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Sugar (cane Sugar, Sucrose, or Saccharose). C.-H^O,,. This occurs in the juice of sugar cane, sugar beet, maple, palm trees, and many other plants. It forms monoclinic crystals, sp. gr. 1.61, mpt. 160° C; at 200° C. it is converted into CaraMel (q.v.). At 0° C. it is soluble in half its weight of water; at 50° C. it is soluble in ^ its weight of water. Its water solution is Lsvorotatory (q.v.). It is insoluble in absolute alcohol; with dilute alcohol it increases with the dilution. Acids and ferments invert it into dextrose and laevulose. This must take place before fermentation with yeast will take place. It is determined in water solution by a POLARISCOPE (q.v.).

The world's production of cane sugar in the year 1894-95 was estimated at 3,436,700 tons; Europe produced 4,866,000 tons of beet sugar and the U. S. ab. 30,000 tons. Of cane sugar Cuba produced 975,000 tons and the U. S. 285,000 tons. The U. S. also produce ab. 20,000 tons of maple sugar. India produces 100,000 tons of palm sugar.

See Cane Sugar, Caramel. Dextrose, Glucoses, Lactose, Luevulose, Maltose. Maple, Milk Sugar, Molasses, and Sorohum.

Sugar, Beet. The sugar beet is the result of cultivation, oeing derived from the wild Beta maritima, several varieties having been developed. It flourishes best in a northern temperate climate. The beets weigh from 1.5 lbs. to 2 lbs. and contain from 10 to 15 per cent of sugar. They are reduced to a pulp by circular saws, 25 per cent of water is added and the juice expressed by a hydraulic press, or extracted by the diffusion process. An excess of lime is added to the juice to neutralize acidity and precipitate the coloring matter; carbon dioxide is passed through to precipitate the lime and the whole is clarilied by a filter press. The solution is then concentrated in a vacuum pan to crystallization. The yield in Germany is from 1,500 to 2,300 lbs. per acre, and in France, up to 2,700 lbs. The molasses is too saline for food and is used in making alcohol. Sugar was produced from the beet in Germany 1798 by Achard, in France 1782 by Rosier, in the U. S. 1830: in the latter were five factories in 1895.

Sugar, Cane. Saccharum officinarum. This was cultivated in India before the Christian era; the boiling of sugar was practiced on the Ganges in the 7th century. The Arabs first practiced sugar refining in the 7th century, and also carried the cultivation of the cane along the Mediterranean to Spain. The Spaniards carried it to San Domingo 1494. It was introduced into the U. S. 1791. Sugar cane flourishes best in subtropical countries. The cane, whole or in cuttings 2 ft. long, is laid in furrows 4 to 6 ft. apart in W. Indies, 8 ft. apart in Louisiana; the plants are from 2 to 5 ft. apart. In the W. Indies the planting takes place in the fall, the crop being gathered in the spring; in Louisiana the reverse of this. The young canes grow from the joints of the cane. Two or three annual crops are obtained from a planting in the U. S.; in the W. Indies as many as fifteen. The plant is from 6 to 15 ft. high, and from 1 to 2 in. diameter. The contents of sugar is from 12 to 18 per cent, of which up to 86 per cent is obtained by the mill, and by the diffusion process up to 95 per cent. The cane juice is expressed by passing between heavy rolls of the sugar mill, or it is extracted by the diffusion process. For the latter the cane is cut into chips and placed in a series of iron vessels, with perforated bottoms, each holding 2 tons. Water passes from one vessel to the next, and so on through theseries; the cane in the first vessel being nearly exhausted and the 'last vessel having fresh cane, the solution thus becoming concentrated. The first vessel is then refilled with cane and becomes the last of the series, and what was the second becomes the first, and so on. This process is used to a limited extent with cane, but is largely used with beets. The juice is now strained and milk of lime added to it in a clarifier to neutralize the acidity and heated to 140° F. to coagulate the albuminous substances. It is then boiled down to crystallizing point in a series of copper pans, baled into a cooler and then into molds to crystallize. In 18 hours the plug in the bottom of the mold is drawn and the molasses drained off, the last being forced out by water from a layer of moist clay laid upon it. For muscovado the sugar is transferred from the cooler into hogsheads, the molasses draining from holes in the bottom. On some plantations the juice after skimming is run through bag- and bone-black filters for decolorization, concentrated in a vacuum-pan and, after crystallizing, the sugar is freed from molasses by a centrifugal machine. The yield of sugar per acre reaches 2,000 lbs. in the U. S., and 5,000 lbs. in W. Indies. The molasses consists of a solution of saccharose, dextrose and Irevulose with saline substances of the juice. The first two are about equally sweet, the dextrose is less sweet, 3 parts being equal to 2 parts of the others.

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Sugar-cane (Saccharum ojfficinarum).

Sugar, Maple. This is obtained from Acer saccharinum of temperate climates. Two holes are bored in the tree two fett above the ground on the southern side and reeds or metallic spiles are introduced. The sap runs from February to April, and contains an average of 3.5 per cent sugar, requiring4gals, of sap for 1 lb. of sugar. It is evaporated in an open pan, flowing through devious furrows over it. The average yield of a tree per year is 3 lbs. besides the syrup; the trees last up to 80 years.

Sugar, Palm-tree. This is obtained from several species of palm trees in India. The trees are tapped as with the maple, and the season is from November to February. A good tree yields 30 lbs. of sugar a year and lasts up to 30 years.

Sugar, Sorghum. Sorghum saccharatum has been cultivated in the U. S. since 1853. It was originally from Africa. It contains up to 15 per cent of sugar. The presence of gum, starch and other substances interferes with the crystallization of the sugar. By adding alcohol to the somewhat concentrated juice, these substances are precipitated. After filtering the juice can be concentrated to crystallization. During the payment of sugar bounties, 1892-94, the average crop was 5.3 tons of cane per acre, yielding 82.5 lbs. of sugar per ton, equal to437 lbs. of sugar per acre. 3,000,000 lbs. were produced 189294. Without the bounty this would not be profitable, and molasses with some incidental sugar is made. See SORGHUM.

Sugarberry. See Hackberky.

Sugar Bounties. These were granted by the U. S. to producers in that country of sugar from sugar cane, sorghum, beets and maple, 1892-94. for sugar 90° polariscope or over 2 cts. per lb., 80°-90°, 1J cts. Total bounties paid were $28,817,108.14, expenses $2,724,768.59, total $31,541,876.73.

Sugar Cane. See Sugar.

Sugar Meal. See Gluten Meal.

Sugar of Lead. See Acetate Of Lead.

Sugar of Milk. See Lactose.

Sugar Refilling. With cane and beet sugar this is effected by dissolving the sugar in water to 30° B., adding to this calcium superphosphate and then lime to alkaline reaction. This is heated by steam, skimmed and strained,

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Lehigh Laboratory—Sugar lielluery Model.

mixed with pine sawdust and passed through a filter press. The solution is then decolorized by passing through a bonecoal filter and evaporated to crystallizing point in a vacuum pan. The molasses is separated from it by centrifugal machine, or in molds by forcing it out by a sugar solution.

Sugars. Many Carbohydrates (q.v.) with saccharine properties. In constitution they are all alcohols, and also anhydrides, ketones, or aldehydes. See SUGAR.

Sugden, Edward Burtenshaw, Lord St. Leonards, 17811875. Knighted 1829. English jurist, recognized as the highest authority on the law of real property in his time. Law of Vendors and Purchasers, 1805.

Suggestion. 1. Process of one idea calling up another to consciousness by ASSOCIATION (q.v.). The whole mental life is a series of suggestions, each idea being determined by the preceding. 2. In Hypnotism (q.v.). arousing in the mind of the subject of an idea, belief, or impulse in any way, but usually by some definite sign or command by the operator.

Suit in, Peter Frederik, 1728-1798. Danish historian.

Suicide. In Law. deliberate and intentional self-murder; formerly a crime in Britain entailing a shameful burial and the forfeiture of property. In the U. 8., only attempts at suicide are criminal. Annual suicide rate per 100.000 population: Saxony 31, Denmark 25.8, Austria 21.2, Switzerland 20.2. France 15.7, German Empire 14.3, Sweden 8.1, Norway 7.5,

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Wild Boars.

Wild Boar, Sits scrofa, but the pigs of China are referred to a distinct Indian species. In America, from Paraguay to Arkansas, the family is represented by the Peccaries. These occur in flocks, have no tail, have a cannon-bone, and the external toe of the hind foot is reduced to a metapodial splint. The Babyroussa, of the Malay Peninsula, is peculiar in the great growth of the upper canines, which grow, in the male, curved backward up over the face; they have also long lower canine tusks.

Suidas. Author of a Greek encyclopedic lexicon which gives a great variety of literary and linguistic information; personally unknown; probably before 1100.

Sulne. See Oleomargarine.

Slllllt. Peculiar grease found upon sheep's wool. It consists of a mixture of the potassium salts of stearic and other fatty acids, with a combination of these acids with cholesterin. See Lanoline.

Suite. Composition for either solo instrument or orchestra, consisting of a series of- pieces in the same key, but arranged to form an agreeable contrast in time. It was much cultivated ab. 1650-1750. when the pieces were the admired dances of the period. In its fundamental form it embraced four movements, allemande, courante, sarabande and gigue; to these were sometimes added a gavotte, passepied, branle, minuet or bourree. Modern forms are employed in the modern suite, and the old law of sameness of key has been abolished.

Suleiman. See Solyman.

Suleiman Pasha, 1838-1883. Turkish general, prominent in the wars with Servia 1876 and Russia 1877; defeated near Philippopolis Jan. 1878.

Suliman Sits. Range of s. Asia, trending n. and s., separating Afghanistan from the Punjab. Length ab.360 m., greatest altitude 11,295 ft.

Sulina. Branch of the Danube, near its mouth.

Suliotes. Albanian Christians who resisted the Turks till 1803, and were then massacred or deported to the Ionian islands. In the Greek war of independence they bore a heroic part.

Sulla, Lucius Cornelius, 138-78 B.C. Officer under Marius in Africa 107, and against Teutones and Cimbri 104-101; propraetor of Cilicia 93-91; Consul 88; conqueror of Mithradates 87-83, and of the Marian party under the walls of Rome 82. As dictator, 82-79, he proscribed his enemies, caused the death or exile of thousands, and was eminent for cruelty and vice.

Sullivan, Alexander Martin, 1830-1884. Irish journalist, imprisoned 1868; M.P. 1874-82.

Sullivan, Sir Arthur SeyMour. b.1842. English composer; prof. Royal Academy, principal National Training School of Music; knighted 1883. He began his career as composer in the severe style with oratorios, Prodigal

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Sulla.

Son, 1869, Light of the World, 1873, Martyr of Antioch, 1880, and has written overtures, services, songs, etc.; but his most lasting successes were obtained in the operettas with text of W. S. Gilbert: Trial by Jury, 1875; The Sorcerer, 1877: B.M.S. "Pinafore," 1878; Pirates of Penzance, 1880; Patience. 1881; Iolanthe, 1882; Princess Ida, 1884: Mikado, 1885; Ruddigore, 1887; Yeomen of the Guard, 1888; Gondoliers. 1889, and Utopia, 1893. He also composed a grand opera, Ivanhoe, 1891, and a cantata, Golden Legend, 1886.

Sullivan, Barry, 1824-1891. English tragedian, in U. S. 1857-60 and 1875.

Sullivan, Francis Stouohton, LL.D., b. ab.1740. Prof. Dublin. Constitution and Laws of England, 1772-76.

Sullivan, John, LL.D., 1740-1795. Delegate to Congress 1774 and 1780; Brig.-gen. 1775, Major-gen. 1776-80; active in Canada and N. J., at Brandy wine and Germantown, and against the N. Y. Indians; Atty.-gen. of N. H. 1782-86, Pres. 1786-89; U. S. District Judge from 1789.—His brother, James, LL.D.. 1744-1808, was Judge of Mass. Superior Court 1776-82, in Congress 1784-85. Atty.-gen. 1790-1807, and Gov. 1807-8. Hist. Maine, 1795: Land Titles in Mass., 1801.—His son, William, LL.D., 1774-1839, pub. Public Men of the Revolution, 1834.— His brother. John Lanodon, M.D., 1777-1865, patented a steamboat 1814.

Sullivan, John Lawrence, b.1858 in Boston. Pugilist; victor in many contests; defeated by James J. Corbett 1892. See Pugilism.

Sullivan, Peter John, 1821-1883. Col. U. S. Vols., serving in the West; U. S. Minister to Colombia 18H5-69. Don Felix Letters.

Sullivan's Island. Off Charleston, S. C; 6 m. long; site of Fort Moultrie.

Sullivan!, William Starling, 1803-1873. American bryologist. Musci Alleghanienses, 1846; Musci and Hepaticce of the U. S., e. of the Mississippi, 1856: Musci (of the Wilkes Expedition), 1859; Icones Muscorum, 1864.

Sully, Maximilien De Bethune. Duke Of. 1560-1641. Baron de Rosny; associate and Minister of Henry IV. of France; Duke 1606. By his resolute measures nnd personal supervision, he

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Sully.

raised the finances from utmost disorder, lightened taxes, checked the dishonesty of officials, and encouraged trade, agriculture and internal improvements. Memoires, 1634-62, tr. 1834.

Sully, Thomas, 1783-1872. American painter, of English birth. Many of his portraits have been engraved.—His son, Alfred, TJ. S. A., 1821-1873, Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862-65, served in Va. 1861-62, and against Northwest Indians 1862-64.

Sully-Prudhomme, Rene Francois Armand, b.1839. French poet, Academician 1881. Works, 5 vols., 1882-88.

Sulph. Prefix denoting compounds containing sulphur.

Sulphanllic Acid. NH1.('r.lI,.HSO,. Paramidobenzene sulphonic acid; monobasic; produced by the action of sulphuric acid upon aniline; magnificent rhombic crystals, not easily soluble in water; used in the manufacture of coal-tar colors.

Sulphates. Salts of sulphuric acid.

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Sulphide, Organic. Combination of sulphur with one or more organic groups or radicals; e.g., ethylene sulphide. C,H,:S; phenyl sulphide, (C,H5),:S.

Sulphides. Salts derived from hydrogen sulphide; or compounds formed by the union of sulphur with some other element.

Sulphindlgotlc Acid. Product of the action of sulphuric acid upon indigo. See Indigo Extract.

Sulphites. Derivatives of sulphurous acid.

Sulphocarbamide. S:C:(NHa),. Sulphourea; white crystalline solid, soluble in water; mpt. 171° C.; usually prepared by heating ammonium sulphocyanate. It is a weak base, and forms salts with mineral acids.

Sulphocyanic Acid. N • C-S-H. Yellow liquid, prepared from its salts. The potassium, ammonium and other salts are used in textile coloring. The potassium salt is made by fusing yellow prussiate of potash with sulphur and potash, the ammonium salt by heating carbon bisulphide with alcoholic ammonia. Sulphocyanates give a deep red coloration with ferric salts.

Sulpholelc Acid. Acid product, formed by the action of sulphuric acid on castor or olive oil. See Alizarine AsSistant.

Sulphonal. (CH,),:C:(SO,.C,H„),. Diethylsulphodimethylmethane; a disulphone; white crystalline solid, mpt. 126° C.; soluble in hot water; prepared by the oxidation of the corresponding sulphide; used in pharmacy as a hypnotic.

Sulphone. Combination of the group :SO, with two organic monobasic groups, ethyl sulphone (C,H,),:SO,., phenyl■ethyl sulphone, C,H,.C,H,:SO,. The«e compounds are formed by the oxidation of the sulphides, and in the aromatic series by the action of sulphuric anhydride upon the hydrocarbons. See Phenyl Sulphone.

Sulphonic Acids. Derived by the replacement of hydroxyl in sulphuric acid by an organic group. Thus from HO C H

Jjq'.so,, ethyl sulphonic acid, yo'.SO, is derived. Some can

be prepared by the oxidation of sulphides. Whenever strong sulphuric acid acts upon an aromatic compound, a sulphonic acid is formed. The acids are soluble in water, the salts usually crystallize well.

Slllpho Salts. Ordinary oxygen salts, in which the oxygen, either wholly or in part, has been replaced by sulphur; e.g., potassium sulphocarbonate, K,CS,.

Sulphourea. See Sulphocarbamide.

Sulphur. S. At. wt. 32.06, sp. gr. 2.07, sp. ht. 0.177, mpt. 114.5° C, bpt. 440° C, valence II. IV. VI.; known to the ancients. It occurs in deposits in Sicily, Italy, Spain, California; also in

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prevent free access of air. The pile is ignited, a part of the sulphur burns; the heat thus generated is sufficient to melt the rest of the sulphur, which runs down to the bottom of the pile. At proper intervals it is drawn off. The crude brimstone thus obtained is distilled and run into molds, forming roll brimstone or stick sulphur. In the distillation the vapor which is first cooled is deposited as a fine powder, called flowers of sulphur. Stick sulphur is soluble in carbon disulpliide; the flowers of sulphur is not. It is amorphous. Treated with oxidizing agents, it forms sulphuric acid. It is used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, gunpowder, fireworks, matches, bleaching, and for vulcanizing rubber. Native sulphur abounds in regions of active and of extinct volcanoes, and also in connection with beds of gypsum or about the outlets of sulphur springs. Sicily has long furnished most of the native sulphur used in Europe and America.

Sulphur Auratum. Golden vellow powder; Antimony Pentasulphide (q.v.).

Sulphur Chlorides. See Sulphur Dichloride.

Sulphur Dichloride. SCI,. Dark red liquid, sp. gr. 1.62, boiling at 62° C. with decomposition; decomposed by wab r in thiosulphuric acid; made by saturating the monochloriiie with chlorine at a temperature from 6° to 10° C. There are two other chlorides, S,CI, and SCI,, both made by direct union of the elements. The tetrachloride exists only at low temperatures.

Sulphur Dioxide. SO,. Density 2.21. Sulphurous anhydride; colorless, poisonous gas, of a pungent, suffocating odor; liquid at —17.8° C.. sp. gr. 1.45, solid —79°C; soluble in water, forming sulphurous acid; made by burning sulphur or iron pyrites in the air; used for bleaching straw, wool, silk, etc., as a disinfectant, and to prevent fermentation.

Sulphureted Hydrogen. H,S. Hydrogen sulphide; colorless gas, with an odor of rotten eggs; found in sulphur waters; made by treating ferrous sulphide with hydrochloric or sulphuric acid; used extensively in chemical analysis; poisonous. The odor of sulphur waters and of rotten eggs is due to the presence of HjS.

Sulphureted Hydrogen Group. Metals precipitated from solutions by sulphureted hydrogen; bismuth, silver, lead, copper, mercury, cadmium, gold, platinum, tin, antimony, and arsenic.

Slllphurets, or Sulphides. Combinations of sulphur with the metals; many are of great value as ores.

Sulphur Hexiodide. SI„. Gray-black crystals, similar to those of iodine; obtained by diluting a solution of iodine and sulphur in carbon disulpliide and allowing it to stand.

Sulphuric Acid. HaSO,. Sp. gr. 1.85, mpt. —26° C, bpt. 327° C. It distills without decomposition; it is a colorless, oilv looking liquid when pure, and one of the strongest acids. It was known to the alchemists, Geber having made it from alum and Valentine in the 15th century by distilling ferrous sulphate. Its composition was determined by Berthellot 1782. The use of niter with sulphur was proposed 1740 by Lefevreand Lemery, and leaden chambers by Dr. Roebuck 1746, the absorption towers bv Gav Lussac i825, and the Glover tower bv John Glover 1850. The use of pyrites dates from 1838. This acid is more largely used in the arts than any other. The strongest acid is used in making nitro-compounds and refining gold and silver; oil of vitriol in refining petroleum; tower and chamber acids in making superphosphates for fertilizers and a very large variety of manufactures. Most chemical industries make use of or are dependent upon it. 90 per cent of the world's product is used in the soda and superphosphate processes. England's product in 1878 was estimated at 850,000 tons, about half the world's product.

Sulphuric acid is made by burning sulphur or iron pyrites in a furnace with access of air, the oxygen of the latter converting the sulphur into sulphur dioxide. This is conducted, together with vapors of nitric acid, through a Glover tower filled with pieces of quartz or earthenware, and then through a series of large, sheet-lead chambers, into which steam or a spray of water is introduced. In these the sulphur dioxide is oxidized to sulphur trioxide by the nitric acid and combining with the water forms sulphuric acid. The waste gases from the last chamber, consisting of nitrogen and its oxides with a little sulphur dioxide, pass through two leaden Gay Lussac towers filled with coke over which sulphuric acid 1.7 sp. gr. drips; the lattercombines with the nitrogen trioxide.tetroxideand pentoxide. The lower oxides and nitrogen are not combined and pass out the chimney connected with the last tower; this chimney serves to draw the gases through the entire apparatus. The loss of nitrogen in the lower oxides is compensated bv the nitric acid, made from sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid, which is intro

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Sulphuric Acid Apparatus.

the strongest acid, called oil of vitriol, sp. gr. 1.85. Chamber acid reaches sp. gr. 1.5 and tower acid 1.65.

Fuming sulphuric acid, H„S,0,, sp. gr. 1.9, solid at 0° C, fumes in the air and is very corrosive. It was known in the 15th century. This is made in Bohemia by oxidizing pyrites ■contained in slate by exposure to moist air to iron persulphate and distilling the product in clay flasks, the acid passing off. It is also made by Winkler's process by passing sulphur dioxide and oxygen over platinized asbestos, where it is oxidized to sulphur trioxide, which is dissolved in sulphuric acid. This ucid is used for dissolving indigo, and in the manufacture of aniline and anthracene dyes.

Sulphuric Acid, Fumino. See Disulphuric Acid.

Sulphuric Ether. See Ethyl Ether.

Sulphur Monobromlde. S2Br,. Deep red liquid, beginning to boil at 60° C; decomposed by water; made by dissolving the requisite amount of sulphur in bromine. The higher bromides are not known with certainty.

Sulphur Monochloride. S3C1,. Sulphurous chloride; yellowish red liquid; sp. gr. 1.70, bpt. 137° C. (uncor.); of characteristic, disagreeable odor. Its vapor irritates the mucous membrane. It is soluble in carbon bisulphide and benzene. It is made by distilling sulphur with stannous chloride, and is used in vulcanizing rubber.

Sulphur Honolodlde. S,I,. Lustrous crystals or gray crystalline mass; made by fusing sulphur and iodine.

Sulphur Rain. Rain which after evaporation leaves a yellowish powder, erroneously supposed to be sulphur; really the pollen of plants.

Sulphur Tetrachloride. SCI,. Light, mobile, yellowishbrown liquid, decomposed by water into sulphur dioxide and hydrochloric acid; made by saturating the monochloride with chlorine at a temperature of —20° to —22° C. See Sulphur

DlCHLORIDE.

Sulphur Trioxide. S03. Sulphuric anhydride; white, crystallized solids; mpt. 14.8° C. The liquid boils at 46° C. It is made by passing sulphur dioxide and oxygen over asbestos covered with finely divided platinum, and is used for making "solid sulphuric acid," which is almost pure H,S,0,. It combines with water with violence to form sulphuric acid. It acts energetically as a dehydrating agent.

Sulphuryl Chloride. SOaCI3. Liquid, easily decomposed by water; made by the action of chlorine on sulphur dioxide in direct sunlight.

Sulpicia, 1st cent. Roman poet, whose works are lost: a satire bearing her name is of later origin.—Another, somewhat earlier, is the supposed author of six elegies.

Sulplcians. Order founded 1642-45 at Paris to train youths for the priesthood.

Sulplcius Severus, ab.363-ab.420. French priest, biographer of St. Martin of Tours. His Chronica extend to 400.

'of the Turkish em

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Sultan. Mohammedan ruler, esp pire. The title was first assumed an.1000."

Sulu (or SOOLOO) Island*. Between Borneo and the Philippines; first visited by the Spaniard Figueroain 1578; in number 162; held bv Spain since 1876. Area ab.1,550 sq. m., pop. ab. 100,000, chiefly Malays.

Sum. In arithmetical addition, number containing as many units as are contained id all the numbers added: in algebraic addition, aggregate of the expressions added, like quantities being united and others connected by plus or minus signs. In algebra the sum of two quantities having unlike signs is a difference, having the sign of the greater.

Sumach. Shrubs and small trees of the genus Rhus, natural order Anacardiacew, natives of N. America, Asia and s. Europe. The bark is used for tanning.

Sumach, Poison. Rhus vernix. Tall shrub of the Sumach family, growing wild in swamps in e. N. America, the foliage poisonous to the touch. The Venetian Sumach or Smoke-tree is not properly a sumach. Its leaves and twigs dye yellow and "are used in tanning. The bark has been used as a substitute for Peruvian Bark.

Sumarokov,ALEXANDER.17181777. Russian dramatist, poet, and critic.

Sumatra. Island in the In-( dian Ocean, separated from the, Malay Peninsula by Malacca Strait j and from Java by the Strait of' Sunda; 1,115 m. long, with a maximum breadth of 275 m. The interior is mountainous, with ranges Smoke-tree (Rhus cotinug) showrunning n.w. and s.e., parallel to m« leaves' flowcrs- and frultthe coast. It contains extensive fertile and highly cultivated plains. The s. part belongs to the Dutch. Its inhabitants are of Malay stock. The island was discovered by the Portuguese Lopez de Figuera 1508. Tobacco is exported to Europe and the U. S. Area ab. 163,000 sq. m., pop. ab. 3,000,000.

Sumbawa. One of the Sunda Isles, e. of Java; desolated 1815 by an eruption of its volcano Tambora. Area 54 sq. m., pop. ab. 150,000, Malays.

Sumerlans. Supposed ancient inhabitants of Babylonia, preceding the Semites. The Akkadians were a branch of them.

Sumeru. See Meru.

Summary Proceedings. Those which are speedy and generally without a jury; e.g., for evicting a tenant, collecting taxes, or punishment of contempt of court.

Summational Tone. See Combinational Tones.

Summation of Stimuli. Physiological law of the nervous system; viz., that a stimulus inadequate by itself to bring about a response may, when acting with one or more other stimuli equally inadequate by themselves, produce the reaction.

Summer Eggs. Such as are produced from spring until autumn in many invertebrate animals, and which in many cases develop parthenogenetically and immediately; distinguished from winter eggs, which are generally fertilized, are protected by special shells, and rest over winter to develop the next spring.

Summerfleld, John, 1798-1825. English Methodist preacher, in the U. S. from 1821; noted for eloquence.

Summers, Thomas Osmond, D.D., LL.D., 1812-1882. Editor of many publications of M. E. Ch. South: author of commentaries and other books. Refutation of Paine, 1855.

Summer's Islands. See Bermudas.

Summons. Instrument in law, notifying a party of a suit commenced against him; to bring a defendant into court: to give a person sued an opportunity to appear and answer; generally a citation to appear before a judge or magistrate.

Summum Bonum. Highest good; ultimate end of reasonable human action.

Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874. Lecturer at Harvard Law School 1835-37 and 1843: in Europe 1837-40; U. S. Senator from Mass. from 1851; eminent for learning, eloquence, and uncompromising earnestness; long the most brilliant and powerful

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ministration; but the loftiness of his motives and aims was never questioned. He was chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations 1861-71: his last years were given mainly to the Civil Rights bill. TVorfcs, 15 vols , 1870-83; Memoirs and Letters, 4 vols., 1877-92.

Sumner, Charles Richard, D.D , 1790-1874. Bp. of Llandaff 1826, and of Winchester 1827-69. Ministerial Character of Christ, 1824.—His brother, John Bird. D.D., 1780-1862. Bp. of Chester 1828, Abp. of Canterbury 1848, pub. Apostolical Preaching and other books.

Sumner, Edwin Vose, U.S.A., 1797-1863. Gov. of New Mexico 1851-53; Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861, Major-gen. 1862; prominent in the Va. battles.

Sumner,jNCREASE. 1746-1799. Judge Mass. Supreme Court 1782-97; Gov. from 1797.

Sumner, William Graham. LL.D.. b.1840. Prof. Yale since 1872. Hist. American Currency, 1874; Andrew Jackson, 1882; Economic Problems. 1884; Protectionism, 1885; Political and Social Science, 1885; Robert Morris, 1892: Hist. Banking, vol. i., 1896.

Sumner's Method Of Determining The Position Op A Ship At Sea. In the ordinary method, the place is found by the intersection of a circle of latitude with one of longitude. Sumner substitutes, for these, two circles from every part of the circumference of which the altitude of the sun is the same. His method has some advantages.

Sump. In Mining, extension of a shaft below the lowest working-level of a mine, into which the water of the mine is conducted, and from which it is pumped.

Sumptuary Laws. Laws, now generally obsolete, for the regulation of private habits, prescribing the quality and quantity of food, dress, and amusements, funerals, etc., in the supposed interest of economy and morality.

Sumter, Thomas, 1734-1832. Officer of the American Revolution, serving with great gallantry in S. C. and N. C.: Brig.gen. S. C. troops 1781: M.C. 1789-93 and 1797-1801; U. S. Senator 1801-9; Minister to Brazil 1809-11.

Sumter, Fort. At entrance to Charleston Harbor, S. C. On the secession of S. C, Dec. 1860, its surrender was demanded, and refused by Major Anderson. Gen. Beauregard opened fire April 12; it surrendered April 14, 1861: this marked the beginning of the Civil War. The fort was held by the Confederates during the war, and was shattered during the siege of Charleston.

Sun. Central body of the solar system. Diameter 866.500

m.; volume 1,300,000 times that of the earth; mass 332,000 that of the earth; gravity at surface 27.6 that at earth; density 1.41 that of water. The constitution is mainly if not en

[graphic]

Sun.

Corona during Total Eclipse of the Sun. 13th December 1871.
at Baikal, on the Malabar coast of India.

tirely gaseous, the heat being maintained by condensation and contraction of volume. See Corona (solar), Earth (figure Of), Eclipses Of The Sun. and Sun Spots.

Sun, DURATION OF THE. From such data as are available it is believed that the sua cannot continue to give light and heat as at present for more than 10,000,000 years.

Sun, Radiating Power Of. See Radiation.

Sun-Bittern (eurypyqa). S. American heron-like bird with long tail, broad wings, plumage mottled and barred with white, brown, and blue: the neck is thin and short, the legs are short, and have all the toes on the same level. Allied species are found in Madagascar and in New Caledonia. They are connecting links between Herons and Plovers.

Sun-Craek. Formed at the time when the rock consolidated and due to heat. These cracks are oftentimes filled up by new material, which is often harder than the rock in which it occurs.

Sunda, Strait Of. Between Sumatra and Java.

Sunda Island". E. of Java, including Flores and Timor. Sumatra and Java are sometimes included.

SundaneNC. Malay tribes of w. Java; allied to the Javanese proper, but less cultured.

SundarbailN, or Sundf.rbunds. Delta of the Ganges, from the Hoogli to the Megna, ab.165 m. Area ab.7.550 sq. m., mainly swamp and jungle.

Sunday. First day of the week; day upon which Christ rose from the dead, therefore called the Lord's day. At a very early date Christians met for worship on this day, and it has become the Christian Sabbath; Saturday being the Jewish Sabbath. There is no express authority in the New Testament for this substitution. See Sabbath.

Sunday Lawi. For the preservation of the sacred character of the Lord's Day. Constantine, 321, ordered workshops to be closed. Alfred of England issued a similar decree 876. A statute of Charles II., 1676. forbade ordinary labor, trade, and legal processes. In the U. S. likewise Sunday is legally a dies non.

Sunday Letter. See Dominical Letter.

Sunday Schools. Begun 1780 by Robert Raikes at Gloucester, and in London 1784 by Rowland Hill; in America apparently by Asbury in "Va. 1786. They spread rapidly, and soon became accessories of every place of worship, needing rooms or buildings of their own. The American Sunday School Union was organized 1824. Christendom in 1893 had about 225,000 schools, with ab.2.240,000 teachers and over 20.000,000 scholars: half of these are in the U. S. This does not include non-Evangelical Protestants or Roman Catholics; the latter are estimated to have 800,000 scholars in the U. S.

Sunderland. Seaport town of Durham, at the mouth of

the Wear. It has a large shipbuilding interest and much commerce, especially in coal. Pop., 1891, 130,921.

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