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The anterior legs are modified into large flippers. It lays over 100 eggs palatable to the taste, as is also the coarse flesh.

Sphene. CaTiSiO,. Mineral calcium titano-silicate, so ■called on account of the wedge form of its crystals; also called Titanite.

Sphenlscomorphre. See Ihpennes.

Sptaenodon. See Rhynchocephalia.

Sphenoid Bone. One of the bones of the skull forming a part of its base which, by articulating with them all, acts as a wedge. In shape it suggests the form of a bat.

Splienotie. Anterior dorsal element of the ear capsule of the vertebrate skull, distinct as a postfrontal in some fishes.

Spherastcr. Form of sponge spicule found in the genus Tethya, spherical in form yet consisting of numerous rays from a center.

Sphere. Solid generated by revolving a semicircle about its diameter. Every point of its surface is equidistant from the center of the generating semicircle, which is also the center of the sphere. The surface of a sphere whose radius is R=4tr2, and its volume=^irR'.

Spherical Aberration. See Aberration, Spherical.

Spherieal Angle. That between two arcs of great circles on the surface of a sphere. It is the angle between the tangents to those arcs at their point of intersection, and measures the dihedral angle formed by the planes of the two great circles.

Spherical Polygon. Portion of the surface of a sphere bounded by three or more arcs of great circles.

Spherical Pyramid. Solid bounded by a spherical polygon and the planes of the circles whose arcs are sides of the polygon.

Spherical Triangle. Portion of the surface of a sphere bounded by three arcs of great circles. The ordinary spherical triangle restricts the arcs to less than 180°: the general triangle is unrestricted. The area of a spherical triangle is the trirect■angular triangle multiplied by the spherical excess.

Spherical Trigonometry. Discussion of the relations between the elements of the spherical triangle; three sides and three angles. It is based upon the trigonometry of the trihedral, whose vertex is the center of the sphere. The face angles of the trihedral are measured on a unit sphere by the arcs of the spherical triangle, and its dihedral angles have the same measure as the angles of the spherical triangle.

Spheroid. Solid generated by the revolution of a semiellipse about one of its axes; prolate when the revolution is about the transverse axis, oblate when about the conjugate axis.

Spheroidal. Geometric forms and concepts based upon the spheroid.

Condition of a small quantity of volatile liquid when placed upon a very hot metal surface. The liquid does not come into contact with the metal because of the rapid evaporation from the under surface of the drop, which forms a Crookes' layer. The surface tension Separation between Globule and Plate, changes rapidly at different points, and thus the drop oscillates symmetrically about its mean spheroidal form.

Spheromcter. Instrument designed for measuring the radius of curvature of curved surfaces. In its simplest form

it consists of a nut in the shape of a tripod, supported by three feet, through which passes a screw terminating below in a sharp point and above in a graduated head. The adjustments are such that when the point of the tripod and that of the screw are in the same plane the reading is 1' I M. ^gjrfTjiSjjL zero. "When placed upon a curved

surface the screw point must be turned backward until the apparatus is again in exact equilibrium on the surface. The reading of the screw gives the versed sine of the arc, from which the radius Spherometer. may be calculated. It was in

vented by the French optician De La Roue, to measure the

Spheroidal State



radii of lenses. With it the focal length of the lens is determined.

Sphincter. Circular muscle surrounding an orifice which closes it by its contraction, as the sphincter ani.

Sphingina. Tribe of Lepidoptera, including moths, having elongated bodies, pointed posteriorly. The proboscis is long and coiled. The anterior wings are long, the posterior short; they lie horizontally when at rest, and are united by a retinaculum. The caterpillars are flat, with sixteen legs and anal horns. The pupa-stage is passed in the earth. The moths are usually crepuscular; some are known as Hawkmoths and Humming-birds.

Sphinx. Fabulous monster, represented b}' the Greeks with a woman's head and a body displaying attributes of the serpent, lion, vulture, and eagle. The Egyptians gave their Sphinx proper the head of a man and the body of a lion. It guarded their temples and tombs, to ward off evil influences.


Great Sphinx at Gizeh.

The Great Sphinx at Gizeh is 150 feet long and incloses a small temple. Its date is unknown. The Sphinx of mythology set a riddle to the Thebans, and slew all who could not guess it; when CEdipus solved it, she slew herself. The Egyptian Sphinx is beneficent, a personification of the fruit-bearing earth, a deity of wisdom.

Sphygmoscope. Apparatus devised by Marey, which, in connection with a registering apparatus, may be used to measure the pressure of liquids. A small tube fil!ed with the liquid and communicating with the point at which the pressure is desired is closed with an elastic capsule, which projects into the cavity of a short and wider tube. As this capsule distends or contracts from the variation in the pressure behind it, it causes compression or dilatation of the air in the larger tube, and this affects the registering apparatus. Variable pressures, as those produced in the blood by the beating of the heart, may be studied in this way.

Spicatc. Flowers or other organs arranged in a spike; also other flower-clusters resembling a spike.

Spice. Pleasant or pungent vegetable substances, used for flavoring food and condiments, such as mace, nutmeg, pepper and pimento. They owe their pungency and aroma chiefly to the essential oils they contain.

Spice Until. See Benjamin Bush.

Spice Islands. See Moluccas.

Splcer, William Francis, U.S.N.. 1820-1878. Captain 1870, Commodore 1877; lyric poet.

Spichcren. Village of Rhenish Russia, s. of Saarbruck; scene of a French defeat Aug. 6, 1870.

Spicula. Chitinous needle-shaped organs in the cloaca of nematode worms, that serve generative purposes; spiculum amoris.

Spicule. Small soft pointed appendages: also needle-like crystals in the cells of certain plants.

Spicules. Inorganic (sometimes organic) crystal-like bodies of usually regular shapes, secreted by the protoplasm of the cells of the lower Invertebrates to form a skeleton, as in Sponges, Holothurians and Sea-fans.

Spicule Systems Of Sponges. The material may be crystalline carbonate of lime, colloidal silica, or spongin (keratin). They may have one axis and be uniradiate, or bi1430


radiate, according as growth is in one or two directions, or have three axes, triradiate and sexaradiate, or four axes (tetraxonal), or linally be polyaxonal. The ends of the arms or rays may be sharp (oxeate), round (strongylate), knobbed (tylotate), spined, or branched (cladose), with two, three, four, or more branches (dicladose to polycladose); the branching may be repeated (dichocladose, etc.). Each system has also a number of modified forms due to excessive or lessened growth, curvature, etc., of one or more rays. The principal spicules are: stylus, rhabdus, triod, hexactine, calthrops, desma, triaene, spire, aster, cymba. trichite, rosette, dagger, pinnulus, amphidisk, anchor, uncinaria, scopularia, clavula, and staurus.

Spider Monkey (ateles). S. American monkey, with long, strong, prehensile tail and long slender limbs, with rudimentary thumbs. It is greatly relished as food by the natives.

Spiders (araneida). To the Tetrapneumones belong the Trap-door spiders, which do not build a web but hide in tubes in the earth, from which they spring upon their prey. To the Dipneumones belong the Saliigradce, which construct sacs in which they live by night and place their eggs; also the Citigradce, with strong, long legs: these run about for their prey,


Cross Spider (Epeira diadema), male, a, and female, 6.

1, Single pin-organ: 2. Spln-warte; 3, Lower Jaw, claws, and eyes;
4, Left lower Jaw cut open to show entrance to poison
sac; 5, Outside point of a foot.

and hide under stones and boards; also the Laterigradce, which spin only isolated threads: they run backward and sidewise while pursuing game. The Tubitelce make tubes in connection with their webs. The Incequitelce spin irregular webs, in which they live. The Orbitehe spin a regular, wheel-shaped web in the center of which they wait for prey. Spiders stand at the head of the Arachnids in point of intelligence.

Spiderwort. Plants of the genus Tradescantia, showyflowered herbs of the natural family Commelinaceee, natives of warm and temperate regions.

Spiegel, Friedrich, b.1830. Prof. Erlangen 1849; writer

on Persian linguistics and antiquities. Eran, 1863.

Spiegelelscn. See Manganese, Metallurgy Op.

Spielhagcn, Friedrich, b.1829. German novelist, well known in English translations. Problematic Characters, 1860; Hammer and Anvil, 1869; Quisisana, 1880; Angela, 1881; Autobiography, 1889-90.

Spicra, Francesco, ab.1498-1548. Italian reformer, who was forced to recant and died of remorse for his apostasy.

Spiers, Alexander, 1807-1869. English teacher in France: author of a dictionary of French and English, 1846-49, and several grammars.

Spike. Elongated flower-cluster with the individual flowers sessile, as in the PLANTAIN (q.v.).

Spikelet. Flower-cluster of grasses and sedges.

Spikenard. Aralia racemosa. Large perennial woodland herb of the natural family Araliacece, with aromatic roots, native of e. N. America; also, in India, Nardostachys jatamansi, herb of the Valerian family, its roots yielding a hair perfume.

Spikenard, False. Vagnera racemosa. Woodland herb of the Lily family, native of N. America.

Spike-Rush. Grass-like plants of the genus Eleocharis, natural family Cyperaceai, of wide geographical distribution. Their minute flowers are borne in solitary terminal gpikelets.


Spiking. Disabling of a muzzle-loading gun by driving an iron spike into the vent. In breech-loading guns, a part of the breech mechanism is removed.

Spilling. In sinking mine shafts or driving levels, method of holding back loose or running ground by means of pointed poles or planks, called spills or spiles, forced into the ground in advance of the face of the workings.

Spinach. Spinacia oleracea. Esculent herb of the natural family Chenopodiacece, supposed to be native of Asia; long cultivated as a garden vegetable.

Spinal Caries. See Pott's Disease.

Spinal Column. Bony axis of support of the body of vertebrates. In man it consists of 34 true vertebra? (7 cervical, the first, called the atlis, articulates with the occipital bone of the skull; 12 dorsal, articulating with the ribs, and 5 lumbar); the sacrum, which Common Garden Spinach <$>«. is inserted between the hip bones;

and the coccyx. These last two are made up of co-ossified segments, sometimes designated false vertebras. Each vertebra consists of a disk-like body and a spine extending posteriorly, the attachment to the body being forked, thus making an opening which, in the jointed bone, forms the spinal canal. The spinal column is also known as the backbone.

Spinal Cord. Prolongation of the brain into the spinal canal. The spinal nerves emerge from the cord and are distributed to the trunk and both extremities. The spinal cord is the great conductor of nervous impulse to and from the brain, besides being the great organ of reflex action. Like the brain, it is made up of red and white matter.

Spinal Curvature. Deviation of the spinal column from its normal shape, more particularly the lateral deviations, since the normal column has no sidewise curves. It results in a deformity of the trunk, and is frequently caused by faulty position in sitting at tables or desks during childhood. This faulty method of sitting is often due to the size or shape of desk and chair.

Spinal Fluid, CEREBRO-. Serous liquid occupying the ventricles of the brain, and spaces between the arachnoid and piamater membranes of brain and cord; ab. 2 oz. Fluid of ventricles can pass through foramina in roof of fourth ventricle, and perineural lymph spaces also communicate with sub-arachnoid space. Brain is cushioned against the skull by this liquid, and when circulation increases in it some fluid passes into the spinal canal, owing to inelasticity of the cranial walls; but if fluid is abnormally increased during development, the bones yield and hydrocephalus results. After bones are knit, an abnormal increase causes coma; a sudden subtraction causes convulsions.

Spindle. Solid generated by a curve revolving about a chord perpendicular to the curve axis; classified according to the generating curve, parabolic, etc.

Spindler, Karl. 1796-1855. German novelist. The Jew, 1827; The Invalid, 1831. Works, 1831-54.

Spindle-Tree. Shrubs of the genus Euonymus, natural family Celastraeecr., with showy red fruits, natives of the n. temperature zone; much cultivated for ornament.

Spine, or THORN. Leafless branch, or portion of one, greatly hardened and attenuated, serving as an organ for defense.

Spinel. M^Al3Oi. Mineral compound of alumina and magnesia, frequently occurring in bluish black opaque octahedrons, harder than quartz. The transparent and brilliantly colored varieties are much used as gems, especially under the name of ruby, or spinel ruby.

Spinelli, Spinello. ab.1332-1410. Italian painter of the

14th century of the Florentine School. He has a fresco in the Campo Santo of Pisa.

Spinet. See Pianoforte.

Spinner, Francis Elias. 1802-1890. M.C. from N. Y. 185561; U. S. Treas. 1861-75. His well-known signature on bills was elaborated to render counterfeiting difficult.

Spinning. Twisting of minute filaments into a thread or yarn for weaving, sewing or rope making. It is of ancient origin, as shown by the pictures on Egyptian monuments. See Distaff and Spinning-jenny.

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ab.lTlil: ArUwrigbt invented the spinning-frame 1767, which was followed by the mule-jenny, superseding both, invented by Samuel Ooinpton 1774-79; all of England.

Spinola, Ambrosio, Marquis De, 1571-1630. Italian leader of condottieri in the Spanish service; commander in the Netherlands 1603-9 and 1621-25; pitted against Maurice of Nassau. He took Ostend 1604. Aix 1622, and Breda 1625, but was ruined by non-payment of his claims.

Spinola, Francis B., 1821-1891. Bri<*.-gen. U. S. Vols. 1862-65; active in N. Y. politics; M.C. 1887.

Spinoza, Baruch. or Benedict, 1632-1677. Dutch Jew, excommunicated 1656; philosopher of the Cartesian school. He asserted the existence of a single substance which he called God, and ascribed to it the two properties of thought

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and extension: all individual things and beings were modes of the Absolute. Chief works Ethica, 1665, tr. 1876; Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, 1670. His life was secluded and ascetic. He was the greatest and most famous of so-called pantheists.

Spinulo. Diminutive of spine.

Spiracles. 1. Breathing pores or holes as found in the sides of many or all the joints of the body of Tracheates (insects). 2. Relic of the cleft between the mandibular and the hvoid arch in the lower fishes, often known as the spiracular cleft.

Spiral. Polar curve in which the radius vector is a nonrecurrent function of the polar angle. The most noted spirals are the Archimedean, hyperbolic, and logarithmic.

Spiral Joint. Method of making a metallic pipe from a

long sheet by riveting the edges together, so that the joints form a helical spiral.

Spiral Zodids. Tentacle-shaped polyps in the Bydrac

tinia colony.

Spiraslcr. Form of sponge spicule found in the genus Thenea. It consists of a short spiral axis covered with spines.

Spire. Arc of a spiral traced in one revolution of the radius vector.

Spire. Form of sponge spicule which is of spiral shape. It may be simple, or may carry spines and branches. The spiral may be close or open; the varieties thus arising bave distinct names.

Spire. Pointed termination of towers and turrets. In the Norman style, where they were first introduced, they were low; in the Early English they were somewhat higher; in the Decorated style they were very acute.

Spire. Tube made of some vegetable material, as straw, which, when filled with powder, can be used as a means of carrying fire to the charge in a hole drilled for blasting rock.

Spire. Turns above the body-whorl of a snail's shell.

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Splrifer. Brachiopod having internal, spiral, calcareous framework for the support of its arms; Palasozoic, with one species surviving to the Lias. See TESTICARDINES.

Spirillum. Genus of corkscrew-shaped rigid bacteria that swim by rotatory movement.

Spirillum Cholera- Aslatlcre. See Comma Bacillus.

Spirit, Holy. See Holy Ghost.

Spirit, or Spirits. See Alcohol.

Spirit Blue. Mixture of salts of triphenylrosaniline and triphenylpararosaniline; green powders, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol; dyeing silk and wool blue; source for other colors. See Nicholson's Blub.

Spirit Colors. Art ificial coal tar colors, soluble in alcohol, but insoluble or very slightly soluble in water.

Spirit Level. Instrument for determining the horizontally of a surface or line. It consists of a glass tube slightly curved and filled with alcohol, leaving a small bubble of air. This bubble always seeks the highest point. The tube is placed in a brass case with its convexity upward, and so ad

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justed that when the base is perfectly horizontal the bubble takes a position midway between two fiducial marks.

Spirit of Wine. See Alcohol.

Spirits of Hartshorn. See Ammonia.

Spiritual Consanguinity. In R. C. theology, such relationship resulting' among sponsors and administrators of baptism as voids intermarriages between them, without dispensation.

Spiritualism. Theory that consciousness has a subject other than the physical organism, and hence is the proper antithesis to materialism. It takes three radically distinct forms: (1) that the soul can materialize itself in physical forms through the agency of mediums, a conception based upon illusion and frauds; (2) that though materialization is impossible, there may be sporadic communications by telepathy or thought transference from a discarnate to an incarnate consciousness; (8) that there is an immortal soul, but no possible communication with the living. The last is the prevalent belief. The doctrine that a new revelation of truth and duty has come to mankind through spirits was first distinctly affirmed near Rochester, N. Y., 1848, by a family named Voss, later Fox.

Spiritus Fumans Libavll. See Stannic Chloride.

Spirochete. Genus of spiral, flexible bacteria, swimming with rotatory motion.

Spirotrompe. Spiral proboscis formed of the antlise in Lepidoptera.

Spirilla. Cephalopod allied to Argonauta, having a nautilus-like coiled and chambered shell which is entirely internal, being lodged in the posterior part of the squidlike body.

Spite. An active desire to depress, mortify, or injure some one.

Spithead. Part of English Channel between Portsmouth and Isle of Wight. It is so secure from all winds except the s.e. as to have been termed by sailors the "king's bedcham

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ber," and is the principal rendezvous of the British navy. There are circular forts on Horse, Norman and Sturbridge shoals. Portsmouth and Ryde are on its opposite sides. Length, n.w. and s.e., 2 m.; average breadth, 1J m.

Spitta, Karl Johann Philipp, D.D.. 1801-1859. German hymnist. Psalter und Harfe. 1833^3, tr. 1860-64.

Spitting. The ancients considered spittle a charm against all kinds of fascination; the Romans believed that contagion could be repelled by spitting. Mungo Park tells of negroes spitting upon a stone as a charm at the beginning of a journey. In general, spitting has ever been regarded as a potent means of sorcery. Survivals of primitive notions regarding it are still common.

Spitz. Variety of Eskimo dog, common in the U. S. and Germany; mostly white.

Spltzbergen. Group of islands in the Arctic Ocean, n. of Norway; area ab. 27,000 sq. m.; discovered 1596 by Willem Barentz. They belong to Russia, and are uninhabited.

Spitzka, Edward Charles. M.D., b.1852. Prof. New York 1880-83. Insanity, 1883.

Splanchnology. Branch of Anatomy which treats of the digestive viscera. Comparative splanchnology treats of the homologous parts of the digestive system of different animals.

Splanchno-Skeleton. Hard structure developed in connection with the viscera.

Spleen. Ductless gland situated in the abdominal cavity to the left of the stomach. Its function is not certainly known, but it probably is concerned in the making of blood.

Spleenwort. Ferns of the genus Asplenium, bearing sporangia in elongated sori; of wide geographical distribution, most plenty in tropical regions.

Splenic Fever. Synonym for Anthrax (q.v.).

Splicing. See Knots And Splices.

Spline. Rectangular groove cut in a shaft, into which fits a key on the hub of the driving or driven wheel. Both hub and key are a sliding fit on the shaft, and rotation of wheel and shaft must occur together, no matter to what point of the shaft the wheel may be slid. See Key.

Splint. Piece of some rigid material, as wood, felt or metal, to be adjusted to a part to keep it in a fixed position by means of a bandage; e.g., the keeping in position the fragments of a broken bone during the healing process.

Splint Coal. Hard variety of bituminous coal, that breaks up readily in the process of mining into large rectangular blocks or slabs.

Split. One of two or more parts into which a ventilating air current is divided in a mine.

Split Switch. One having the movable rails tapered so as to fit in close contact against the main rails.

Spliigen. Alpine pass 6.946 ft. high, through which, in Dec. 1800. Macdonald led 15,000 men into Italy, with heavy

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losses by avalanches. A road was made 1810-22, and protected by galleries later.

Spodumcne. LiAlSi^O,. Mineral lithium aluminium silicate, nearly as hard as quartz and somewhat heavier. See IllDDENlTE.

Spoflord, Ainsworth Rand. LL.D., b. 1825. Librarian of Congress 1864, Assistant Librarian 1897, and editor of several collections.—His brother, Henry Martyn, LL.D., 1821-1880, was a judge of La. Supreme Court 1854—58.

Spoflord, Mrs. Harriet Elizabeth (prescott), b.1835, m. 1865. American author, chiefly of short stories. Amber Gods, 1863; Azarian, 1864; Ballads. 1888.

Spoil r, Ludwio, 1784-1859. German violinist, composer, and conductor. Court chapelmaster at Cassel from 1822; previously traveling virtuoso of great renown throughout Europe, and still a living influence. Of his ten operas, Faust and Jessonda are still occasionally performed, as also one of his , live oratorios, Die Letzten Duige, and one of his nine sym

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tained great popularity. His School for Violin-playing is a classic. Autobiography, 1861.

Spoil* System. That of appointments to office on mere partisan principles rather than with reference to fitness and the public pood.

Spokane. Capital of S. co., Wash.: on the S.; settled ab. 1879; burned 1890. It has a large trade in lumber and flour. Pop., 1890, 19,992.

Spoleto. Italian town, 75 m. n. by e. of Rome; Roman colony220 B.C.; notable for its ancient and mediaeval remains. Pop. ab.7,700.

Spoliation. Mutilation of a legal instrument by one not a party to it. The legal effect is not thereby altered.

Spoliation Claims, French. These were for damages to American ships and cargoes by the French, before the treaty between the two nations, ratified 1801. They were estimated to;amount to $20,000,000. The U. S. at that time assumed these claims; in 1885 a bill was passed by Congress referring the matter to the Court of Claims, and in 1891 a first appropriation of $1,304,095.37 was made to pay the findings of the court.

Sponges (PORIFERA). Animals whose bodies consist of amoeboid cells imbedded in a gelatinous matrix hollowed out into chambers, into which inhalent canals open. The chambers open into a common exhalent canal or osculum. The simplest forms have only one chamber. An ectoderm is present in tne young, and the chambers are lined by choanoflagellate

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Sponges are prepared for commerce by rotting and washing away the animal matter, and then bleaching. These sponges come mainly from the Mediterranean and the Bahama Islands. See also Plethospongije. Sponglarla. See Sponges.

Spongilla. See Halichondrlie, Monactinellid^e, and


Spongin, or Spongioun. See Keratode.

Spongin Blasts. Special cells in sponges that secrete the substance of which the horny skeleton is formed. They are arranged into two sorts; one cluster secretes the axis (not true spongin)of the fiber which makes it grow in length; the others are on the sides of the fiber, and secrete the outer layers of true spongin.

Sponglole. Root-cap of plants; word now obsolete.

Spongomere. That part of a sponge which has the incurrent and excurrent canal system.

Sponsors. Godfathers and godmothers, who make the promises for the child at its baptism. In the R.C. Ch. one is sufficient, though more are usual; in that of England there should be three.

Spontaneity. Function of organic life by which it is capable of self-motion, or activity; contrasted with inertia, and sometimes identified with freedom, from which it differs in not necessarily implying the capacity for alternative choice.

Spontaneous Combustion. Combustion which takes place when no means are especially designed to produce that end. Substances which readily combine with oxygen cause spontaneous combustion. Mechanical division also increases it greatly. Rags soaked in linseed oil and damp charcoal powder are liable to take fire by oxidation in air.

Spontaneous Generation (ABiogenesis). Self-production of living mutter from non-living matter, or of the organized from the unorganized. There is no evidence that any form of low life known to us originated in any other than a biogenetic way. All the evidence we have of the origination of living matter seems to show that the biogenetic law is absolute. It is to Biology what the law of the conservation of energy is to Physics or Chemistry. On purely philosophical grounds it is very doubtful if, strictly, spontaneous generation ever did occur, though it is generally assumed that life must have arisen through some evolutionary process. See Pan


Spontini, Gasparo Luigi Pacifico, 1774-1851. Italian opera composer and conductor, pupil of the conservatory at Naples and of Piccini. His operas were composed 17961829. From 1803-20, with a few interruptions, he was a power in the operatic affairs of Paris, and in Berlin 1820-40. He was Court Composer in France and Russia, and General Music Director in Prussia. His masterpieces are La Vestale, Cortex, and Olympie.

Spoonbills. 1. Ibis-like birds with long, large bills expanded at the end. Platalea is European and white; it nests

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