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some to life, while others are left to fall by their own devices; opposed to Supralapsarianism (q.v.).
Sublician Bridge. See Pons Sublicius.
Sublimate, Corrosive. See Mercuric Chloride.
Sublimation. Process or result when a solid passes at once into the state of a vapor without passing through the intermediate state of liquidity. The sublimation of arsenic, of solid carbonic acid, and of snow are familiar examples.
Sublime Porte. See Porte.
Submarine Forest*. See Peat and Fossil.
Submarine Mines. See Mines, Military.
Submarine Navigation. Submarine boat was proposed by William Bourne of London 1578; Cornelius Drebell, a Dutchman, is said to have constructed one in London 1624, propelled bv oars. Other experiments were made by Borelli and Papin 1872. Stapleton 1693, and David Bushnell of Conn. 1775. The latter was intended for submarine warfare, was propelled by a hand screw, and had an hour's supply of air; it carried a torpedo to fasten to the bottom of a ship. Robert Fulton in 1800 constructed a boat for the French government which carried a torpedo. In 1863 the Confederates, by means of a submarine boat, blew up the U. S. ship Housatonic off Charleston, but were carried down with the ship. Nordenfelt of Stockholm, in 1886, built a boat, propelled by steam, which sunk 30 feet and made a speed of 5 m. per hour; it was submerged by screws. In France the Goubet was successfully tried in 1889:
a, the electric accumulators; 6. tanks for compressed air; c, d, pumps; e, e, englues; /, cupola; g. the safety or emergency weight, which, In event of pumps or machines breaking down, can be detached, when the vessel at once rises to the surface. When proceeding on the surface only the cupola, /. Is visible above water.
it was 16.4 ft. long, 8.5 ft. beam, 5.8 ft. deep, propelled with a screw by electricity from storage batteries, had a detachable keel and carried a torpedo. A later invention by Gustave Zede is 56 ft. long. In U. S. George C. Baker invented a boat, propelled by electricity from storage batteries acting on a screw, with two upright screws for perpendicular motion. J. P. Holland of New York has devised a boat propelled by a petroleum engine 8 m. per hour, 6 m. per hour under water, and compressing air for breathing and for projecting the torpedo. It also has rudders for vertical steering. The objection to submarine navigation is the slow speed so far attained and the difficulty of distinguishing objects at a greater distance than 25 ft. at a depth of 50 ft. To steer in anything but a straight line is very difficult, without losing the knowledge of the position. Moving just below the surface the boats are a success.
Submarine Telegraphy. See Atlantic Cable and Telegraphy.
Subinentum. Piece in insects which articulates with the mentum (or palpiger), and attaches its parts to the gula or throat.
Submergetl Weir. One where the level of the tail water is higher than the crest of the weir, so that the contraction is suppressed and the flow disturbed.
Subnormal For Ant Point Of A Curve. Projection of the normal, limited by the points of contact with the curve and of intersection with a fixed line, upon this line as a base of projection. In rectangular co-ordinates the axes are taken as bases; commonly the axis of X. In polar co-ordinates, the base is a line perpendicular to the radius vector of the point of normal contact.
Subwsopliageal Ganglion. Most anterior ganglion of the ventral nerve-chain of Arthropods and annulated worms.
Subopercullim. Plate or scale lying ventral to the opercular plates.
Suborder. Group of families subordinate to an order.
Subordination. Willing submission to the direction and orders of superiors: the essential element of discipline in making the military organization efficient in carrying out the will of the commander.
Subpwna. Judicial writ for bringing parties or witnesses before a judicial tribunal. Its form, method of serving and enforcing, are regulated by statute, or by court rules.
Subrogatlve. Equitable right to succeed to the legal position of another; notably of a surety to succeed to the rights against his principal possessed by the creditor whose claim lie has been compelled to discharge.
Subsidiary Quantities. Elements introduced to facilitate reduction or solution, as the angle used in the reduction of cubic equations.
Subsidy. Amount paid by government to a person or corporation to help in the foundation of some work that is expected to be of public as well as individual advantage.
Subsistence Department. This provides, under the direction of the Secretary of War, for the distribution and expenditure of funds appropriated for subsisting enlisted men and for purchasing articles kept for sale to officers and enlisted men. In the U. S. army it consists of 1 commissarygeneral (brigadier-general), 5 assistant-commissary generals (2 colonels and 3 lieutenant-colonels), 17commissaries(8 majors and 9 captains), and 120 commissary-sergeants.
Subsoiling. Process of stirring the subsoil without lifting it to the surface; done by means of a special tool called a subsoil plow, following in the furrow of an ordinary plow. It is of advantage on heavy lands in allowing the water to sink more rapidly into the subsoil, thus in part performing tlie office of drains; and also, to some extent, in allowing the roots of plants more readily to enter and feed on the subsoil. It is scarcely profitable on drained lands for ordinary crops.
Substance. Permanent ground of phenomena which are changeable, or supposed reality which supports attributes, static or dynamic, and is synonymous with subject in its broader meaning. It is supposed to be material, spiritual, or both.
Substitute. Person accepted for military service in plare of one who has been conscripted.
Substitution. In Chemistry, replacing of one element by another in a compound.
Substitution, Law Of. Tendency of producers to choose just those factors of production the sum of whose supply prices is less than that of any other set.
Subtangent. At any point of a curve, projection of the tangent, limited by the points of tangency and of intersection with a fixed line, upon this fixed line as a base of projection. Bases of projection are taken, as for the subnormal.
Subtraction. In Arithmetic, process of ascertaining how much one number (minuend) exceeds another (subtrahend); in Algebra, process of finding such a quantity as, added to one of two quantities (subtrahend), will produce another (minuend). In either case, the result is the remainder. In algebraic subtraction, if the subtrahend be the greater (numerically), tlie remainder will be negative. Algebraic subtraction is performed by changing the signs of tlie subtrahend and then adding.
Subulate. In Botany and Zofilogy, awl-shaped organs of any kind.
Subumbrella. See Umbrella.
Subungulata (polydactyla). See Unoulata.
Sllbura. District of ancient Rome, occupying the valley between the Esquiline, Quirinal, and Viminal hills; a crowded, noisy, disreputable region. See Rome.
Subvertlcillutc. Imperfectly whorled.
Subway. Railroad track running through a city either in tunnel or beneath tlie surface. The most costly one in the U. S. is that in which the railroads enter New York City above
□early 40 in.; one of these runs under the Thames, and is operated by electric traction. In Baltimore an underground tunnel for the Baltimore and Ohio R.R., 10 m. long, was completed 1892.
Subzonal Membrane. Somatic mesoblast which lines the inside of the false amnion; in embryos of higher vertebrates.
Succession. In Roman Law, acquisition of another's legal rights or obligations; in English Law, continuance of the title to property in a corporation notwithstanding death or change of its members; sometimes devolution of title by will, deed, or the laws of descent.
Succession, War Of. See Spanish Succession.
Succlnamlde. CONH,.CH,.CH,.CONH,. Amide of succinic acid; solid, mpt. 242° C; prepared by the action of ammonia upon ethyl succinate.
Succinic Acid. C,H,:(COOH)a. Dibasic acid; white crystalline solid, mpt. 235° C. It occurs in amber, in plants and fruits, and can be prepared synthetically by numerous reactions. It is made commercially by the distillation of scrap amber.
Succlnj I. .CO.CH2.CH,.CO. Group, C.H.O,, conceived to be derived from succinic acid by the removal of two OH groups. The combination is of frequent occurrence. See Suc
Succory. See Chicory.
Succotll. 1. Point in Lower Egypt, at which the Israelites stopped in their exodus (Ex. xii. 37). 2. Cam ping-pi ace of Jacob, e. of Jordan, on leaving Esau; later its inhabitants refused to aid Gideon against the Midianites, and were punished (Judges viii.).
Succulent. Having a soft, juicy flesh or pulp.
Suchet, Louis Gabriel, 1770-1826. French general, distinguished in Napoleon's campaigns, and especially in Spain 180912; Marshal 1811, Duke of Albufera 1812. Memoires, 1829-34.
Suchet, Pierre Joseph, 1734-1793. Haytian historical writer, guillotined in France.
Sucker. Branch or shoot from the base of a stem, rhizome, or root.
Suckling, Sir John, 1609-1642. English lyric poet and playwright.
Sucre, or Chuquisaca. Capital of Bolivia, on e. slope of the Andes; founded 1539. Pop. ab.26,000.
Sucre, Antonio Jose De, 1795-1830. Venezuelan general, prominent under Bolivar in the liberation of Ecuador and Peru; Pres. of Bolivia 1826-28. He repelled a Peruvian invasion of Ecuador 1829.
Sucrose. See Suoar.
Suction Pump. One which exhausts the air from a tube,
the water then rising. It will not work if placed more than 33 ft. above the level of the water to be raised.
Suctoria. See AcineTaria and Hirudinea.
Suctoria (rhizocephaLA). Group of parasitic Barnacles, with tubular or sac-like bodies, without segments or appendages; the peduncle has root-like branches that penetrate the tissues of the host, for absorbing nutriment. Neither mouth nor digestive canal is present.
Sudamina. Eruption consisting- of minute vesicles, either clear or pearly, occurring near the termination of certain fevers, e.g., typhus, typhoid, rheumatic. It is a symptom of depressed vitality. Sudan. See Soudan. Suderinann, Hermann. 'b.1857. German dramatist
and novelist. Ehre (Honor), Suction Pump. 18gg. Sodoms EndCi 1890.
Heimath, 1892. His Magda was acted in French, Italian, and
English versions 1895-96. Among his tales are Dame Care,
1888, tr. 1892; Katzeruiteg, 1889; Tlie Wish, tr. 1895.
Sudetic lit*. Between Moravia and Silesia; extension
eastward of the Reisengebirge. Ht. ab.3,000 ft.
Sue, Marie Joseph Eugene. 1804-1859. A French romancer, voluminous, popular, and readable, but of low tone; Deputy 1850, exiled 1852; best known bv The Mysteries of Paris. 10 vols., 1842. and The Wandering Jew. 10 vols., 1845. His Mysteries of the People, 16 vols., 1849-57, was condemned by the courts.
Suet. Hard, solid fat, near the kidneys of sheep and oxen. Beef suet is used in cooking, and purified mutton suet in pharmacy as an ingredient in ointments.
Suetonius, Caius Tranquillus, b.ab.70. Secretary of Hadrian. His Lives of the Twelve Caesars, tr. 1732, are prized for the information which they contain: several other biographies and two grammatical treatises are attributed to him.
Suevi. German tribes, who in Cajsar'stime occupied Suabia (named from them) and part of Gaul. Some of them were in Spain later.
Suez. Egyptian town at the head of the Red Sea; of commercial importance in ancient times, and since 1869. Pop. ab. 13,000.
Suez, GULF OF. West arm of the Red Sea. between Egypt and the peninsula of Sinai. It is the Arabian Gulf of the Greeks and the Gulf of HeroSpolis of the ancients. Near the present head of the gulf the Israelites are supposed to have crossed. Length 200 m., average breadth 30 m.
Suez, Isthmus Of. Neck of land connecting Asia and Africa, having s. the Gulf of Suez and n. the Mediterranean, and crossed by the Suez Canal (q.v.). The surface is mostly moving sands, interspersed with rocky elevations, and salt marshes, the ancient crocodile lakes.
Suez Canal. Between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, 90 m. long, and of size sufficient to allow the passage of the largest vessels. Its cost was nearly $100,000,000. A canal existed here in ancient times: ab.1798 Napoleon conceived the idea of reopening it. De Lesseps organized 1854 a company with a capital of 200,000,000 francs, soon increased to 300,000,000 francs, of which England owns the controlling share. The canal was begun 1858. and opened Nov. 17, 1869. Since March 1,1887, night navigation has been allowed through the entire length of the canal to all vessels provided with the necessary electric lighting apparatus. It is 325 ft. wide at top. 72 ft. at bottom, and 28 ft. deep. Of late some 3,000 vessels pass annually.
Suffixes. Originally independent words, placed in a modifying capacity after other words, and acquiring in time an inflective force. Thus like becomes ly, and gives a purely adverbial meaning to the word to which it is attached. Pronouns suffixed to verbs become Map of Suez Canal,
mere endings of a specific person, as the m in am indicates "I" or the first person.
Suffocation. See Asphyxia.
Suffolk. See Swine.
Suffolk Punch. See Horse.
Suffragan. Diocesan bishop in relation to his metropolitan; in Europe, sometimes an auxiliary bishop in relation to a diocesan.
Suffrage. Privilege of voting at political elections; regulated by constitutions and statutes; not a political right.
Sufism. Mohammedan mysticism; introduced by Rabia, 7th century; extended by Abu Said, founder of a monastery at Khorassan ab.815. It has exerted great influence on Persian literature and religion; its adherents have been variously pietists, pantheists, and freethinkers.
Sugar (cane Sugar, Sucrose, or Saccharose). C.-H^O,,. This occurs in the juice of sugar cane, sugar beet, maple, palm trees, and many other plants. It forms monoclinic crystals, sp. gr. 1.61, mpt. 160° C; at 200° C. it is converted into CaraMel (q.v.). At 0° C. it is soluble in half its weight of water; at 50° C. it is soluble in ^ its weight of water. Its water solution is Lsvorotatory (q.v.). It is insoluble in absolute alcohol; with dilute alcohol it increases with the dilution. Acids and ferments invert it into dextrose and laevulose. This must take place before fermentation with yeast will take place. It is determined in water solution by a POLARISCOPE (q.v.).
The world's production of cane sugar in the year 1894-95 was estimated at 3,436,700 tons; Europe produced 4,866,000 tons of beet sugar and the U. S. ab. 30,000 tons. Of cane sugar Cuba produced 975,000 tons and the U. S. 285,000 tons. The U. S. also produce ab. 20,000 tons of maple sugar. India produces 100,000 tons of palm sugar.
See Cane Sugar, Caramel. Dextrose, Glucoses, Lactose, Luevulose, Maltose. Maple, Milk Sugar, Molasses, and Sorohum.
Sugar, Beet. The sugar beet is the result of cultivation, oeing derived from the wild Beta maritima, several varieties having been developed. It flourishes best in a northern temperate climate. The beets weigh from 1.5 lbs. to 2 lbs. and contain from 10 to 15 per cent of sugar. They are reduced to a pulp by circular saws, 25 per cent of water is added and the juice expressed by a hydraulic press, or extracted by the diffusion process. An excess of lime is added to the juice to neutralize acidity and precipitate the coloring matter; carbon dioxide is passed through to precipitate the lime and the whole is clarilied by a filter press. The solution is then concentrated in a vacuum pan to crystallization. The yield in Germany is from 1,500 to 2,300 lbs. per acre, and in France, up to 2,700 lbs. The molasses is too saline for food and is used in making alcohol. Sugar was produced from the beet in Germany 1798 by Achard, in France 1782 by Rosier, in the U. S. 1830: in the latter were five factories in 1895.
Sugar, Cane. Saccharum officinarum. This was cultivated in India before the Christian era; the boiling of sugar was practiced on the Ganges in the 7th century. The Arabs first practiced sugar refining in the 7th century, and also carried the cultivation of the cane along the Mediterranean to Spain. The Spaniards carried it to San Domingo 1494. It was introduced into the U. S. 1791. Sugar cane flourishes best in subtropical countries. The cane, whole or in cuttings 2 ft. long, is laid in furrows 4 to 6 ft. apart in W. Indies, 8 ft. apart in Louisiana; the plants are from 2 to 5 ft. apart. In the W. Indies the planting takes place in the fall, the crop being gathered in the spring; in Louisiana the reverse of this. The young canes grow from the joints of the cane. Two or three annual crops are obtained from a planting in the U. S.; in the W. Indies as many as fifteen. The plant is from 6 to 15 ft. high, and from 1 to 2 in. diameter. The contents of sugar is from 12 to 18 per cent, of which up to 86 per cent is obtained by the mill, and by the diffusion process up to 95 per cent. The cane juice is expressed by passing between heavy rolls of the sugar mill, or it is extracted by the diffusion process. For the latter the cane is cut into chips and placed in a series of iron vessels, with perforated bottoms, each holding 2 tons. Water passes from one vessel to the next, and so on through theseries; the cane in the first vessel being nearly exhausted and the 'last vessel having fresh cane, the solution thus becoming concentrated. The first vessel is then refilled with cane and becomes the last of the series, and what was the second becomes the first, and so on. This process is used to a limited extent with cane, but is largely used with beets. The juice is now strained and milk of lime added to it in a clarifier to neutralize the acidity and heated to 140° F. to coagulate the albuminous substances. It is then boiled down to crystallizing point in a series of copper pans, baled into a cooler and then into molds to crystallize. In 18 hours the plug in the bottom of the mold is drawn and the molasses drained off, the last being forced out by water from a layer of moist clay laid upon it. For muscovado the sugar is transferred from the cooler into hogsheads, the molasses draining from holes in the bottom. On some plantations the juice after skimming is run through bag- and bone-black filters for decolorization, concentrated in a vacuum-pan and, after crystallizing, the sugar is freed from molasses by a centrifugal machine. The yield of sugar per acre reaches 2,000 lbs. in the U. S., and 5,000 lbs. in W. Indies. The molasses consists of a solution of saccharose, dextrose and Irevulose with saline substances of the juice. The first two are about equally sweet, the dextrose is less sweet, 3 parts being equal to 2 parts of the others.
Sugar-cane (Saccharum ojfficinarum).
Sugar, Maple. This is obtained from Acer saccharinum of temperate climates. Two holes are bored in the tree two fett above the ground on the southern side and reeds or metallic spiles are introduced. The sap runs from February to April, and contains an average of 3.5 per cent sugar, requiring4gals, of sap for 1 lb. of sugar. It is evaporated in an open pan, flowing through devious furrows over it. The average yield of a tree per year is 3 lbs. besides the syrup; the trees last up to 80 years.
Sugar, Palm-tree. This is obtained from several species of palm trees in India. The trees are tapped as with the maple, and the season is from November to February. A good tree yields 30 lbs. of sugar a year and lasts up to 30 years.
Sugar, Sorghum. Sorghum saccharatum has been cultivated in the U. S. since 1853. It was originally from Africa. It contains up to 15 per cent of sugar. The presence of gum, starch and other substances interferes with the crystallization of the sugar. By adding alcohol to the somewhat concentrated juice, these substances are precipitated. After filtering the juice can be concentrated to crystallization. During the payment of sugar bounties, 1892-94, the average crop was 5.3 tons of cane per acre, yielding 82.5 lbs. of sugar per ton, equal to437 lbs. of sugar per acre. 3,000,000 lbs. were produced 189294. Without the bounty this would not be profitable, and molasses with some incidental sugar is made. See SORGHUM.
Sugarberry. See Hackberky.
Sugar Bounties. These were granted by the U. S. to producers in that country of sugar from sugar cane, sorghum, beets and maple, 1892-94. for sugar 90° polariscope or over 2 cts. per lb., 80°-90°, 1J cts. Total bounties paid were $28,817,108.14, expenses $2,724,768.59, total $31,541,876.73.
Sugar Cane. See Sugar.
Sugar Meal. See Gluten Meal.
Sugar of Lead. See Acetate Of Lead.
Sugar of Milk. See Lactose.
Sugar Refilling. With cane and beet sugar this is effected by dissolving the sugar in water to 30° B., adding to this calcium superphosphate and then lime to alkaline reaction. This is heated by steam, skimmed and strained,
Lehigh Laboratory—Sugar lielluery Model.
mixed with pine sawdust and passed through a filter press. The solution is then decolorized by passing through a bonecoal filter and evaporated to crystallizing point in a vacuum pan. The molasses is separated from it by centrifugal machine, or in molds by forcing it out by a sugar solution.
Sugars. Many Carbohydrates (q.v.) with saccharine properties. In constitution they are all alcohols, and also anhydrides, ketones, or aldehydes. See SUGAR.
Sugden, Edward Burtenshaw, Lord St. Leonards, 17811875. Knighted 1829. English jurist, recognized as the highest authority on the law of real property in his time. Law of Vendors and Purchasers, 1805.
Suggestion. 1. Process of one idea calling up another to consciousness by ASSOCIATION (q.v.). The whole mental life is a series of suggestions, each idea being determined by the preceding. 2. In Hypnotism (q.v.). arousing in the mind of the subject of an idea, belief, or impulse in any way, but usually by some definite sign or command by the operator.
Suit in, Peter Frederik, 1728-1798. Danish historian.
Suicide. In Law. deliberate and intentional self-murder; formerly a crime in Britain entailing a shameful burial and the forfeiture of property. In the U. 8., only attempts at suicide are criminal. Annual suicide rate per 100.000 population: Saxony 31, Denmark 25.8, Austria 21.2, Switzerland 20.2. France 15.7, German Empire 14.3, Sweden 8.1, Norway 7.5,
Wild Boar, Sits scrofa, but the pigs of China are referred to a distinct Indian species. In America, from Paraguay to Arkansas, the family is represented by the Peccaries. These occur in flocks, have no tail, have a cannon-bone, and the external toe of the hind foot is reduced to a metapodial splint. The Babyroussa, of the Malay Peninsula, is peculiar in the great growth of the upper canines, which grow, in the male, curved backward up over the face; they have also long lower canine tusks.
Suidas. Author of a Greek encyclopedic lexicon which gives a great variety of literary and linguistic information; personally unknown; probably before 1100.
Sulne. See Oleomargarine.
Slllllt. Peculiar grease found upon sheep's wool. It consists of a mixture of the potassium salts of stearic and other fatty acids, with a combination of these acids with cholesterin. See Lanoline.
Suite. Composition for either solo instrument or orchestra, consisting of a series of- pieces in the same key, but arranged to form an agreeable contrast in time. It was much cultivated ab. 1650-1750. when the pieces were the admired dances of the period. In its fundamental form it embraced four movements, allemande, courante, sarabande and gigue; to these were sometimes added a gavotte, passepied, branle, minuet or bourree. Modern forms are employed in the modern suite, and the old law of sameness of key has been abolished.
Suleiman. See Solyman.
Suleiman Pasha, 1838-1883. Turkish general, prominent in the wars with Servia 1876 and Russia 1877; defeated near Philippopolis Jan. 1878.
Suliman Sits. Range of s. Asia, trending n. and s., separating Afghanistan from the Punjab. Length ab.360 m., greatest altitude 11,295 ft.
Sulina. Branch of the Danube, near its mouth.
Suliotes. Albanian Christians who resisted the Turks till 1803, and were then massacred or deported to the Ionian islands. In the Greek war of independence they bore a heroic part.
Sulla, Lucius Cornelius, 138-78 B.C. Officer under Marius in Africa 107, and against Teutones and Cimbri 104-101; propraetor of Cilicia 93-91; Consul 88; conqueror of Mithradates 87-83, and of the Marian party under the walls of Rome 82. As dictator, 82-79, he proscribed his enemies, caused the death or exile of thousands, and was eminent for cruelty and vice.
Sullivan, Alexander Martin, 1830-1884. Irish journalist, imprisoned 1868; M.P. 1874-82.
Sullivan, Sir Arthur SeyMour. b.1842. English composer; prof. Royal Academy, principal National Training School of Music; knighted 1883. He began his career as composer in the severe style with oratorios, Prodigal
Son, 1869, Light of the World, 1873, Martyr of Antioch, 1880, and has written overtures, services, songs, etc.; but his most lasting successes were obtained in the operettas with text of W. S. Gilbert: Trial by Jury, 1875; The Sorcerer, 1877: B.M.S. "Pinafore," 1878; Pirates of Penzance, 1880; Patience. 1881; Iolanthe, 1882; Princess Ida, 1884: Mikado, 1885; Ruddigore, 1887; Yeomen of the Guard, 1888; Gondoliers. 1889, and Utopia, 1893. He also composed a grand opera, Ivanhoe, 1891, and a cantata, Golden Legend, 1886.
Sullivan, Barry, 1824-1891. English tragedian, in U. S. 1857-60 and 1875.
Sullivan, Francis Stouohton, LL.D., b. ab.1740. Prof. Dublin. Constitution and Laws of England, 1772-76.
Sullivan, John, LL.D., 1740-1795. Delegate to Congress 1774 and 1780; Brig.-gen. 1775, Major-gen. 1776-80; active in Canada and N. J., at Brandy wine and Germantown, and against the N. Y. Indians; Atty.-gen. of N. H. 1782-86, Pres. 1786-89; U. S. District Judge from 1789.—His brother, James, LL.D.. 1744-1808, was Judge of Mass. Superior Court 1776-82, in Congress 1784-85. Atty.-gen. 1790-1807, and Gov. 1807-8. Hist. Maine, 1795: Land Titles in Mass., 1801.—His son, William, LL.D., 1774-1839, pub. Public Men of the Revolution, 1834.— His brother. John Lanodon, M.D., 1777-1865, patented a steamboat 1814.
Sullivan, John Lawrence, b.1858 in Boston. Pugilist; victor in many contests; defeated by James J. Corbett 1892. See Pugilism.
Sullivan, Peter John, 1821-1883. Col. U. S. Vols., serving in the West; U. S. Minister to Colombia 18H5-69. Don Felix Letters.
Sullivan's Island. Off Charleston, S. C; 6 m. long; site of Fort Moultrie.
Sullivan!, William Starling, 1803-1873. American bryologist. Musci Alleghanienses, 1846; Musci and Hepaticce of the U. S., e. of the Mississippi, 1856: Musci (of the Wilkes Expedition), 1859; Icones Muscorum, 1864.
Sully, Maximilien De Bethune. Duke Of. 1560-1641. Baron de Rosny; associate and Minister of Henry IV. of France; Duke 1606. By his resolute measures nnd personal supervision, he
raised the finances from utmost disorder, lightened taxes, checked the dishonesty of officials, and encouraged trade, agriculture and internal improvements. Memoires, 1634-62, tr. 1834.
Sully, Thomas, 1783-1872. American painter, of English birth. Many of his portraits have been engraved.—His son, Alfred, TJ. S. A., 1821-1873, Brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862-65, served in Va. 1861-62, and against Northwest Indians 1862-64.
Sully-Prudhomme, Rene Francois Armand, b.1839. French poet, Academician 1881. Works, 5 vols., 1882-88.
Sulph. Prefix denoting compounds containing sulphur.
Sulphanllic Acid. NH1.('r.lI,.HSO,. Paramidobenzene sulphonic acid; monobasic; produced by the action of sulphuric acid upon aniline; magnificent rhombic crystals, not easily soluble in water; used in the manufacture of coal-tar colors.
Sulphates. Salts of sulphuric acid.
Sulphide, Organic. Combination of sulphur with one or more organic groups or radicals; e.g., ethylene sulphide. C,H,:S; phenyl sulphide, (C,H5),:S.
Sulphides. Salts derived from hydrogen sulphide; or compounds formed by the union of sulphur with some other element.
Sulphindlgotlc Acid. Product of the action of sulphuric acid upon indigo. See Indigo Extract.
Sulphites. Derivatives of sulphurous acid.
Sulphocarbamide. S:C:(NHa),. Sulphourea; white crystalline solid, soluble in water; mpt. 171° C.; usually prepared by heating ammonium sulphocyanate. It is a weak base, and forms salts with mineral acids.
Sulphocyanic Acid. N • C-S-H. Yellow liquid, prepared from its salts. The potassium, ammonium and other salts are used in textile coloring. The potassium salt is made by fusing yellow prussiate of potash with sulphur and potash, the ammonium salt by heating carbon bisulphide with alcoholic ammonia. Sulphocyanates give a deep red coloration with ferric salts.
Sulpholelc Acid. Acid product, formed by the action of sulphuric acid on castor or olive oil. See Alizarine AsSistant.
Sulphonal. (CH,),:C:(SO,.C,H„),. Diethylsulphodimethylmethane; a disulphone; white crystalline solid, mpt. 126° C.; soluble in hot water; prepared by the oxidation of the corresponding sulphide; used in pharmacy as a hypnotic.
Sulphone. Combination of the group :SO, with two organic monobasic groups, ethyl sulphone (C,H,),:SO,., phenyl■ethyl sulphone, C,H,.C,H,:SO,. The«e compounds are formed by the oxidation of the sulphides, and in the aromatic series by the action of sulphuric anhydride upon the hydrocarbons. See Phenyl Sulphone.
Sulphonic Acids. Derived by the replacement of hydroxyl in sulphuric acid by an organic group. Thus from HO C H
Jjq'.so,, ethyl sulphonic acid, yo'.SO, is derived. Some can
be prepared by the oxidation of sulphides. Whenever strong sulphuric acid acts upon an aromatic compound, a sulphonic acid is formed. The acids are soluble in water, the salts usually crystallize well.
Slllpho Salts. Ordinary oxygen salts, in which the oxygen, either wholly or in part, has been replaced by sulphur; e.g., potassium sulphocarbonate, K,CS,.
Sulphourea. See Sulphocarbamide.
Sulphur. S. At. wt. 32.06, sp. gr. 2.07, sp. ht. 0.177, mpt. 114.5° C, bpt. 440° C, valence II. IV. VI.; known to the ancients. It occurs in deposits in Sicily, Italy, Spain, California; also in
prevent free access of air. The pile is ignited, a part of the sulphur burns; the heat thus generated is sufficient to melt the rest of the sulphur, which runs down to the bottom of the pile. At proper intervals it is drawn off. The crude brimstone thus obtained is distilled and run into molds, forming roll brimstone or stick sulphur. In the distillation the vapor which is first cooled is deposited as a fine powder, called flowers of sulphur. Stick sulphur is soluble in carbon disulpliide; the flowers of sulphur is not. It is amorphous. Treated with oxidizing agents, it forms sulphuric acid. It is used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid, gunpowder, fireworks, matches, bleaching, and for vulcanizing rubber. Native sulphur abounds in regions of active and of extinct volcanoes, and also in connection with beds of gypsum or about the outlets of sulphur springs. Sicily has long furnished most of the native sulphur used in Europe and America.
Sulphur Auratum. Golden vellow powder; Antimony Pentasulphide (q.v.).
Sulphur Chlorides. See Sulphur Dichloride.
Sulphur Dichloride. SCI,. Dark red liquid, sp. gr. 1.62, boiling at 62° C. with decomposition; decomposed by wab r in thiosulphuric acid; made by saturating the monochloriiie with chlorine at a temperature from 6° to 10° C. There are two other chlorides, S,CI, and SCI,, both made by direct union of the elements. The tetrachloride exists only at low temperatures.
Sulphur Dioxide. SO,. Density 2.21. Sulphurous anhydride; colorless, poisonous gas, of a pungent, suffocating odor; liquid at —17.8° C.. sp. gr. 1.45, solid —79°C; soluble in water, forming sulphurous acid; made by burning sulphur or iron pyrites in the air; used for bleaching straw, wool, silk, etc., as a disinfectant, and to prevent fermentation.
Sulphureted Hydrogen. H,S. Hydrogen sulphide; colorless gas, with an odor of rotten eggs; found in sulphur waters; made by treating ferrous sulphide with hydrochloric or sulphuric acid; used extensively in chemical analysis; poisonous. The odor of sulphur waters and of rotten eggs is due to the presence of HjS.
Sulphureted Hydrogen Group. Metals precipitated from solutions by sulphureted hydrogen; bismuth, silver, lead, copper, mercury, cadmium, gold, platinum, tin, antimony, and arsenic.
Slllphurets, or Sulphides. Combinations of sulphur with the metals; many are of great value as ores.
Sulphur Hexiodide. SI„. Gray-black crystals, similar to those of iodine; obtained by diluting a solution of iodine and sulphur in carbon disulpliide and allowing it to stand.
Sulphuric Acid. HaSO,. Sp. gr. 1.85, mpt. —26° C, bpt. 327° C. It distills without decomposition; it is a colorless, oilv looking liquid when pure, and one of the strongest acids. It was known to the alchemists, Geber having made it from alum and Valentine in the 15th century by distilling ferrous sulphate. Its composition was determined by Berthellot 1782. The use of niter with sulphur was proposed 1740 by Lefevreand Lemery, and leaden chambers by Dr. Roebuck 1746, the absorption towers bv Gav Lussac i825, and the Glover tower bv John Glover 1850. The use of pyrites dates from 1838. This acid is more largely used in the arts than any other. The strongest acid is used in making nitro-compounds and refining gold and silver; oil of vitriol in refining petroleum; tower and chamber acids in making superphosphates for fertilizers and a very large variety of manufactures. Most chemical industries make use of or are dependent upon it. 90 per cent of the world's product is used in the soda and superphosphate processes. England's product in 1878 was estimated at 850,000 tons, about half the world's product.
Sulphuric acid is made by burning sulphur or iron pyrites in a furnace with access of air, the oxygen of the latter converting the sulphur into sulphur dioxide. This is conducted, together with vapors of nitric acid, through a Glover tower filled with pieces of quartz or earthenware, and then through a series of large, sheet-lead chambers, into which steam or a spray of water is introduced. In these the sulphur dioxide is oxidized to sulphur trioxide by the nitric acid and combining with the water forms sulphuric acid. The waste gases from the last chamber, consisting of nitrogen and its oxides with a little sulphur dioxide, pass through two leaden Gay Lussac towers filled with coke over which sulphuric acid 1.7 sp. gr. drips; the lattercombines with the nitrogen trioxide.tetroxideand pentoxide. The lower oxides and nitrogen are not combined and pass out the chimney connected with the last tower; this chimney serves to draw the gases through the entire apparatus. The loss of nitrogen in the lower oxides is compensated bv the nitric acid, made from sodium nitrate and sulphuric acid, which is intro