.. LL.D., 1811-1882. Headmaster of Rugby 1842. succeeding Dr. T. Arnold; Dean of Carlisle 1850, Bp. of London 1856, Abp. of Canterbury 1868; a moderate and judicious primate. Modern Tlieology, 1861.

Tait, Arthur Fitzwilliam, b. 1819. Anglo - American painter. N.A. 1858.

Tait, Lawson, M.D., b.1845. Scottish surgeon. Diseases of Women.

Tait, Peter Guthrie, b.1831. Prof. Belfast 1854, Edinburgh 1860; writer on physics and higher mathematics. Thermodynamics, 1868; Paradoxical Philosophy, 1878.

Taiwan, or Tainan. Capital of Formosa (q.v.) till 1885; 3 m. from w. coast, and connected with the sea by canals; treaty port, with considerable commerce. Pop. ab. 135,000.

Tai-j'lien. Chinese city. ab. 400 m. s.w. of Peking; capital of the Shansi province. It consists of an inner and outer

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