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Sydney. Capital of New South Wales, Australia, on the

shore of Port Jackson, an inlet which furnishes a fine harbor; founded 1788, but mainly of recent growth; long a penal settlement. It is in a coal region, and has a mint, a large commerce, and considerable manufactures. Its university dates from 1852. Pbp. 1891, 112,000; with suburbs, 380,000.

Sydney, AlgerNon. See Sidney.

Syenite. Crystalline rock consisting of feldspar and hornblende, with or without quartz, resembling granite in its mode of occurrence, but less common. The name was first given by Pliny to rock from Syene in Egypt, BM. a hornblendic granite, and later by Werner Grund near Dresden, which

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Sydney Town Hall, to the rock from the Plauensch was mainly a mixture of hornblende and feldspar.

Sykes, George. U.S.A., 1822-1880. Brig.-gen. TJ. S. Vols. 1861, Major-gen. l!S62-66; commander 5th corps at Gettysburg.

Sylburg, Friedrich, 1586-1596. Librarian at Heidelberg; editor of sundry classics.

Sylla. See Sulla.

Syllabus. Encyclical of Pope Pius IX., Dec. 8. 1864, condemning eighty tenets, about half of which are condemned by Christians generally, while the others are regarded by most Protestants as true. Whether it is of dogmatic or only of disciplinary authority does not appear to be finally settled.

Syllogism. Form of mediate inference which consists of three terms and three propositions, major, minor and middle terms, major and minor premises, and conclusion. The conclusion is based upon the comparison, in the premises, of the major and minor with the middle term.

Sylphs. In mediaeval legend, spirits of the air, as gnomes are of earth and salamanders of (Ire.

Sylvn. Botany of the trees of a country.

Sylvnnite. (Au,Ag)Tea. Rich gold and silver telluride, formerly found in considerable quantity in Transylvania, but in recent years regarded as a very rare mineral, until the discovery of the Cripple Creek deposits in Col., where it is now one of the most important of the ores.

Sylvester I., St. Bp. of Rome 314-335. His day is Dec. 81.—IL Gerbert, ab.950-1003. Abbot of Bobbio ab.990, Abp. of Ravenna 998. Pope 999. As a man of learning, some supposed him to be in league with the devil.—III. Antipope 1046.

Sylvester, James Joseph, LL.D.. D.C.L., F.R.S., b.1814. English mathematician. Prof, of Mathematics, Univ. Va., 184H2, of Physics. London 1851, Woolwich 1855, and Johns Hopkins Univ. 1876; Prof, of Geometry at Oxford 1883; leader in modern analysis, especially in the advanced development of determinants.

Sylvester, Joshua, 1563-1618. English poet. His version of Du Bartas' Divine Weeks and Works. 1605, was a folio of over 1,000 pages. Tobacco Battered, 1615.

Sylviculture. See Forestry.

Sylvle, Eduard, 1670-1739. French naturalist, in S. America and W. Indies 1701-10. Voyages, 10 vols., 1714-28. Sylvlidae. See Dentirostres.

Sylvite. KC1. Mineral potassium chloride, of infrequent occurrence, though found in some quantity associated with rock salt at STASSFURT (q.v.).

Sylvius, De La Boe, 1614-1672. Iatrochemist, Prof, of Medical Science at Leyden. He attempted to explain the phenomena of respiration, digestion, etc.

Sylvius, Jacobus, 1478-1555. Prof, of Anatomy at Paris 1550. Opera Medica. 1630.

Symbiosis. Peculiar form of commensalism, more particularly referring to the habitation of animal cells by unicellular Algxe, as in the Green Hydra, and the yellow cells of

Radiolarians. The plant cells absorb the carbonic acid secreted by the animal, and in sunlight produce oxygen, which is absorbed by the animal protoplasm. Thus there is mutual advantage.—In Botany, intimate coexistence of one organism with another, the two being mutually dependent, as the supposed combination of Fungi and Alga in the structure of lichens; known also as Consort ism.

Symbols. Creeds, confessions of faith, or formal statements of doctrine; so named by Cyprian ab.250; historically treated by Marheineke in Symbolik, 1810, by Winer 1824, Mohler (R. C.) 1832, and many recent writers, as Dr. Schaff in Creeds of Christendom, 1878.

Symbols. In Chemistry, used to designate the elements and their compounds. Of the elements, the symbols are usually the initial, or first and second, or other'letters of their accepted name: e.g., C of Carbon, Caof Calcium, Ce of Cerium.

Symborodont Dentition. Molar teeth of the amoebodont-lophodont series, having the outer tubercles of their crowns longitudinally elongated and crescentic, while the inner tubercle remains isolated and conic, as in Symborodon.

Syme, James, M.D., 1799-1870. Prof. Edinburgh 1833: eminent as teacher, operator, and introducer of new methods. Principles of Surgery, 1832; Pathology and Practice of Surgery, 1848.

Symington, Andrew James, b.1825. Scottish writer and compiler. Chalmers, 1878.

Symington, William, 1764-1831. Scottish inventor of a steamboat, tried 1788. His Charlotte Dundas was used for towing on the Forth and Clyde Canal 1801-2, at the time of Fulton's failure on the Seine.

Symmacbus, ab.200. Author of a Greek version of O. T., of which fragments remain.

Symmaehus. Pope 498-514; opposed till 506 by Lauren

tius, who had imperial support. He was an active man, magnifying his office and holding several synods.

Symmacbus, Quintus Aurelius, ab.340-ab.403. Roman prefect H84, Consul 391; belated defender of Paganism; of pure and lofty type. His Letters, in 10 books, survive, with three eulogies and parts of six orations, pub. 1815.

Symmcs, John Cleves, 1742-1814. Delegate to Congress 1785-86; Judge of Northwest Territory 1787: founder of Cincinnati.—His nephew, John Cleves. U.S.A., 1780-1829, put forth 1818 the theory of ••Symmes' Hole," whereby the earth, being hollow, could be entered from the North Pole. This was resuscitated 1876 by his son, Americus Vespucius.

Symmetrical. 1. In Botany, having an equal number of parts in each floral whorl. 2. Having the parts on each side d the principal axis alike in form and size.

Symmetrical Determinant. One whose conjugate elements are equal. This may be either axi-symmetric, in reference to the diagonal of the determinant; or centro-symmetric, in reference to the center of the square array.

Symmetrical Figure. 1. In respect to a center of symmetry, when all lines through that point cut the figure at two symmetrical points. 2. In respect to an axis, where every point on one side of the axis has a corresponding symmetrical point on the other side. 3. In reference to a plane, the same criterion applies. Two figures are symmetrical when every point in one has a symmetrical point in the other.

Symmetrical Points. 1. In reference to a point (center of symmetry) when it bisects the line joining them. 2. In respect to a line (axis of symmetry) when it bisects at right angles the line joining them. 3. In reference to a plane, the same criterion applies.

Symmetry. Harmonious balance of parts along an axis which swings around a single fixed point in every direction. Geometrically, symmetry, as seen in living organisms, may be referred to a central point (centrostigma), a central axis (centraxonia), or a central plane (centrepipeda). See Bilateral Symmetry, Lipostaura, Promorphology, Radial Symmetry, and Stauraxonia.—In Mathematics, likeness of position in reference to some fixed element.

Symmetry of Expression. An algebraic expression is symmetrical when its literal elements may be interchanged without affecting its form.

Symonds, John Addington. 1840-1893. English historian and critic, long resident in Switzerland. Renaissance in Italy, 7 vols., 1875-86; Life of Michelangelo, 1892.

Symons, George James, F.R.S., b.1838. English meteorologist, authority on rainfall.

Sympathetic Ink. See Cobalt Chloride.

Sympathetic Nervous System. See Nervous System.

Sympathetic Vibrations. When one sounding body is placed near another, separated only by the air or other

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elastic medium, botli being of the same pitch, if one body be sounded the other will absorb from the air the note of that particular period which is equal to its own. Such vibrations are called sympathetic. The phenomenon may be practically illustrated by sounding the proper note before an open piano.

Sympathy. Feeling aroused by expression of a similar state of mind in another. The more developed and complete form exists where there is an imaginative reproduction of another's feelings; i.e., fellow-feeling. The emotion depends upon social experience, and its development corresponds to the development of civilization. It is feeble in the lower animals and among the lower races. In Ethics and common use, it refers especially to the sorrows of others.

Sympetalous. See Gamopetalous.

Symphonic Poem. Form of musical composition for orchestra, introduced by Liszt as a substitute for the symphony. It is in a single movement, though divided by changes in tempo, key and sentiment, is based upon a poetical idea, a sequence of incidents or moods to which a clew is given by the title, or a motto which serves as a programme, and frequently has a principal subject which the composer transforms so as to make it express variety of emotional or dramatic content.

Symphony. Musical composition for orchestra, whose characteristics are identical with those of the sonata. The form was established by Hadyn, and brought to its highest estate by Beethoven. Besides these, the greatest symphonists were Mozart, Schubert. Schumann, and Brahms.

Symphysis. In Botany, cohesion or adhesion of parts typically distinct.

Sympiesometer. Form of barometer invented by Adie of Edinburgh, which indicates the pressure of the atmosphere and its variations. It consists of a column of oil. supported in a tube closed at the top by atmospheric pressure, rising against a body of hydrogen gas, which acts like a spring against the oil.

Symplegades. Two small islands at the entrance of the Euxine, fabled to collide when ships passed through. Homer calls them "Wanderers."

Sympodial Dichotomy. In Botany, condition arising from the greater development of one branch of a bifurcation than of the other.

Sympodium. Stem whose main axis ceases to grow, while the branches, continuing to develop, build up the plant body.

Symptoms. Changes of condition, or the phenomena, which occur in the manifestation of diseases, and which serve to point out their nature. Symptoms may be subjective when, as pain, observed by the patient alone: objective, as the physical signs, when observed by the physician; pathognomonic, when they certainly indicate definite diseases. Symptoms complex is the group of individual symptoms together forming the distinctive picture of the disease.

Synacmy. See Proterandrous.

Synagogue. Meeting-house of the Jews, who had one

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o38 B.C. According to express rabbinic law, it was always to be built on the highest point of the city and ten men were sufficent to form a congregation. In Palestine the entrance faces the south. The ark was the most important object in the building.

Synagogue, Great. In Jewish tradition, council of 120 men, assisting Ezra, and surviving him, which regulated the Hebrew Canon and the observance of the law.

Synangium. Bulbus arteriosus of Amphibia.—In Botany, boat-shaped sorus of certain ferns.

Synanthesis. Maturing of both pistils and stamens of a flower simultaneously.

Synapta. See Apoda.

Synapticulae. Bars that unite the septa of corals.

Synaptosauria. See Hydrosauria.

Syncarp. Aggregate or multiple fruits which become compact or fleshy at maturity.

Syncarpous. Gynoecium of a flower when consisting of coalescent carpels.

Synclastic. Curved surfaces are divided by Sir Wm. Thomson into two classes, synclastic and antisynclastic. A tangent plane at any point of a synclastic surface does not cut the surface: hence the curvatures of all normal sections are similarly directed; e.g., a sphere, an ellipsoid. A plane tangent to an antisynclastic surface cuts it. and it bends away from the plane, part from one side, part from the other.

Synclinal Axis. Line toward which the strata dip from opposite sides.

Syncline. Trough or furrow between two anticlines formed by the bending of the strata, as in the Appalachian region.

Synclinorium. Mountain system originating in a submarine synclinal of great extent.

Syncopation. Binding of two similar notes so that the accent intended for the second appears to fall on the first. Its effect in the accompaniment of songs may be charming. See Accent In Music.

Syncope. Abridgment of a word by elision of a vowel or syllable.

Syncretism. Etfort to reconcile contending sects or parties on a basis of common belief: especially that of G. Calixtus, 1586lb">6, and his son, who sought to mediate between the Lutheran and Reformed systems. The controversy raged with much fury, and Calovius, 1612-1686, won the battle for severe confessional orthodoxy.—In Philosophy, compilation of systems without reference to unity or consistency; thus opposed to eclecticism.

Syncytium. Tissue formed of cells whose bounding walls are indistinct or absent.—In Botany, one in which cell-walls are not developed, as in the vegetative stage of slime-moulds. A Plasmodium.

Syndactyll. See Levirostres.

Syndcndrilim. United bases of the stomatodendra id Rhizostomidoe.

Syndic. Officer of a town or corporation, chiefly in France, Italy, and Geneva.

Syndicate. Organization or association for commercial ends, usually in the way of large financial operations or of publication through various channels.

Syne. River in Burmah, ab. 20 m. n. of Moulmein. Curiously picturesque and almost inaccessible rocks rise abruptly

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highest rock, which is said to have been built by religious penances.

Synecdoche. Figure of speech which puts a part for the whole, a species for its genus, or the reverse, as "a sail" for "ship," or "Boston" for some of its inhabitants.

Synentognathl. See Anacanthini.

Synergism. Modification of Luther's doctrine by Melanchthon, making man a coworker with God in redemption. It was opposed by Flacius, and caused much commotion at Jena and elsewhere.

Synesius, ab.375-414. African Neoplatonist, friend and correspondent of Hypatia; Bp. of Ptolemais in Cyrene 410; remarkable for liberal opinions, wide culture, and iofty independence; author of hymns, orations, and letters, collected 1558 and often reprinted; celebrated by Kingsley in Hypatia.

Syngenesla. Linnaean class of plants, distinguished by having the anthers united into a tube or ring, as in the composite flowers (natural family Composite).

Syngenesious. Stamens whose anthers are united into a ring or tube about the style, as in Composite.

Syngenesis. Theory that each egg contains in miniature the organism which is to develop from it, and this in turn the germs and homunculi that are to come from it. Thus Eve must have had in her all the members of the human race (for all time) telescoped one within the other, in successive generations.

Syngeneticae. Order of unicellular, colonial, fresh water Algas of the subclass Phmophyeem.

Syngeothernial. Lines joining places at which the temperature of the earth near the surface is the same at a given hour of Greenwich time; epithet applied by Hennessey 1867.

Syngnathous. See Lophobranchii.

Synod. Any larger church-council; especially, a Presbyterian assembly, including several presbyteries.

Synod, Holy. Governing body of Russo-Greek Ch., replacing the old Patriarchate of Moscow. It has 12 members, appointed by the Czar.

Synodic Period. Interval between two conjunctions of a pianet with the sun, as seen from the earth.

Synod of Dort. See Dort, Synod Of.

Synonym. In Botany, more recent or otherwise untenable generic or specific name which has given place to the original or earliest tenable one.

Synonym*. Words of nearly equivalent signification, but usually with some slight difference of shade: therefore important in literary use. The chief collections of them in English are those of Oabbe and Roget.

Synoptic Charts, or Weather Charts. Maps on which are displayed the meteorological conditions simultaneously prevailing over large regions. In Europe, they usually obtain for a certain hour of local time; in America, they are strictly simultaneous on standard time.

Synpelmous. Arrangement of the flexor tendons in a bird's foot, in which the tendon of the hallux unites with the common tendon of the other toes.

Synpetalous. See Gamopetalous.

Synsepalous. See Gamosepalous.

Syntax. Division of grammar (so called) treating of the arrangement of words and construction of sentences.

Synthermal. Lines connecting places throughout the world having the same average temperature at the same hour of Greenwich time; epithet introduced by Hennessy, H. (q.v.), 1867.

Synthesis. Process and method; as process, the psychological combination of different elements of consciousness to form a complex whole; as method in philosophy, the complement of Analysis (q.v.). representing the formation of a unified system of beliefs by articulating them in a systematic whole.

Synthesis, Chemical. Process by which a compound is made from its constituent elements.

Synthetic Type. Organism which connects, as a link, other organisms, because the separate characteristics of the latter are present in the one animal. Certain fossils have both bird and reptilian characters. As these appeared geologically at the beginning of the period when Reptiles and

Birds (Sauropsida) first appeared, we may suppose that such forms retain most nearly the characters of the common ancestors of Birds and Reptiles.

Syphax. See Masinissa.

Sypher, JOSIAH Rhinehart, b.1832. Journalist and lawyer in Pa. Hist. Pa., 1868.

Syphilis. Specific disease of slow evolution, propagated by inoculation (acquired), or by hereditary transmission (congenital). In the acquired form the site of inoculation becomes the seat of the special tissue change (primary lesion); after an interval of 2 or 3 months, constitutional symptoms develop with affection of the skin and mucous membranes (secondary lesion); and, finally, after a period of 3or4 years growths develop in the viscera, muscles, bones or skin (tertiary lesion). It is a disease of social impurity, and because of its contagiousness can be conveyed to the innocent. It probably causes more suffering and discomfort than any other single disease. This is an ancient disease, with the Chinese dating back to 2637 B.C., and is claimed to have existed among the ancient Greeks. In 1494 it appeared in the army of Charles VIII. of France, then besieging Naples, and later was prevalent in Europe.

Syra. One of the Cyclades: area 43 sq. m. Its central position in the ^Egean makes it an important calling-place

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of vessels in the Levant. It is the seat of a Greek Abp. and of a R. C. bishop. Its capital, Syra, or Hermonpolis, has some commercial importance. Pop., 1890, 22,104.

Syracuse. Chief city of ancient Sicily; on s.e. coast; founded ab.734 B.C. from Corinth; ruled by Gelo 484, Hiero 478-467, Dionysius 405-367, and other tyrants; attacked by an Athenian expedition 415. which was destroyed 413. ending the Peloponnesian war and the supremacy of Athens; besieged 396 by Carthaginians, who were routed by a pestilence; freed by the hero Timoleon, liberator of Sicilv, 343; ruled by Agathocles 317-289, and Hiero II. 270-216, the latter being in alliance with Rome; besieged by Romans 214 (see ARCHIMEDES); taken and sacked 212 B.C.; pillaged and burned by Saracens 878; rebuilt in later times on Ortygia, a peninsula (once an island), its first site. Its coinage of ab.300 B.C. is the most beautiful known; its remains of antiquity are important. Pop. ab.25,000.

Syracuse. Capital of Onondaga co., N. Y.; on Onondaga Lake, in a salt-producing region; settled 1797; chartered 1826 and 1847. Its industries relate chiefly to salt and soda-ash manufacture. Pop., 1890, 88,143.

Syracuse University. At Syracuse, N. Y.: known as Genesee Coll. and located at Lima, N. Y., until 1871; founded 1848; coeducational; under Methodist control; organized in four colleges of liberal and fine arts, medicine, and law. It has 1,135 students, of whom 474 are in the liberal, and 516 in fine arts, with 89 instructors and a library of 47,000 vols., including Von Ranke's collection.

Syr-Darya. River of Turkestan, rising near the Chinese border and flowing w. and n.w. to the Aral Sea. Length ab. 1.300 m., drainage area 120.000sq. m. As the ancient Jaxartes, described by Herodotus and Strabo, its outlet was into the Caspian.

Syria. Region of w. Asia, e. of Palestine; anciently occupied by Semites; long an independent kingdom, then (ab.740 B.C.) a province of Assyria, as later of Babylonia and Persia; conquered by Alexander 333 B.C.; ruled by the Seleucidse 301-64 B.C., and then a Roman province till 636; thenceforth held by Mohammedans, and in part by Crusaders 1099-1291; subject to Egypt till 1516 and 1832-41; now part of the Turkish empire.

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Antioch was its capital from ab.290 B.C., and Damascus 654752, as in Hebrew times.

Syriac. See Semitic Languages and Aramaic.

Syriac Literature. This is mostly theological writings of the Syriac Church, dating from early Christianity, flourishing from 4th to 10th centuries and declining in the 13th century. Poetry and history were much written, the latter and philosophy being often written in verse. There were many translations from the Greek. The most learned writer was Abulfaragius (q.v.).

Syrian Rite. Of R. C. Ch.; comprising United Syrians, Chaldeans, Maronites, and United St. Thomas Christians. They use a Syrian ritual, not the Latin.

Syrlllga. Showy, white-flowered shrubs of the genus Philadelphus, natural family Saxifragacece, natives of N. America. See Lilac.

Syrinx. Vocal organ of birds, situated at the point where the trachea divides into the two bronchi. The walls are modifled into tympanic membranes, and membranous septa, like vocal cords, are stretched interiorly across the openings of the tubes, so they can vibrate in the passing air current.

Syrinx. Pan's pipe or shepherd's pipe of the ancients; as such a precursor of the modern organ. It consisted of a series of cane tubes of various lengths, fastened side by side and sounded by blowing across their open ends, as boys whistle on keys.

Syrphus Files. Small two-winged flies whose larvae, colored greenish to gray, are of service in that they feed on plant lice. Syrtls. See Syrtis Major. Syrtis Major, or Gulf Of Sidra. On n. coast of Africa, between Tripoli and Barca. Syrtis Minor, or Gulf of Cubes, projects into the coast of Tunis. Both are dangerous from quicksands.

Syrup. Boiled saturated water solution of sugar, with addition of fruit juices or other flavoring substances, as vanilla-bean, ginger or sarsaparilla, and drank with addition of water or soda water. For the latter saponin or egg white is added to produce foaming. Medicinal syrups contain remedial agents dissolved in simple syrup. The term is also applied to MoLasses (q.v.). Syrus, Epbrem. See Ephrem. Syrus, Publilius, 1st cent. B.C. Roman comic playwright. Some of his Mimi Sententice survive. System. In Botany, group of the parts of an organism of the same morphological significance or physiological function.

System, In Geology. See International Congress.

System, Artificial or Linn^ean. Classification of plants according to an arbitrary rule; as Natural System, that of Jussieu, is according to their relationship.

Systematic Botany. Branch treating of the classification of plants.

Systems of Artillery. The character and arrangement of the material of artillery adopted by a nation at a particular epoch. About the middle of the 16th century France first

frouped her artillery into a system having six different caliers, varying from 33± pound shot to i of a pound shot, each requiring a different carriage without interchnngeable parts; also requiring three different sizes of powder grains. A second system, equally varied in its components, was adopted in the reign of Louis 3CIV. Valiere's system, adopted in 1732, brought about some uniformity in guns, but not in carriages. Gribeauval in 1765 separated the field and siege artillery, makiDg the former simpler and more mobile by improving the carriages; he introduced cartridges, elevating scales, and tangent screws for more rapid and correct firing. This last system was used in the wars of the French Republic and the Empire. In 1827 the stock-trail system was engrafted upon the Gribeauval and other improvements introduced. It was brought to this coun

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Syrphus Flies.

try by Captain Daniel Tyler, an officer of the U. S. artillery, and was made the basis of the American system, used in tfie Mexican war and in the Rebellion. In 1850 the 12-pounder bronze gun, firing shot and shell, was introduced by Louis Napoleon, and soon found its way into the services of all nations. Since 1870 the smooth-bores have been replaced by breecliloading rifled guns, so that at present the light artillery or field service systems possess the greatest mobility, simplicity and power they have ever attained. Equally valuable improvements have been made in the siege and se:icoast systems, in which uniformity, simplicity, and efficiency have been tlip qualities sought.

Systems of Fortification. The form of the general outline of the main work in permanent fortification military engineers have classified under four heads, or systems of fortification; viz., (1) the Circular or Curvilinear; (2) the Polygonal or Caponiere; (3) the Tenailled; and (4) the Bastioned. The method of fortification is applied to the manner adopted by a nation in fortifying its strategical points, as the German Method (Antwerp); or to those devised by distinguished military engineers, as, Vauban, Cormontaigne, etc. The former belong to the Polygonal system and the latter to the Bastioned.

Systyle. Intercolumniation in which the distance between the columns is equal to their diameter.

Syzygy. Duplex organism formed by external union of the bodies of two individuals that were previously separate, as in many Gregarines and in the worm Diplozoon. Except in the latter, this union is not apparently for sexual purposes; it resembles rather the Plasmodium, and may secure the advantage that underlies the phenomena of colony-formation among animals, which is usually secured by retaining the primitive connection existing in asexual multiplication.

Syzygy OF The Moon. Its conjunction or opposition with the sun.

Szabad, Emeric. b. ab.1822. Hungarian soldier, in U. S. 1861-65. Hungary, 1854; Policy of Europe, 1857; Modern War. 1863.

Szabadka. Town of Hungary, 105 m. s.s.e. of Pesth; in a farming region, with a good trade. Pop., 1890, 73,526.

Szalay, Laszlo, 1813-1864. Hungarian biographer, historian, and political writer, in exile 1849-61.

Szarvas, Gabriel. 1831-1895. Hungarian philologist; ed. Nyelvor from 1872.

Szeclicnyl, Istvan. Count, 1792-1860. Hungarian reformer and Minister of State.

Szegedlll. Town of Hungary, on the Theiss, opposite the mouth of the Maros; held by Turks 1526-1686; scene of an Au

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Taafe, Eduard, Count, 1833-1895. Austrian Prime Minister 1869 and 1879-93.

Tabard. 1. Sleeveless cloak worn by mediaeval knights over armor. 2. Official garment of heralds.

Tabari, 838-922. Moslem of Bagdad; commentator on the Koran. His Annals run from the creation to his time.

Tabasheer. Siliceous substance, of low specific gravity, secreted in the joints of the bamboo, Bambusa vulgaris.

Tabb, John B., b.1845. Prof. St. Charles Coll., Ellicott City. Md., since 1884. Poems, 1894; Lyrics, 1896.

Tabernacle. Portable sanctuary of the Israelites, in the wilderness and in Palestine, on the model of which the Temple was built ab.1000 B.C. (see Holy Place and Most Holy Place). It was made of acacia-wood, overlaid with gold, and protected by ample coverings of cloth and of seal or badger skins. The term is also applied to niches for images and sepulchral monuments, surmounted with rich canopy work.

Tabernacles, Feast Op. One of the 3 great Jewish feasts, lasting a week in Sept. or Oct., during which the people dwelt in booths, and gave themselves up to rejoicing over the ingathering of the fruits. See Passover and Pentecost.

Tabes Dorsalis. See Locomotor Ataxia.

Tableaux Ylvnnts. "Living pictures"; introduced in France ab.1785; since familiar in England and America.

Table-Lands. Elevated plains, as in central Asia, w. U. S., and Spain. See Plateau.

Tables. Backgammon, played by two persons with men or pieces, according to the throws with two dice, upon a board divided vertically into two parts, and having 24 points. A variety of games were played upon this board or "tables," the origin of which may be traced to classical antiquity.

Tablet. In Pharmacy, a cylindrical or disk-shaped body formed from powdered drugs. The tablet may be composed of the drug without admixture, or it may be triturated with some inert substance, as sugar of milk; it may be caused to adhere by compression or by making a paste of the powder by mixing with a volatile liquid. This paste is filled into molds and removed. The liquid forming the paste volatilizes, leaving the triturate.

Table Turning. Phenomenon much talked of in U. S. and England ab.1850; credited to spirits, but probably caused by unconscious muscular action of hands clasped around or resting on the table.

Table}-, John Byrne Leicester Warren De, Baron, 18391895. English poet.

Taboo. Edict by a chief among Pacific Island tribes, declaring certain acts unlawful; e.g., during a stated period certain trees, animals, crops, etc., are sacred and must not be touched or destroyed. It resembles the close season for game, etc., among civilized peoples. The penalty for violation of a taboo is death. This is supposed to explain the killing of Capt. Cook at the Hawaiian Islands.

Tabor. Instrument between drum and tambourine; associated with the fife.

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memorates this event. Scene of Bonaparte's victory over the Turks, April 16, 1799. Altitude ab. 1,000 ft.

Tabor, Horace Austin Warner, b.1830. Capitalist; Lieut.-gov. of Colorado 1878-84; U. S. Senator Feb.-March 1884.

Tabor College. Founded by Congregationalists as an academy at Tabor. Ia., 1854; chartered 1866. It has 13 instructors and ab. 230 students.

Taborites. Bohemian adherents of Huss, who took up arms ab.1420, led by ZlSKA (q.v.); so called from their stronghold Mt. Tabor; opposed to the Calixtines or moderate reformers, with whom, after the defeat of their common foes, they waged a mutually destructive war.

Tabriz. Ancient city of n.w. Persia, ab.300 an Armenian capital; injured by several earthquakes and Turkish attacks; of some commercial importance. Pop. ab. 175,000.

Tabulae. Horizontal partitions in the thecal of some corals.

Tabular Spar. See Wollastonite.
Tabular Standard. See Multiple Standard.
Tabulata. See Madreporaria.

-Tabulate Corals. Those having horizontal plates in the thecae, and weak septa; not a natural group. See HelioPorid^e.

Tbc, Sixtds Le, 1649-1699. French missionary in Canada from 1676. Hist. Nouvelle France, pub. 1888.

Taealiout. Nutgall growing on the tamarisk in India and Barbary; source of gallic acid.

Taeamabac See Poplar.

Taccaeese. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermm and subclass Monocotyledons, comprising 2 genera ana ab. 10 species, natives of the tropical lands of both hemispheres.

Tacbe, Sir Etienne Pascal, 1795-1865. Canadian official and author, knighted 1858.—His nephew, Joseph Charles, b. 1820, pub. Esquisse sur le Canada, 1855, and other books.—His brother, Alexander Antoine, 1823-1894, became Bp. of St. Boniface (Winnipeg) 1853, and Abp. 1871.

Tachbydrite. CaMg,CI,-r-12aq. Extremely soluble hydrous magnesium calcium chloride, found associated with rock salt at Stassfurt.

Tachometer. Speed indicator. Special forms are adapted for measuring variations in the velocity of revolution of machines. A small cistern of mercury, from the center of which rises a.glass tube partly full, is fixed concentric with the re

[graphic][merged small]

volving part. As the centrifugal tendency depresses the middle part of the mercury in the cistern, the column in the tube will fall and the tube may be empirically graduated to indicate any speed within certain limits.

Tachycardia. Excessively rapid heart action, due to various causes: nervous excitement, violent exertion, a weakening of the inhibitory nerves of the heart from pressure by tumor, or other cause. A very rare form is known as paroxysmal tachycardia, and is characterized by spells of rapid beating, sometimes at the rate of 200 or more beats in a minute. The attacks may follow each other at regular intervals, lasting in some instances but an hour or so.

Tachygraphy. See Shorthand.

Tachj lite. Rapidly cooled Basalt (q.v.), differing from

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