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monk, mystical preacher aud writer. Book of Eternal Wisdom, tr. 1500.

Suspended. In Botany, ovules which hang down from top of ovary.

Suspended Animation. Temporary cessation of some of the functions of life. See Asphyxia anil Hibernation.

Suspended Joint*. Joints of railroad rails placed between the cross-ties, as distinguished from those placed upon the cross-ties.

Suspender. Rod which hangs from the cable of a suspension bridge, and to whose lower end the roadway is attached.

Suspension Bridge. See Bridges, Brooklyn Bridge, and Niagara Bridges.

Suspcnsor. See Pkoembryo.

Susquehanna. River, chiefly of Pa. The e. or n. branch rises in Otsego co., N. Y., and flows some 3<>0 m. s.w. then w. through N. Y., then s.e. and again s.w. through Pa. to Northumberland, where it joins the w. branch, which rises in Cambria co. and flows ab. 200 m. e. and then s. The united

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Susquehanna—Junction of West and North Brant

stream flows s. till joined by the Juniata, and then s.e. to Md. and Chesapeake Bay, ab. 150 m. It is not navigable, except for timber-rafts, etc., in spring, but is noted for beauty of scenery, especially in the Wyoming Valley, which is celebrated in history, legend, and poetry. Drainage area ab. 28,000 sq.m.

Sussex. Saxon kingdom in s. England, founded 477 by Ella; subject to Wessex 725.

Sussex. See Cattle.

Sustermans, Justus, 1597-1681. Flemish portrait painter, affiliated with Rubens and Van Dyck, but ranking much below them.

Sutcllfle, Matthew, ab. 1550-1629. Dean of Exeter 1588; controversial writer, chiefly in Latin.

Sutcch. Egyptian deity, in later times identical with Set, and regarded as the god of foreigners.

Sutlej. Branch of the Indus, rising in Thibet, and flowing nearly 1.000 m. n.w., w., and s.w.; joined by four other rivers. See Hyphasis.

Sutlers. See Camp Followers.

Sutras. Collections of Hindu aphorisms, partly commentaries on the Vedas.

Sulro, Adolf Henry Joseph, b.1830 in Prussia. Mining engineer in Cal. and Nev.; promotor of the tunnel, 1869-79, to reach the Comstock lode. He gave to San Francisco a copy of the Bartholdi statue of Liberty, 1887.

Suttee. Voluntary cremation of a widow on her husband's funeral pyre; practice once prevalent among the Hindus, but suppressed by the British 1829, and in the native States under their protection 1847.

Sutter, John Augustus, 1803-1880. Swiss pioneer in Cal. 1839, at what is now Sacramento; useful to the Wilkes and Fremont expeditions; ruined by the discovery of gold 1848 on his premises.

Suture. Material used by the surgeon to stitch wounds together. It may be made of metallic wire (usually silver), of silk, of animal membrane (catgut), etc. The name is also applied to the character of the stitch employed, as a continuous or interrupted suture.—In Anatomy, the immovable articulations of the bones of the cranium.

Sutures. In Botany, line along which the infolded edges of the earpellary leaf meet, in the metamorphosis of the pistil of a flower; also line opposite this, corresponding to the midrib of the leaf.

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Twisted Suture as used in the operation for harelip.

Sutures. 1. Lines where two structures, e.g., bones, join, without forming a movable articulation. 2. Lines on the outside of the cephalopod shell, made by the margins of the septa.

Suwanee. River rising in s. Georgia in Okefinokee Swamp, flowing s. through Florida into the Gulf of Mexico, ab. 10 m. n. of Cedar Keys; it has been made navigable to White Springs.

Suwarow, or Suvorof, Alexander, 1729-1800. Russian general, active against the Turks, Poles, and French; eminent especially for his captures of Ismail, 1790, and Praga, 1794.

Suzerain. Prince or chief in relation to his vassals; now, state or ruler holding nominal authority over another state.

Svanetia. District of the Caucasus. Area 1,250 sq. m., pop. ab. 13,000.

Svastika. Symbol found on ancient coins and monuments in Europe and Asia; supposed to refer to sun worship.

Svatopluk, or Zwentibold, ab.884. Ruler of Moravia.

Svendsen, Johann Severin, b.1840. Norwegian musician, violinist and composer; conductor at Christinnia 1872-77; Court Chapel master at Copenhagen since 1873. His compositions are chiefly chamber music and orchestral pieces.

Sven Trost. Pen-name of Snoilsky (q.v.).

Svetla, Karolina (johanna Muzak), b.1836. Bohemian novelist and poet.

Svlr. River of n.w. Russia, flowing from Lake Onega, 135 m., into Lake Ladoga, making part of the Marunsk system of navigation, connecting the Baltic with the Caspian and White Seas.

Svold. On coast of Pomerania; scene of defeat of Olaf Trygvasson, King of Norway, by Svend of Denmark, 1000.

Swabia. See Suabia.

Swain, Charles, 1803-1874. English poet. Known as the "Manchester" poet.

Swain, David Lowry, LLD.. 1601-1868. Gov. of N. C. 1832-85; pres. Univ. N. C. from 1835.

Swain, George Fillmore, b.1857. Prof, of Civil Engineering in Mass. Institute of Technology since 1883; engineer of the Mass. Railroad Commission.

Swain, Joseph, 1761-1796. English hymnist.

Swalnson, William, 1789-1855. English writer on ornithology and zoology, in New Zealand from 1841. Naturaltit't Guide, 1840.

Swallowing. Act by which food or other material is conveyed from the mouth to the stomach. It is placed at the back of the mouth by voluntary action, where it excites areflex movement by which it is carried down the oesophagus by peristaltic action.

Swallows (HlRUNDINID-S). Picarian birds with long pointed wings, small feet, short broad bill, deep gape without bristles, 9 primaries in wing, and 10 tail feathers. Ab.100 species are

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8., much like that of Europe, is lustrous steel blue, pale chestnut below, tail deeply forked. It arrives early in May and remains in n. U. S. until late August. The American Chimney Swallow is a Swift (q. v.). See Fissirostrks.

Swamp Oak. In Australia, Casuarina suberosa, a tree of the natural family Casuarinece, producing very hard wood; in N. America, Quercus palustris.

Swan, Joseph Rockwell, 1802-1884. Juds:e Ohio Supreme Court 1854-59. Statutes of Ohio, 1841; Heading and Practice, 1851.

Swancc River. See Suwanee.

Swan ^Ialdens. Widely diffused European tale, traced to the ancient Hindu cosmic myth of the Apsaras, personifications of the cirrus clouds. They were the houris of the Vedic heaven, receiving the souls of the heroes. The common tale is that of the man who surprised several maidens bathing. He seizes the swan robes of one which lie nearest him and makes her his wife. She usually escapes by recovering her feather robe.

Swann,Thomas, 1805-1883. Pres. Baltimore and Ohio R.R. 1847-53; Mayor of Baltimore 1856-60; Gov. of Md. 1865-68; M.C. 1869-79.

Swan§. Large duck-like birds with long necks, distributed throughout n. and s. temperate latitudes, but extinct in Africa. The color is a brilliant white, except in Chenopis atrata of Australia, which is black, but with white bars on wing and bill, and in the black-necked swan of S. America. The Tatter nests in July or Sept., building up from the bottom in water several feet deep. The Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator), of N. America, has the bill wholly black; the Whistling Swan

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Mourumg bwau lO/ietujpi* atrata).

has a black bill, yellow at base. C. olor, the Mute Swan of Europe (now native to. but once introduced into England), is largely domesticated; it has red bill and black legs. The wild forms migrate s. to the Mediterranean. Egypt, and Persia. The young (cygnets) are sooty gray or brown, and do not become pure white for a year, but occasionally white cygnets are hatched from this species. Cygnets are a table delicacy ir> Europe. See ANATID^E.

Swansea. Seaport in s. Wales; seaside resort. It has large commerce, shipping tin, copper, iron, and coal. Pop.. 1891, 90,423.

Swarm-Spores. See Zoospores.

Swarthmore College. In Delaware co., Pa.; founded 1864, opened 1*69; controlled by Friends. It has (1897) 24 instructors and 172 students, of both sexes. It offers courses in arts, letters, science, and engineering.

Swartz,OLAF. 1760-1817. Prof. Stockholm. Obnervationen botanica}, 1791; Flora India occidentalis, 1797-1806; Synopsis Filicum, 1806; Lichenes Americani, 1811.

Swastika. See Svastika.

Swatow. Seaport of China, opened 1859; on the Hanu, near its mouth, 225 m. e. of Canton. Its chief exports are tea and sugar. Pop. ab.25,000.

Sway Bracing. Bracing used in a bridge for the purpose of preventing oscillations and stresses in case of wind.

Swayne, Noah Haynes, LL.D.. 1804-1884. Justice U. S. Supreme Court 1862-81.—His son, John Wager, b.1834, was Major-gen. U. S. Vols. 1865-67.

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Sweat. See Perspiration.

Sweating Sickness, or Miliary Fever. Epidemic which visited England 1485, 1506,1517, 1528. and 1551. It began with pains in various parts of the body, flushes of heat and sleepiness, followed bv profuse sweating, and sometimes an eruption. The crisis usually passed in 24 to 48 hours, and the epidemic generally spent itself in a month. Its causes have been sought in unfavorable atmospheric conditions, lack of house and street drainage, unsanitary habits, and overfeeding.

Sweating System. Organization of labor existing in some industries, in which the employer gives out the work to a subcontractor, who in turn employs workmen, generally in his own rooms. It has invariably proved subject to abuse.

Sweden. Country of n. Europe, occupying with Norway the Scandinavian peninsula, and comprising most of its e. incline. Area 172,876.5 sq. m. Agriculture is the principal

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Types and Costumes-Swedish Interior, industry. It produces large amounts of iron and coal, and its forests are of great value. Manufactures are of secondary importance. It has a large commerce. 5,454 m. of railway, and an excellent public school system. The government is a limited monarchy. The capital is Stockholm. Norway and Sweden are united under one king, and act in their foreign affairs as a unit. Sweden was Christianized ab.1150, united with Denmark and Norway 1397-1524, and for near two centuries prominent in European affairs, especially under Gustavus Adolphus, 1611-32. The wars of Charles XH., 1697-1718, exhausted his realm, which ceased to be a first-class power. The present dynasty began with Charles XIV., Bernadotte 1809-18. Pop., 1890. 4,784,675, ab.28 to a sq. m.

Sweden, CHURCH OF. Branch of Lutheranism, governed by bishops, the metropolitan being the Abp. of Upsala. Its Episcopal succession is doubtful, and not held as of divine right.

Swedenborg, Emanuel. 1688-1772. Swedish theosopher, founder of a profound and peculiar religious system, now widely

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diffused, and partially embodied in the New Jerusalem CHURCH (q.v.). He was assessor of mines 1716-47. was ennobled 1719,

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gained high scientific rank, and began to teach his system 1743. He was subject to visions, dreams, and strange psychologic experiences, which he interpreted as revelations. Opera Philosophica et Mineralia, 3 vols., 1734; Animal Kingdom, 5 vols., 174W5; Arcana Celestia, 8 vols., 1749-56; Heaven and Hell, 1758; Doctrines of the New Jerusalem. 1763; Angelic Wisdom, 1764; Conjugal Love, 1768; True Christian Religion, 1771. His works were reprinted in 10 folio vols. 1869-70; most of them exist in English versions.

Swedish Green. See Scheele's Green.

Swedish Language. Member of the Scandinavian family, closely allied to Danish, with which it made up the socalled East-Norse group, as opposed to the Norwegian (now represented only in dialects) and Icelandic. The literature of modern Swedish begins with the Reformation.

Swedish Literature. The Scandinavian literatures have much in common. In early times Sweden produced poetry similar to that of the other members of the group. In Mediaeval times tha writings were largely theological; the first Swedish work of importance was a paraphrase of the Bible by St. Biroitta (q.v.) ab.1340. The oldest history is Chronica Regni Qothorum, by Ericus Olai (d.1486). In the 14th century the native literature of Norway became extinct, and that of Sweden increased, chiefly in rhyming chronicles, ballads and law compilations. In the Reformation in the 16th century the N. T. was translated by Laurentius Petri, and his brother, Olaus, wrote the first Swedish hymnal. The latter also wrote the earliest school drama, Tobiae Comodia, 1550. Johan Messenius wrote six plays illustrating Swedish history. Under Gustavus Adolplius and his successors literature improved, philosophy and science were cultivated, and noted scholars invited to the country. The Swedish Academy was founded 1786. Bellman, Kellgren, Leopold, Thorild, Rosenstein and Adlerbeth are among the writers of this period, much under French influence. In science there were Linnaeus, Celsius, Bergmann, Scheele and Swedenborg. In the present century the influence of the German romantic school has been great in all directions, poetry, the drama, philosophy and fiction. Runeberg, Oscar II., Frederika Bremer, Rydberg and Mellin are representatives of this period. In science are Retzius. Fries, Berzelius and Nordenskiold. See Scandinavian Literature.

Sweeny, Thomas William, U.S.A., 1820-1892. Brisr.-sren. U. S. Vols. 1862-65; distinguished in Mo., at Shiloh, and in the Atlanta campaign.

Sweep. Lon^;- oar used on board ship to assist the rudder, during a calm, or the motion of the ship, as in the ancient galley.

Sweeping Table. Ore-dressing apparatus on which slimes are gently manipulated with a broom while a flowing current of water carries away the lighter and poorer portions.

Sweepstakes. Mode of gambling, especially at races. Tickets in a pool are sold for certain horses, the proceeds of which, less a certain percentage for the manager of the pool, is ;divided among those who bought tickets on the winning horse. The Pari Mutuel, the pool for the race for the Grand Prix at Paris, has paid 800 for 1. Pools are sold also for second and third place in the race.

Sweet, Benjamin Jeffrey, 1832-1874. Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1864-65: commander of Camp Douglas, which he twice saved, with Chicago, from Confederate attacks.

Sweet, Henry, b.1845. English philologist. Phonetics, 1877; Current Shorthand. 1892.

Sweet, John Edson, b.1832. American machinist, inventor of a straight-line engine.

Sweetbread. Pancreas of animals; that of ruminating animals is used as food.

Sweet-Brier. Rosa rubiginosa. Tall, climbing, odorous shnil) of the Rose family, native of Europe, cultivated and introduced into N. America.

Sweet-Cicely. 1. Herbs of the genus Washingtonia, natural family Umbellifera}, natives of the n. temperate zone. The roots are aromatic, with flavor of anise. 2. Myrrhis odorata, similar plant of the same family, native of Europe.

Sweet-Fern. Comptonia peregrina. Fragrant shrub of the natural family Myricaceat. native of e. N. America. Sweet-Flag. See Calamus.

Sweet-Gale. Myrica gale. Small shrub of the natural family Myricacea?. native of the cooler portions of the n. hemisphere, growing in swampy places.

Sweet-Leaf. Symplocos tinctoria. Small tree of the natural family Styracacea, native of the s.e. U. S. Known a* Horse Sugar.

Sweet Potato. Ipomoea batatas. Trailing vine of the natural family Convolvulaceee, bearing thick fleshy edible roots; widely cultivated for food.

Sweet-Sop. Anon a squamosa. Tree of the natural family Anonacea, native of tropical America: cultivated for its edible fruit.

Sweet Spirits of Niter. See Ethyl Nitrite.

Sweet Willlani,Wild. Phlox macidata. Showyflowered herb of the natural family Polemoniaceaz. native of the e. U.S.

Swell Of Muzzle. In 8weet Potato "P0""TM batata,). the old bronze and cast-iron cannon that portion of the gun near the muzzle which was made of greater thickness than the portion a few calibers in rear. Modern guns do not have it.

Swetchlne, Anne Sophie (soymanof), 1782-1857. RussianFrench writer, m. 1799: maintainer of a noted salon in Paris from 1816. Letters, 1861, tr. 1867; Writings, tr. 1869.

Sweyn, or Sven, d.1014. King of Denmark; father of Canute; invader of England 1003 and 1013.

Swift. 1. Fence-lizard. 2. More properly, 60 species of Picarian birds, of the family Mieropodidm or Cypselidhe, with Ions wings, rapid flight, crepuscular, short and wide bill, and deep gape. In these respects they resemble swallows, but they differ in having 10 primaries, 6 or 7 secondaries and 12 rectrices, :ind in being Picarian. Not all the family are "true" swifts. The latter have all four toes turned forward, and never more than 3 phalanges in any toe. Some build remarkable, pendent nests.

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Swifu < Micropus melba and Aficropus opus). M melba (upper fij^ur is Alpine swift, .If. apm (lower figure) is European Swift.

attached to walls and roofs and glued together with gluti H*

saliva. Among the other members of the family is Cha irs pelagica, the Chimney Swallow (Swift), with its spine-poi

tail feathers, and the Swiftlets, among which the Collo lit

species makes the edible birds' nests of almost pure mucus: •«

cave in n. Borneo yields three crops per year. 40 nests 1 rt

$9, and $25,000 worth are taken here annually. See Fiss > Tres, Oypseli, and Pamprodactylous.

Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745. Irish satirist. Ions a pow r

British politics; Dean of St. Patrick's. Dublin. 1713: fa ■> for genius, misantlirop\-, and disappointed ambition,

strange relations to "Stella" (Esther Johnson) and "Van a'

(Esther Vanhomrigh), and his lamentable fate, are still it

ters of general interest. Besides many tracts and much i .1

but vigorous verse, he wrote A Tale of a Tub and Battle V Books. 1697-1704: Conduct of the Allies, 1711; Journal to:

1713: Drapier's Letters, 1724: and the immortal Gulliver's r els, 1726. His mind gave way 1741.

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Swift, Lewis, b.1820. Director of an observatory at Rochester, N.Y.; discoverer of several comets.

Swift, William Henry, U.S.A., 1800-1879. Engineer, long on the coast survey, and later in railroad work.—His brother, Joseph Gardner, U.S.A., 1783-1865, was similarly employed.

Swift, Zephaniah. LL.D., 1759-1823. M.C. 1793-97; Judge Conn. Supreme Court 1801; Chief-justice 1806-19. Laws of Conn., 1795-96; Law of Evidence, 1810; Digest of Conn. Laws, 1822-23.

Swimmerets" (pleopods). Flat or leaf-like exopodites and endopodites of the abdominal appendages of lobster-like Crustacea; particularly those of the last joint, which are greatly enlarged, and, with the telson, form the tail fin of these animals.

Swimming. Art of keeping the body afloat in water and propelling the person in any desired direction; properly not a sport only, but a most necessary equipment for any one

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whose time is spent on or near the water. The sport includes diving and swimming under water. The most remarkable modern swimmers have been Capt. M. Webb, who in Aug. 1875 swum from Dover to Calais in 21 h. 45 min., and the Beckwiths, all of England. 100 yards in still water has been swum in one minute bv Mead ham of New S. Wales, 440 3rards in 5 min. 49i sec. by Tyers of England, and a half mile in 12 min. H sec. by Nuttal, an English professional. Beckwith, swimming 10 h. a day for six days, covered 94 m.; Miss Beckwith swum 20 m. in the Thames in 6 h. 25 min. P. S. McNally of Boston in July 1897 swum 35 m., nearly across the English Channel, in 15 h.

Swinburne, Algernon Charles, b.1837. English lyric and dramatic poet, noted for his unequaled mastery of melodious verse, and in early life for his radical opinions and the extreme freedom of his muse. These qualities are most apparent in Laus Veneris, 1866, and Songs before Sunrise. 1871. Atalanta in Calydon. 1864, is his best dramatic poem. He has also pub. Essays and Studies, 1875, a Life of Victor Hugo, 1886, and other critical prose.

Swine (suid^e). The native pig of the New World is the Peccary; others have been introduced. The domestic pig, Sus scrofa, is descended from the European wild boar, but with admixture of a stock long bred in e. Asia. The boar's canines of both jaws turn upward, and are used in digging for food, as well as for defense. Wild swine are swift runners. They rut in the fall. The gestation period is4 months, the young, which are striped, are hidden and well-defended by the mother. A number of species live in the E. Indies; others are the Bosch Vark in S. Africa and the Red River pig of Guinea. See Wart Hog.

Swine are kept but for one purpose, meat; consequently all the breeds approach one type of form, that most profitable for meat production. Breeds differ mainly in size, color, and minor points. An adult male is a boar, a castrated male a barrow, an adult female a sow, a female that has not produced young a gilt, and the young are pigs.

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the face, the four feet, and a few hairs at the tip of the tail, white. They have a dished face and erect ears. Next to Poland China in numbers, they are much esteemed for the high quality of the bacon and hams they furnish.

Cheshire.—White breed resembling the Chester White; chiefly known in a few counties in central N. Y.

Chester White.—Large white breed, originating in Chester co., Pa. They are the largest and most popular of the white breeds. No black hair is admissible, but bluish spots in the skin are not a disqualification.

Duroc-Jersey.—American breed, characterized by large size and a red or reddish brown color. They are somewhat coarse in body, and are held in less esteem on that account. They are hardy and prolific.

Essex.—Small black English breed. They make a very good quality of pork, but are too small to enter into competition with the improved American breeds.

Poland China.—Breed that originated in central Ohio, by crossing, selection, and inbreeding. They are of large size, formerly largely spotted, but now nearly entirely black, and very smooth and symmetrical, with a slightly dished face and drooping ears. They far outnumber any other breed.

Suffolk.—Small white English breed. They have scanty hair and tender skins, rendering them liable to scurvy and other skin diseases, on which account they are little kept.

Victoria.—White breed of composite origin. There are claimed to be two different breeds; and one of them at least has not well-fixed characteristics. They are kept only in small numbers.

Yorkshire.—Small white breed of English origin, chiefly characterized by their short and very much dished faces. They

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mature early, fatten readily, and are much prized where a small carcass is desired for cutting up fresh. See PORK. Swine-Cress. See Wart-cress.

Swing. Common means of amusement in Asia, as well as Europe and America. In Corea. swinging is a spring sport and is practiced by girls even of 18 and 19 years. In Japan, men and boys swing, both the swing and the act of swinging being called Buranko.

Swing, Captain. Name assumed by certain persons in England between 1830-33, who sent threatening letters to those who used threshing-machines. Disregard to these demands resulted in the burning of grain-stacks and farm buildings. The laboring class believed that the use of machinery would lessen the demand for labor.

Swing, David, 1830-1894. Prof. Miami Univ.. Ohio. 185466; Presb. pastor in Chicago from 1866; independent from 1874, after a trial for heresy, of which he was acquitted. His influence was great. Club Essays, 1880.

Swing Bridge. One which swings on a central pivot. See Bridges and Drawbridge.

Swinton, William, 1833-1892. Scottish-American writer of school-books and histories of the Civil War: prof. Univ. Cal. 1869-74. Rambles Among Words, 1859; Word Analysis, 1872. —His brother, JOHN, b.1830, is a journalist and radical lecturer.

Swiss Guards. In the French service from 1616; famous for fidelity and heroism; nearly annihilated in defending the Tuileries Aug. 10. 1792; in 1830 defeated and dispersed. The Pope employs Swiss Guards about his palace.

Swiftshelm, Jane Grey (cannon), 1815-1884. American journalist and anti-slavery agitator. Half a Century, If81.

Suite i. Arrangement of levers and movable r ils. 1478

SWITCHBACK RAILWAY-SVDEXHAffl

whereby a train may be turned from one track upon another. "The principal types are the Stub, Split, and WharTon Switches (q.v.).

Switchback Railway. One in a mountainous country, so arranged that after a down grade the train runs by its momentum up a short grade, and then backward by gravity on another track; also, road where a car is drawn up an inclined plane, and then runs back in a circuit to the point of starting. The oldest in the U. S. is that at Mauch Chunk, Pa., built 1845 for coal transportation.

Switch-Grass. See Quack-grass.

Swithin, St., d.862. Bp. of Winchester 852; canonized 970. His bones were removed to the cathedral 971, and were supposed to work miracles.

Switzerland. Republic of Europe, between Italy, France, and Baden; of irregular shape; area 15.964 sq.m. Its surface consists mainly of an alternation of high, rugged mountains (the Alps) and narrow valleys. Its agricultural industries are extensive and varied. The manufactures are also large and varied, consisting largely of silk, cotton, watches, and condensed milk. Its railway mileage in 1898 was 2.220. Its early history is one of heroism, as shown in the compact of Uri, Sehwyz, and Unterwalden 1307, and the legendary deeds of Wm. TELL (q.v.). The Austrians were defeated at Morgarten 1315, at Sempach 1886, and at Naefels 1388. Lucerne joined the alliance 1332. The Helvetic Confederation was founded 1352 by eight Cantons. Independence was secured 1477 by the destruction of Charles the Bold. Five more Cantons were added 1513. Zurich was defeated by R. C. Cantons 1531. By the treaty of Westphalia (1648), S. was acknowledged as an independent State, and again, at the peace of 1815. A Helvetic Republic existed 1799-1803; French influence prevailed till 1814.

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The confederation consists of 22 Cantons, each represented in the Diet. The constitution was modified 1830, 1848, and 1874. The Cantons are divided into absolute and representative democracies. In the former, legislation is conducted by a yearly assembly of the adult male population; in the latter, by a great council, elected by the people. The control of the army, foreign affairs, police, post-office, settlement of disputes between Catitons, are handed over to a Federal Assembly of two Chambers, the State Council of 44 members, and the National, of 135. Executive power is delegated to a Federal Council of 7, holding office for 3 years, the President being merely one of the Council. The Federal Tribune, of 9 members, elected by the Federal Assembly, acts as a high court of appeal. Every citizen is obliged to serve as soldier; there is no standing army. Property is much subdivided, and there are no titles of Swiss origin. Systems of law differ in the different Cantons. Mountains and lakes produce the finest scenery, and make S. "the playground of Europe," and the resort of multitudes of summer visitors from all parts of the world: hotel-keeping is a leading and increasing industry. The chief cities are Zurich, Geneva, Basel, and Berne. Pop., 1894, 2,986,848.

Sword. Hand weapon used in all lands and ages, except by savages; of varying size and shape; in the past sometimes, but rarely, two-handed; sometimes curved, as the saber, but usually straight; formed for either cutting or thrusting, or for both. The edge may be single, or double, as in the Highland claymore. The hilt or handle has been variously formed, often elaborately decorated, and sometimes of basket pattern.

Tree of the Fig family, na

It embraces the rapier, cutlass, broadsword, scimiter and saber. It is the official weapon of the commissioned officer and the symbol of his authority, of which he is temporarily deprived when placed in arrest.

Sword Bayonet. Bayonet shaped like a short broad sword, now used with the new service .80 caliber rifle. When detached from the rifle it may be used as a cutting implement.

Sword Dance. Dancing with swords is a ceremonial custom of great antiquity, and took the form either of a practical military exercise, in which it existed in n. Europe to a late time, or as a dramatic exhibition by youths or girls, such as the Pyrrhic dance of the Greeks and Romans. A sword dance by singing girls is a popular amusement of the gentry of Corea. In Scotland the person dances over two swords crossed upon the ground or floor.

Swordfish. See Acanthopteri and Xiphias.

Syagrius. Ruler of the kingdom of Syagrius, between the Seine, Marne and Oise in France. Defeated by the Franks under Clovis at Soissons 486, by whom he was put to death. He was the last Roman ruler in Gaul.

Sybaris. Greek town in Lucania, on or near Gulf of Tarentum; founded ab. 720 B.C.; famous for luxury; taken and destroyed 510 B.C. by Crotonians, and a river turned on its site.

Sybel, Heinrich Von, 1817-1895. German historian; prof. Bonn 1841 and 1861. Marburg 1846, and Munich 1856; member of several parliaments; director of archives at Berlin 1875; founder and ed. Hilt. Zeitschrift. Deutschen Konigthums, 1844; Revolutionszeit, 17S9-J800, 5 vols.. 1853-74: Establishment of the German Empire, 5 vols., 1885-90, tr. 1891.

Sycamine. In Scripture, the black mulberry tree.

Sycamore. Fictts sycomorvs. tive of the Mediterranean region. In Scripture, species of fig, with leaves slightly resembling the mulberry. The wood was light and porous, but lasted for very many ages.

Sycamore, American. See Buttonwood.

Sycandra. Calcareous sponge, one of the Sycones. See Syconid^e.

Syconidae (sycones).

Calcareous sponges, rarely Branch of Ficut sycomonu: a, fruit, colonial, with thick walls,

pierced by straight radial tubes that project on the surface. The body is sac-like, opening by one osculum. The flagellated cells are confined to dilatations of the radial canals. Sycandra is an example.

Syconlnm. Fig-fruit. It consists of a hollow flower-stalk

or receptacle, within which a large number of minute flowers are borne, some of which ripen small achenes. often considered the seeds, the structure becoming fleshy and edible. It is alsocalled a Hypanthodium.

Sycon-Type. Sponge having simple or branched lateral or radial tubes, coming off from the paragaster and involving the entire body wall, or simply burrowing in a thick mesoderm. In this type, the endoderm cells are of two sorts, pavement cells and choanocytes; the latter are restricted to the radiating tubes.

Sycosis. Name given to various diseases of the hair follicles. Barber's itch, a contagious disease, is sometimes so called. True sycosis is non-parasitic and, consequently, not communicable.

Sydenham. In Kent, 8 m. s. of London; site of the Crystal Palace, built 1852-54, at a cost of ab.$7,000.000.

Sydenham, Charles Edward Poulett Thomson, 17991841. M.P. 1826; Privy Councilor 1830; Gov.-gen. of Canada 1839; Baron 1840.

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