Page images
PDF
[merged small][graphic]

Sulphuric Acid Apparatus.

the strongest acid, called oil of vitriol, sp. gr. 1.85. Chamber acid reaches sp. gr. 1.5 and tower acid 1.65.

Fuming sulphuric acid, H„S,0,, sp. gr. 1.9, solid at 0° C, fumes in the air and is very corrosive. It was known in the 15th century. This is made in Bohemia by oxidizing pyrites ■contained in slate by exposure to moist air to iron persulphate and distilling the product in clay flasks, the acid passing off. It is also made by Winkler's process by passing sulphur dioxide and oxygen over platinized asbestos, where it is oxidized to sulphur trioxide, which is dissolved in sulphuric acid. This ucid is used for dissolving indigo, and in the manufacture of aniline and anthracene dyes.

Sulphuric Acid, Fumino. See Disulphuric Acid.

Sulphuric Ether. See Ethyl Ether.

Sulphur Monobromlde. S2Br,. Deep red liquid, beginning to boil at 60° C; decomposed by water; made by dissolving the requisite amount of sulphur in bromine. The higher bromides are not known with certainty.

Sulphur Monochloride. S3C1,. Sulphurous chloride; yellowish red liquid; sp. gr. 1.70, bpt. 137° C. (uncor.); of characteristic, disagreeable odor. Its vapor irritates the mucous membrane. It is soluble in carbon bisulphide and benzene. It is made by distilling sulphur with stannous chloride, and is used in vulcanizing rubber.

Sulphur Honolodlde. S,I,. Lustrous crystals or gray crystalline mass; made by fusing sulphur and iodine.

Sulphur Rain. Rain which after evaporation leaves a yellowish powder, erroneously supposed to be sulphur; really the pollen of plants.

Sulphur Tetrachloride. SCI,. Light, mobile, yellowishbrown liquid, decomposed by water into sulphur dioxide and hydrochloric acid; made by saturating the monochloride with chlorine at a temperature of —20° to —22° C. See Sulphur

DlCHLORIDE.

Sulphur Trioxide. S03. Sulphuric anhydride; white, crystallized solids; mpt. 14.8° C. The liquid boils at 46° C. It is made by passing sulphur dioxide and oxygen over asbestos covered with finely divided platinum, and is used for making "solid sulphuric acid," which is almost pure H,S,0,. It combines with water with violence to form sulphuric acid. It acts energetically as a dehydrating agent.

Sulphuryl Chloride. SOaCI3. Liquid, easily decomposed by water; made by the action of chlorine on sulphur dioxide in direct sunlight.

Sulpicia, 1st cent. Roman poet, whose works are lost: a satire bearing her name is of later origin.—Another, somewhat earlier, is the supposed author of six elegies.

Sulplcians. Order founded 1642-45 at Paris to train youths for the priesthood.

Sulplcius Severus, ab.363-ab.420. French priest, biographer of St. Martin of Tours. His Chronica extend to 400.

'of the Turkish em

[graphic]

Sultan. Mohammedan ruler, esp pire. The title was first assumed an.1000."

Sulu (or SOOLOO) Island*. Between Borneo and the Philippines; first visited by the Spaniard Figueroain 1578; in number 162; held bv Spain since 1876. Area ab.1,550 sq. m., pop. ab. 100,000, chiefly Malays.

Sum. In arithmetical addition, number containing as many units as are contained id all the numbers added: in algebraic addition, aggregate of the expressions added, like quantities being united and others connected by plus or minus signs. In algebra the sum of two quantities having unlike signs is a difference, having the sign of the greater.

Sumach. Shrubs and small trees of the genus Rhus, natural order Anacardiacew, natives of N. America, Asia and s. Europe. The bark is used for tanning.

Sumach, Poison. Rhus vernix. Tall shrub of the Sumach family, growing wild in swamps in e. N. America, the foliage poisonous to the touch. The Venetian Sumach or Smoke-tree is not properly a sumach. Its leaves and twigs dye yellow and "are used in tanning. The bark has been used as a substitute for Peruvian Bark.

Sumarokov,ALEXANDER.17181777. Russian dramatist, poet, and critic.

Sumatra. Island in the In-( dian Ocean, separated from the, Malay Peninsula by Malacca Strait j and from Java by the Strait of' Sunda; 1,115 m. long, with a maximum breadth of 275 m. The interior is mountainous, with ranges Smoke-tree (Rhus cotinug) showrunning n.w. and s.e., parallel to m« leaves' flowcrs- and frultthe coast. It contains extensive fertile and highly cultivated plains. The s. part belongs to the Dutch. Its inhabitants are of Malay stock. The island was discovered by the Portuguese Lopez de Figuera 1508. Tobacco is exported to Europe and the U. S. Area ab. 163,000 sq. m., pop. ab. 3,000,000.

Sumbawa. One of the Sunda Isles, e. of Java; desolated 1815 by an eruption of its volcano Tambora. Area 54 sq. m., pop. ab. 150,000, Malays.

Sumerlans. Supposed ancient inhabitants of Babylonia, preceding the Semites. The Akkadians were a branch of them.

Sumeru. See Meru.

Summary Proceedings. Those which are speedy and generally without a jury; e.g., for evicting a tenant, collecting taxes, or punishment of contempt of court.

Summational Tone. See Combinational Tones.

Summation of Stimuli. Physiological law of the nervous system; viz., that a stimulus inadequate by itself to bring about a response may, when acting with one or more other stimuli equally inadequate by themselves, produce the reaction.

Summer Eggs. Such as are produced from spring until autumn in many invertebrate animals, and which in many cases develop parthenogenetically and immediately; distinguished from winter eggs, which are generally fertilized, are protected by special shells, and rest over winter to develop the next spring.

Summerfleld, John, 1798-1825. English Methodist preacher, in the U. S. from 1821; noted for eloquence.

Summers, Thomas Osmond, D.D., LL.D., 1812-1882. Editor of many publications of M. E. Ch. South: author of commentaries and other books. Refutation of Paine, 1855.

Summer's Islands. See Bermudas.

Summons. Instrument in law, notifying a party of a suit commenced against him; to bring a defendant into court: to give a person sued an opportunity to appear and answer; generally a citation to appear before a judge or magistrate.

Summum Bonum. Highest good; ultimate end of reasonable human action.

Sumner, Charles, 1811-1874. Lecturer at Harvard Law School 1835-37 and 1843: in Europe 1837-40; U. S. Senator from Mass. from 1851; eminent for learning, eloquence, and uncompromising earnestness; long the most brilliant and powerful

[blocks in formation]
[graphic][merged small]

ministration; but the loftiness of his motives and aims was never questioned. He was chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations 1861-71: his last years were given mainly to the Civil Rights bill. TVorfcs, 15 vols , 1870-83; Memoirs and Letters, 4 vols., 1877-92.

Sumner, Charles Richard, D.D , 1790-1874. Bp. of Llandaff 1826, and of Winchester 1827-69. Ministerial Character of Christ, 1824.—His brother, John Bird. D.D., 1780-1862. Bp. of Chester 1828, Abp. of Canterbury 1848, pub. Apostolical Preaching and other books.

Sumner, Edwin Vose, U.S.A., 1797-1863. Gov. of New Mexico 1851-53; Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1861, Major-gen. 1862; prominent in the Va. battles.

Sumner,jNCREASE. 1746-1799. Judge Mass. Supreme Court 1782-97; Gov. from 1797.

Sumner, William Graham. LL.D.. b.1840. Prof. Yale since 1872. Hist. American Currency, 1874; Andrew Jackson, 1882; Economic Problems. 1884; Protectionism, 1885; Political and Social Science, 1885; Robert Morris, 1892: Hist. Banking, vol. i., 1896.

Sumner's Method Of Determining The Position Op A Ship At Sea. In the ordinary method, the place is found by the intersection of a circle of latitude with one of longitude. Sumner substitutes, for these, two circles from every part of the circumference of which the altitude of the sun is the same. His method has some advantages.

Sump. In Mining, extension of a shaft below the lowest working-level of a mine, into which the water of the mine is conducted, and from which it is pumped.

Sumptuary Laws. Laws, now generally obsolete, for the regulation of private habits, prescribing the quality and quantity of food, dress, and amusements, funerals, etc., in the supposed interest of economy and morality.

Sumter, Thomas, 1734-1832. Officer of the American Revolution, serving with great gallantry in S. C. and N. C.: Brig.gen. S. C. troops 1781: M.C. 1789-93 and 1797-1801; U. S. Senator 1801-9; Minister to Brazil 1809-11.

Sumter, Fort. At entrance to Charleston Harbor, S. C. On the secession of S. C, Dec. 1860, its surrender was demanded, and refused by Major Anderson. Gen. Beauregard opened fire April 12; it surrendered April 14, 1861: this marked the beginning of the Civil War. The fort was held by the Confederates during the war, and was shattered during the siege of Charleston.

Sun. Central body of the solar system. Diameter 866.500

m.; volume 1,300,000 times that of the earth; mass 332,000 that of the earth; gravity at surface 27.6 that at earth; density 1.41 that of water. The constitution is mainly if not en

[graphic]

Sun.

Corona during Total Eclipse of the Sun. 13th December 1871.
at Baikal, on the Malabar coast of India.

tirely gaseous, the heat being maintained by condensation and contraction of volume. See Corona (solar), Earth (figure Of), Eclipses Of The Sun. and Sun Spots.

Sun, DURATION OF THE. From such data as are available it is believed that the sua cannot continue to give light and heat as at present for more than 10,000,000 years.

Sun, Radiating Power Of. See Radiation.

Sun-Bittern (eurypyqa). S. American heron-like bird with long tail, broad wings, plumage mottled and barred with white, brown, and blue: the neck is thin and short, the legs are short, and have all the toes on the same level. Allied species are found in Madagascar and in New Caledonia. They are connecting links between Herons and Plovers.

Sun-Craek. Formed at the time when the rock consolidated and due to heat. These cracks are oftentimes filled up by new material, which is often harder than the rock in which it occurs.

Sunda, Strait Of. Between Sumatra and Java.

Sunda Island". E. of Java, including Flores and Timor. Sumatra and Java are sometimes included.

SundaneNC. Malay tribes of w. Java; allied to the Javanese proper, but less cultured.

SundarbailN, or Sundf.rbunds. Delta of the Ganges, from the Hoogli to the Megna, ab.165 m. Area ab.7.550 sq. m., mainly swamp and jungle.

Sunday. First day of the week; day upon which Christ rose from the dead, therefore called the Lord's day. At a very early date Christians met for worship on this day, and it has become the Christian Sabbath; Saturday being the Jewish Sabbath. There is no express authority in the New Testament for this substitution. See Sabbath.

Sunday Lawi. For the preservation of the sacred character of the Lord's Day. Constantine, 321, ordered workshops to be closed. Alfred of England issued a similar decree 876. A statute of Charles II., 1676. forbade ordinary labor, trade, and legal processes. In the U. S. likewise Sunday is legally a dies non.

Sunday Letter. See Dominical Letter.

Sunday Schools. Begun 1780 by Robert Raikes at Gloucester, and in London 1784 by Rowland Hill; in America apparently by Asbury in "Va. 1786. They spread rapidly, and soon became accessories of every place of worship, needing rooms or buildings of their own. The American Sunday School Union was organized 1824. Christendom in 1893 had about 225,000 schools, with ab.2.240,000 teachers and over 20.000,000 scholars: half of these are in the U. S. This does not include non-Evangelical Protestants or Roman Catholics; the latter are estimated to have 800,000 scholars in the U. S.

Sunderland. Seaport town of Durham, at the mouth of

the Wear. It has a large shipbuilding interest and much commerce, especially in coal. Pop., 1891, 130,921.

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

Sunderland, Lb Boy, 1802-1885. American M.E. preacher 1823-45, whose sermons produced strange physical effects; noted as a temperance and anti-slavery orator; denier of Christianity from 1845. Pathetism, 1847-50; The Trance, 1860.

Sunderland, Robert Spencer, Earl or, 1640-1703. Sec. of State 1679-81 and 1682-88; Lord Chamberlain 1697: a servile and treacherous politician.—His son, Charles, 3d Earl, 16751722, was Sec. of State 1706-10, Privy Seal 1715, and Prime Minister 1718-21. He was tried for corruption in connection with the South Sea scheme, and acquitted, though believed to be guilty.

Sundew. Insectivorous herbs of the genus Drosera, natural family Droseracece, natives of bogs in the n. hemisphere.

Sun Dial. See DIALS.

Sun Dogs. Bright spots, resembling the sun, attendant upon solar halos, and accompanying the sun in his diurnal motion, as a dog follows its master. Two or more are frequently seen together, caused by refraction of solar rays through ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere.

Suildrops. KneiMa frutieosa. Showy, yellow-flowered herb of the Evening Primrose family, native of e. N. America.

Sundt, Eilert, 1817-1875. Norwegian publicist.

Sunflsh. 1. The true sunflshes belong to the Centrarchidce.

The body is deep and laterally compressed. The upper part of the operculum extends back, ear-like, and is dark-colored. There are ten or fewer spines in the dorsal fin. The sexes pair off during the breeding season, and excavate a circular nest which they guard until the young hatch. See Acanthopteri. 2. M o 1 a , one of the Plectognathi; a bizarre looking fish apparently all head and higher than long.

Sunflower. Coarse yellow-flowered herbs of the genus Helianthus, natural order Compositm, natives of America. The commonly cultivated large-flowered species is H. annuus. Native of tropical America, where it attains a height of 20 ft. Its seeds are an excellent food for poultry; an acre yields ab. •50 bu. of seeds, and each bu. 1 gal. of oil, which is little inferior to olive oil.

Sun-Grebes (fin-foots). Rail-like birds with lobed feet and the middle toe longest; they differ from true Grebes in having dull plumage and 18 tail" feathers in their fan-shaped tail. Only four species are known, one in S. America, two in Africa, and one in s.e. Asia.

Sunnees, or Sunnites. Main body of Mohammedans, accepting the Sunna, or orthodox Tradition, as of equal authority with the Koran. See Mohammedanism.

Sunn Hemp. Crotalaria juncea. Leguminous plant cultivated in India for its fiber and as a forage plant. It is better than jute, but inferior to true hemp.

Sunsets, Red. During the volcanic eruption on Krakatoa in the E. Indies in 1883, volcanic dust rose to a height of 20 m., whence it was carried round the earth by the upper air currents, producing for three years twilight glows, called red sunsets.

Sunshine Recorder. Apparatus for automatic record of the time, direction and intensity of sunshine at any locality. Its earliest form was Campbell's burning lens recorder: at present various forms of photographic or blue-print records are more generally adopted, as those of Stokes, Jordan, and Curtis.

Sun's motion In Space. The sun is found to be moving toward a point in the constellation Hercules, right ascension 267°, declination +31°, with a velocity variously estimated, but which may be 16 m. per sec.

Sun Spots. Openings in the photosphere of the sun, caused, according to one theory, by eruptions from below, according to another by cool matter rushing down from above; mostly confined to zones on each side of the equator between

[graphic]

Short Sunflsh (Orthagoriscits mota).

latitude 5° and 45°. Occasionally a spot is large enough to be visible to the naked eye. The duration may be only a few

[graphic]

or it may extend to a year or more. See Period Of Sun Spots.

Sun's Temperature. This has been variously estimated; the most reliable investigation seems to be that of Rosetti, who gives for the effective temperature 18,000°F.

Sunstone. Variety of feldspar (oligoclase or orthoclase) exhibiting internal yellowish, reddish, or salmon-colored reflections, from minute disseminated crystals of some accessory mineral. The best specimens come from Norway.

Sunstroke. Condition produced by exposure to excessive heat. There are two forms: (1) Heat exhaustion and (2) Heat stroke. 1. Prolonged exposure to high temperature, especially when combined with physical exertion, is apt to be followed by extreme prostration, collapse, and, in severe cases, delirium. The surface is usually cool, the pulse small, rapid and soft; the breathing easy though hurried; the temperature may be less than normal; while the vital forces fall into a collapse, the senses remain active. The individual need not be exposed to the direct rays of the sun. but the condition may come on when working in close, confined rooms during midsummer, or even be produced by artificial heat, as in the boiler room of an ocean steamship. The treatment includes the use of stimulants, ammonia is frequently valuable, and, whatever stimulant is used, it may be necessary to use it liyperdermically. When the temperature is below normal, a hot bath is indicated. 2. Heat stroke, thermic fever. This chiefly occurs in persons working very hard and exposed to the sun, especially if thny have been drinking beer or whisky. There is unconsciousness with hitrh temperature and the indications of a febrile condition. The indications for treatment are to reduce the temperature as rapidly as possible. Place the patient in a bath of the temperature of 70° F., use an ice pack, or rub the body with ice.

Sun Worship. Prominent element in many primitive religions, notably that of old Persia, and in Peru. The sun was

[graphic][merged small]

1472

SI PEItAXILLARV—SUPREMACY ACT

Supcraxillary. Above the axil, as the buds of Oymnocladux.

Supererogation. In R. C. Theology, opinion that by following the counsels of perfection one may do more than enough for his salvation, leaving a surplus for others' shortcomings. It is not an article of faith.

Superfecundatlon. Entrance of more than one spermatozoon into an ettg, particularly when more than one sperm unites with the female pronucleus. This takes place by fragmentation of the female nucleus and the consequent formation of as many embryos as there are zygotes. The result is monstrous and abortive development.

Super!'elation. Fertilization of an ovum in a uterus already occupied by a product of conception from a previous ovulation. The possibility of superfetation is now pretty generally denied.

Superficial Energy. See Capillarity.

Superflua. Order of the Linna?an class Syngenesia (natural family Compositce), having the florets of the disk perfect, but those of the rays only pistillate, as in Tansy and Goldenrod.

Superheated Steam. Steam at a higher sensible temperature than that which corresponds to its boiling-point at that pressure (see Saturated Steam). It is used in engines, so that the heat lost by internal condensation in the cylinder may be supplied from the incoming steam without condensation. The water or mist from such condensation would be reevaporated when the pressure was lowered by expansion of the steam after cut-off; for such evaporation additional demand for heat is made, which new steam and the hot cylinder walls must supply, and so on at each stroke.

Superintendence, Wages Of. Amount which the organizer of industrial operations, the entrepreneur, receives over and above the usual rate of interest on the amount of money invested.

Superior. In Botany, ovary of a flower when it is entirely free from and above the calyx.

Superior. Capital of Douglas co., Wis.; at w. end of Lake S.; settled 1855, revived 1881. It has flour and lumber mills, ironworks, and a large trade. Pop., 1890, 11.983. since greatly increased.

[merged small][graphic][merged small]

Huron. Area 31,200 sq. m., extreme length 412 m., extreme breadth 167 m.. maximum depth 1,008 ft., elevation 602 ft., drainage area 85,000 sq. m.

Superior Limit Op Integration. That toward which the definite integral is reckoned. When the limits are indicated, it is placed at the upper, the inferior at the lower extremity of the sign of integration.

Superior Limit op Roots. Quantity larger than the largest root. The ordinary limit is found by subjecting the largest negative coefficient to the root indicated by the position of the first negative coefficient from the first term: the result increased by one is the superior limit. The least superior limit is found by Sturm's theorem as a basis for approximating to the incommensurable roots.

Superior Planet*. Those whose orbits are outside that of the earth: Mars, the Asteroids, Jupiter, Saturn. Uranus, and Neptune.

Supernumerary. Extra men detailed for guard duty, to

i

take the places of those of the regular detail in case any of the latter are found not fit to march on guard.

Supernumerary Bud*. Buds in the axils of leaves in addition to the principal one.

Superphosphate. Fertilizers in which the phosphate o( lime has been made soluble by treatment with sulphuric acid. In general they give the best results on wheat, oats, and barley, on land that does not contain much lime. On some limestone lands their use seems to be practically without result. See Calcium Phosphates.

Supersnturation. Some solutions have a higher coefficient of solubility when hot than when cold. If such a hot saturated solution be carefully cooled, the salt does not immediately crystallize, but the liquid remains in a condition of supersaturation, and is in a state of unstable molecular equilibrium. If a crystal of the same salt be dropped in, the excess held in solution immediately crystallizes.

Suphi§, or Cheops. Second king of 4th Egyptian dynasty.

Suppe, Franz Von. 1820-1895. Composer of German operettas. Fatinitza, 1876, Boccaccio, 1879, A Trip to Africa, 1883, Bellman, 1887, and Clover, 1888, became popular in English versions in America.

Supper, Lord's. See Eucharist and Lord's Supper.

Supple-Jack. 1. Berchemia volttbilis. Climbingshrubof the natural family Rhamneae, native of the s.e. U. S. 2. Paullinia curassavica. Climbing woody vine of the natural family Sapindaceai, native of tropical America. Its stems are made into walking sticks.

Supplemental Chords. Those drawn from the same point on the curve to the extremities of a diameter. If the ellipse and hyperbola in one of two supplemental chords be parallel to any diameter, the other chord is parallel to the conjugate diameter. Supplemental chords thus determine conjugate diameters.

Supplementary Cost. That portion of the cost of production of any article which consists in its share of the general expenses of the business.

Supplement of an Angle. Remainder obtained by subtracting the given angle from 180". If the angle exceed 180°, the supplement is negative.

Supply, In Economics. Quantity of a given article which can be had at a given price.

Supply and Demand, Equilibrium Of. Balancing of the desire to acquire new economic goods with the desire to avoid certain efforts, or retain certain immediate enjoyments or other economic goods already possessed.

Supply Price. That required to call forth the exertion necessary for producing any given amount of a commodity.

Supported Joints. System of supporting the ends of rails upon cross-ties, as distinguished from that of suspended joints, where they are between the cross-ties.

Supporting Lamella. Thin lamella between the ectoderm and endoderm in Hydroids.

Suppression, In Botany. See Abortion.

Suppression of Contraction. Destruction of the contraction on one side of a contracted vein, thus increasing the flow of water.

Suppuration. Termination of inflammation when the pus producing bacteria have found lodgment and have developed. The tissues involved are liquefied and changed into pus. One of the fundamental causes for the great success of modern surgery is the exclusion of these bacteria from wound surfaces and the prevention of suppuration. Lister was a pioneer of antiseptic surgery, and a great deal of its popularitv, before its value was incontestably demonstrated, was due to his enthusiastic teaching. See Pus.

Supra-axillary. See Superaxillary.

Supralapsarianlsm. Severer form of predestinarian doctrine, ascribing the fall of man and the reprobation of the non-elect, as well as the election of the chosen, to the eternal purpose and decree of God.

Supra-resophageal Ganglion. Cerebral ganglion or brain of Invertebrates. It lies dorsal to the oesophagus, and is united to the infra- or sub-cesophageal ganglion and ventral nerve chain by nerve fibers, called circum-oesophageal commissu res.

Supra-renal Capsule. Flat triangular body, weighing from one to two drms., which covers the top of the kidney, as with a helmet. A cavity in the interior contains a reddish or yellowish fluid. Their function is extremely obscure, but probably concerned in lymphosis. See Addison's Disease.

Supremacy Act, Jan. 15, 1535. Henry VIII. of England assumed the style of "Supreme head of the Church of England."

[blocks in formation]

It was repealed 1554. and re-enacted 1559. Many executions followed the denial of the king's supremacy.

Supreme Court. Usually, the court of last resort in the State. See COURT.

Supreme Good. See Summum Bonum.

Supreme Rule Of Action. Ultimate rule of right and wrong, not with reference to any particular end, but according to an absolute standard.

Surabaya. Seaport on n.e. coast of Java, with a large export trade. Pop., 1890, 107,878.

Suraja Dowlah, d.1757. Nabob of Bengal 1756. He captured and plundered the old fort of Calcutta, June 1756, and shut 146 English prisoners in the Black Hole, where but 23 survived. He was defeated by Clive. Feb. 4, 1757, near Calcutta, and routed at Plassy, June 23. See Black HOLE.

Surakarta. Town of central Java; capital of the native prince, who is controlled by the Dutch. Pop., 1890, 91.368.

Surat. City of w. India, on the Tapti, 20 m. from its mouth; founded ab. 1510: thrice burned by the Portuguese;

[graphic]

View ol Surat.

commercially important ab.1550-1670; repeatedly pillaged by Muhrattas; partly occupied by English and Dutch from 1612; held by Gt. Britain from 1800. Pop., 1891, 109,229.

Surcouf, Robert, 1773-1827. French privateer, long troublesome to the British in the E. Indies.

Surd. Indicated root of a quantity which is not a perfect power of the degree of the root.

Surety. One who has made himself liable for another's undertaking: any change made therein without his consent avoids his liability.

Surface Condensers. See Condenser.

Surface Tension. See Capillarity.

Surf-Bird (aphriza). Plover-like bird of the Pacific coast of America.

Surfusion. Condition of a substance when liquid at a temperature below the fusing point. Sodium thiosulphate, e.g., will be in this condition if melted and then carefully allowed to cool without disturbance. If, when cold, a crystal of the salt be brought in contact with the fluid, the mass instantly solidifies with the evolution of heat.

Surgeons, College Of. Originated from 1460-61, and after various stages became the Royal Coll. of Surgeons of London in 1800. Its museum is the finest of its kind in Gt. Britain. Surgery. Originally a branch of medicine involving the

employment of manual operations. The term has been widened on the one hand to include more than this, and limited by the specialties on the other, making it difficult to draw a sharp dividing line. It may be considered to be that branch of medicine which takes cognizance of the diseases and accidents of those parts of the body that can be directly inspected, and the operative care of those parts that cannot be. Some Surgical Instruments from Pompeii. writers do not use the term so comprehensively, as they exclude the specialties. Surinam. Name given to Dutch Guiana. See Guiana. Surinam Toad. See Aolossa.

[graphic]

Surplice. White linen vestment worn by clergy during service; modification of the alb; objected to by Continental reformers and English Puritans; now universally used in Anglican and P. E. chancels, and generally by the choir also; used also in R. C. Ch.. and in Scandinavia only during the Eucharist.

Surplus Produce Of Land. Produce in excess of the amount which would have just recompensed the cultivator for his expenditure of labor and capital.

Surprise. In its simplest form, feeling aroused by a sudden, unexpected presentation. It seems to depend on a lack of harmony between the presentation and the expectant attention. This produces apparently a sort of mental shock, in its essence disagreeable. The characteristic facial expression of surprise, viz., intensified attention, is a preservative reaction, whose function is to obtain a clearer presentation of the object causing the feeling. Should the object continue strange and unrecognized, the feeling passes into wonder, which is a state much more intellectual and complex.

Surrey, Earl Of. See Howard, Henry.

Surrogate. Originally, substitute of a bishop in his judicial capacity; in the U. S*., local officer who exercises probate jurisdiction.

Surtees, Robert, 1779-1834. English antiquarian. County of Durham, 4 vols., 1816-40. The S. Society, established 1834, publishes similar works.

Survey, Board Of. Purely advisory board, com prising generally three military officers, called by the commanding officer of a military post for the purpose of ascertaining and reporting facts, submitting opinions, and making recommendations upon questions of responsibility which may arise through accident, mistake or neglect.

Surveying. See Land Surveying.

Surveyor's Chain. See Chain and Gunter's Chain.

Surveyor's Compass. Instrument for measuring the bearings of liiii-s; consisting of a magnetic needle mounted in a boxj with sights, the bearings being readl off on the graduated circle. See| Transit.

Surveys, Geological. The first State to provide for the investigation of its rock formations was N. C. in 1823, followed by Mass. in 1830, and by 1895 nearly all the States. Pa. made a second, more elaborate survey. In Ala., N. J. and Ohio a permanent survey is maintained. The U. S. government instituted geological examinations early in its history, and from 1834 has sent expeditions into the Western country for that purpose. The U. S. Geological Survey was established 1879; the British" in 1832, Canada 1842, Austria and Spain 1849, and other countries later. Surveyor's Compass.

Survival of the Fittest. See Natural Selection.

Survivorship. Whether A outlives B is to be established, under English law, by evidence, and not by presumptions based on age, sex, or physical strength. If the survivor is joint-owner or obligor with the deceased, he becomes sole owner or obligor at common law. This doctrine has been largely swept away by equity, commercial usage, and statute.

Surya. God of the Sun, in Vedic pantheon; called Savitar and Aditya. According to the myth, he traverses the world with a sunflower in his hand, in a chariot drawn by seven red horses, and produces light and heat. His charioteer is Aruna, god of the dawn, who has no legs.

Susa. Ancient capital of Elam or Susiana, the Khusistan of modern Persia. Important excavations have been made here by Loftus and by Dieulafoy. To the latter is due the discovery of important friezes in colored tiles, now in the Louvre. One of these is a unique representation of a procession of Persian archers.

Susanna. Jewish matron, heroine of a brief apocryphal book, which recounts the attempt against her virtue by two elders, their rebuff, their revengeful impeachment of her chastity, and their detection by the youthful Daniel. The R. C. Ch. gives it as the 13th chapter of Daniel.

Suscmihl, Franz, b.1826. Prof. Greifswald 1856: writer on Plato and Aristotle. Hist. Greek Literature in the Alexandrian Age, 1891.

Suso, or von Rerg, Heinrich, 1295-1366. Dominican

[graphic]
« PreviousContinue »