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generation, and explained the nature of reproduction and of digestion. Viaggi alle due Sicilie, 6 vols., 1792.

Spalllng. Process of breaking and sorting ore with the aid of small hammers; intermediate between coarse ragging and fine cobbing.

Span. Nine inches; distance between tips of thumb and little finger when the hand is stretched.

Span. Length of a bridge between two piers, either from center to center or in the clear. The longest span is that of the Forth bridge in Scotland, 1,700 ft. That of the East River Bridge at New York is 1.595 ft. That of the projected bridge over the Hudson at New York is 3,100 ft.

Spandau. Prussian town, on the Spree, 8 m. w. by n. of Berlin; taken by Swedes 1634: held by the French 1806-13. It has a strong citadel, government foundries and factories of arms, and a good trade. Pop., 1890, 44,611.

Spandrel. Space between the extrados of an arch and the roadway.

Spangcnberg, August Gottlieb. 1704-1792. Prof. Halle 1731-33; Moravian missionary from 1733. bishop 1744; in America 1735-39 and 1744-62. Life of Zinzendorf, 1772-74, tr. 1838; Exposition of Doctrine, 1777, tr. 1784.

Spanhelm, Ezekiel, 1629-1710. German numismatist, envoy of the Palatinate in England and France. Orbis Romanus, 1704.—His brother, FRIEDRICH, 1632-1701, and father, Friedhich, 1600-1648, were professors of theology at Leyden and controversial writers.

Spaniel. Medium to small dog, with silken hair and large pendulous ears, white and black or with liver-colored spots;

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most intelligent of dogs, with superior sense of smell and serviceable as a water dog and as a setter for the hunt. Spanish. See Romance Languages.

Spanish Ballads. Earliest form of Spanish poetry, and full of the national spirit. They deal with chivalry, history, Moorish themes, and national manners.

Spanish Bayonet. See Bear-grass.

Spanish Blister-Beetle. See Heteromera.

Spanish Chronicles. 2d form of Spanish literature; work of different authors from the 13th century or earlier. Some are historical, some romantic.

Spanish Flies. See Cantharides and Heteromera.

Spanish Literature. The first period extends ab.12001500. To this belong the poem of the Cid, the old ballads, chronicles and romances of chivalry, the early drama, a Provencal literature, and the courtly school of writers. Most of these works are marked by a strong flavor of nationality. The second period, 1500-1700, is the age of Cervantes. Lope de Vega, and Calderon; it is rich in lyric poetrv. romantic fiction, and history. This is the golden aire of Spanish letters. Then follows a period of decadence, 1700-1800. The writing, mainly dramatic, falls far below the drama of the preceding age. The 19th century has produced distinguished historians, novelists, and dramatists. The new school of writers have opened a brilliant era. and Spanish literature seems entering upon a new lease of life.

Spanish Main. Parts of S. and Central America skirting the Caribbean Sea. The term is used somewhat vaguely, and bv some for the sea itself. See Tierra Firme.

Spanish Moss. See Moss. Black.

Spanish Music. Special interest in Spanish music extends only to the rhythms and melodies which have been lent to the modern art by the characteristic dances of Spain. The music indigenous to Spain is that of the Basques, who have preserved it distinct from that of others. This has made no impression upon musical literature, and is not heard out of the Basque country. It is distinguished by its mixed rhythms, 5-8 and 5-4 time being common. The florid embellishments of the melodies of the other provinces, and also their intervallic characteristics, indicate that they are of Arabian origin. To the older set of dances belong the Fandangos, Malaguefias, and Rondeflas. Dances which have been introduced since the expulsion of the Moors are the Seguidilla, which came from La Mancha, and is sometimes called Manchega (referred to in Part II., Chap, xxxviii., of Don Quixote); the Jota, a kind of waltz of which nearly every province lias its own (Glinka wrote a Jota Aragonesa for orchestra, and Sarasate introduced a Jota Navarra in his Spanish Dances); the Cachucha. an Andalusian dance which Fanny Elssler brought into the theater; the Zapateado, el Vito, el Polo, el Ole, and Bolero, of which a fine specimen is in Auber's La Muette de Portici. Spohr wrote a violin concerto on Spanish melodies; Weber introduced others in his Preciosa; Massenet has used Spanish dances in the ballet of his Cid, Moszkowski in his Boabdil, and there is charming use of Spanish color in Bizet's Carmen. The guitar, the national instrument of Spain, is also of Arabian origin.

Spanish Needles. Bidens bipinnata. Coarse herb of the natural family Composite, with small yellow flowers and awned achenia, which attach themselves to clothing or to the fur of animals; native of N. America.

Spanish Succession, War Of, 1702-1713. Waged to prevent Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV., from ascending the throne of Spain on the death of Charles II. The proposed union of France and Spain was regarded as a menace by the other Powers, and occasioned the alliance of England and Holland against France aided by Bavaria. The conflict was carried on chiefly in n. Italy and the Netherlands, the allies under Prince Eugene and Marlborough winning decisive victories at Blenheim, Ramillies. Oudenarde, and Malplaquet. The Archduke Charles, upon his accession to the throne of Austria, April, 1711, laying claim also to the Spanish crown, his allies preferred of the two the heir of the House of Bourbon, and, save that Austria continued the war for a year longer, it ended with the Peace of Utrecht, April 11. 1713, by the terms of which Spain lost her possessions in Italy and the Netherlands, England gained Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Hudson's Bay, St. Kitts. Gibraltar and Minorca, and France engaged that the crowns of France and Spain should never be united.

Spanutius, Frederick William. M.S., b.1868. American chemist; instructor Pa. State Coll. 1888, la. State Coll. 1889, Lehigh Univ. 1892.

Spar. In Mineralogy, heavy spar, fluor spar, calc spar, etc. Anions miners, any soft, easily cleavable. light-colored, nonmetalliferous gangue.

Spark, Electric. Luminous phenomenon which takes place when two bodies in different electric conditions are brought sufficiently near. It is due to the incandescence of the air and minute particles of the solid which are carried across by the discharge. Experiment has shown that what seems to be a single spark is really a very rapid succession of separate discharges in alternate directions. The shape and character of the spark depends upon local conditions.

Sparks, Jared, 1789-1866. Prof. Harvard 1839-49, pres. 1849^53; editor of the writings of Washington. 1834-37, and Franklin, 1836-40; of a Library of American Biography. 25 vols., 1834-48; and of Correspondence of the Revolution. 1854.

Sparring, or Boxing. Originally considered a mimic fight; contest indulged in for exercise or amusement; distinguished from bare-knuckle fighting. Gloves were usually worn. Sparring is now regarded as rather more scientific, and in contests where a decision as to the better man is to be reached it is said to be "for points." The wearing of gloves does not necessarily make a sparring match, nor is an adept sparrer of necessity a strong fighter, though pugilists of the first rank must be clever in scientific boxing. See PUGILISM.

Sparrow, Anthony. D.D., d.1685. Bp. of Exeter 1667. of Norwich 1676. Rationale of the Prayer Book, 1643; Collection of Articles, Canons, etc., 1661.

Sparrow Hawk. See Falcons.

Sparrows. Small plain-colored birds of family FringiUidce. with narrow palates, small conical bills, and streaked plumage. The English House Sparrow (Passer domestieim) was introduced into U. S. 1853, and has since spread to a re

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general chestnut-brown color, much streaked. Length 6 in., of which 2J is tail. Each pair raises ab. 12 pairs of young per year in ab. 5 broods. Their destruction should be encouraged. They make excellent pot-pie.

Sparta, or Lacedjemon. Capital of Laconia, on the Eurotas; ab. 6 m. in circuit. Its greatness dates from Lycurgus, ab. 825 B.C. It had chief command in the Persian war, and held the supremacy in Greece from the end of the Peloponnesian war, 405, to 376; but never recovered from its defeat by the Thebans at Leuctra, 371, and refused to share in Alexander's Asiatic expedition. It revived somewhat under Clomenes, 236-221 B.C., but was soon after compelled to join the Achseau league. The Spartans have been styled "stunted Romans."

Spartacus, d.71 B.C. Thraciau bandit-chief, taken prisoner and trained for a pladiator. With 70 others he broke away from the school in Capua 73 B.C. and at the head of an army of runaway slaves for two years defied the Roman arms, but was defeated and slain by Crassus. He is the hero of several plays.

Spartianus, ^elius, 2d cent. Latin biographer of the emperors to Septimius Severus. Five of his lives remain in the series of Augustan histories.

Spaitm. Convulsive contraction of muscle. It may be general or confined to a part of the body. It is frequently the manifestation of an occupation disease, as drivers, sewing or smith's spasm, where the continuous use of a single set of muscles so reacts upon the nerves as to produce the convulsion.

Spasmodic School. Group of English poets, who displayed an overstrained and unnatural method of sentiment and expression. Among them were P. J. Bailey, S. Dobell and A. Smith. Burlesqued by Aytoun in Firmilian, 1854.

Spatangotdea (spatangidea, Petalosticha). Irrearular heart-shaped Sea-urchins, with mouth and anus eccentric in position. They have no teeth; the ambulacral rosette is fonrieaved, with four genital plates. They are known as Hearturchins.

Spathe. Modified leaf or bract which partially incloses a flower cluster (usually a spadix), as in the calla and Jack-inthe-pulpit.

Spathic Iron. See Siderite.

Spathilla. Small spathe, especially of palms.

Spatter-Dock. See Water-lily, Yellow.

Spatulate. Leaves or other organs which in outline resemble a spatula.

Spaulding, Elbridge Gerry, b.1809. M.C. from N. Y. 1849-51 and 1859-63; author of important financial measures; "father of Greenbacks.'' Hist. Legal-tender Paper Money, 1869.


Spaulding, Levi, 1791-1873. American missionary in Ceylon from 1820; translator of books, etc., into Tamil. Tamil' Dictionary, 1844.

Spaulding, Nathan Weston, b.1829. Inventor of an adjustable saw-tooth for mills, ab.1860; U. S. Treasurer at San Francisco 1881-85.

Spaulding, Solomon, 1761-1816. Author of a MS. novel alleged to have been procured by S. Rigdon, 1814, and made the basis of the Book of Mormon. The original, discovered 1840, supplies small foundation for this legend.

Spavin. Disease affecting the hock joint in horses.

Spawn. Mycelium of the mushroom, Agaricus campestris.

Speaker. Presiding officer of a British or American legislature. In the lower house of Congress he lias great power.

Speaking-Trumpet. Instrument invented ab.1670 to carry the voice far; truncated cone; much needed and used on ships.

Spear. Wooden shaft, furnished with a sharp point, commonly of metal; of various length and weight, as lance, javelin, pike; used in war from earliest times till firearms were introduced, and still by savages, as the S. African assegai.

Spear-Grass. See Meadow-grass.

Spearmint. See Mint.

Spearwort. Yellow-flowered species of the genus Ranunculus of the Buttercup family, natives of wet places in the n. temperate zone.

Specialized Ability. Manual dexterity and acquaintance with practical materials, processes and conditions, required for the special purposes of individual trades.

Specialized Capital. Capital in such a form that it is available for use in the trade for which it was designed, but cannot easily be diverted to another.

Specie Payments. Exchange, on demand, by the government or by a bank, of any amount of paper money for coin of the same face value.

Species. In Logic, a smaller class differentiated from a larger class, the genus, by some peculiar quality called the differentia.—In Natural History, once a fixed type but now a variable type under the influence of environment, heredity and natural selection.—In Biology, subdivision of a genus, consisting of individuals closely alike and congenitally related. According to the creationist, a species has descended from ancestors originally created in conformity to a plan or type which was definitely related to the types of the genus, order, antl other higher divisions of the system of classification, being the final analysis of such systematic plan. The subdivisions of a species (e.g., variety, race) are not aboriginal type ideas, but only modifications of an idea due to the action of environment. According to the evolutionist, a species is a group of individuals, differentiated in a definite way, from ancestors from which other species have also descended, by the action of forces at work breaking species into varieties, which are incipient species, species being incipient genera, and a genus an incipient family. In practice the line which divides nearly related species is drawn with a difficulty which increases with the number of specimens which the classifier has under consideration. If we could get a bird's-eye view of every being that ever lived, they would stand continuously related like the parts of a tree. The physiological species (viz., that including all animals that are interfertile) exists only in idea, for some evidently different species are interfertile, while certain members of the same species are intersterile. See CLASSIFICATION, Darwinism, Natural Selection, and Variation.

Specifications. Rules for conducting work, embracing all matters relating to quality of materials and details of construction, which cannot be given on the drawings.

Specific Conductivity. Measured by the quantity of electricity transmitted per second across a unit of area of an equipotential surface, at which the electric force has unit value.

Specific Duties. Rates of import or export tax calculated according to the quantity, not value, of the article taxed. Specific Gravity. See Density.

Specific Gravity Bottle. Small flask of thin glass fitted with a ground stopper, and used to determine the specific gravity of a liquid or of small pieces of a solid. If the weight of the solid be w, that of the bottle when full of water w„ and that of the bottle with the solid in it and then


filled up with water w., p— ;; r. For a liquid, if w be

r a r w,—(w-f-w,) ^'

the weight of the empty bottle, w, its weight when filled with the liquid, and w, when filled with water, p— A tem

perature correction must be made for any variation from 4° C



Specific Heat. Amount of heat, expressed in Thermal Units (q.v.), required to raise one unit of weight of a solid substance through one thermometric degree. The English standard is one pound raised 1° F.; the French is one kilo raised 1° C. It is also called capacity for heat. The specific heat of gases will have two values, one for the gas when heated at a constant volume, another for the same gas when allowed to expand in volume. The former is less than the latter by the amount of heat necessary to do the internal work of enlarging the volume of the gas. The dynamical specific heat of a substance is the amount of heat expressed in units of work, which corresponds to one degree of absolute temperature. This is constant for all temperatures. The following table shows accepted values for specific heats:

Glass 0 1770 Hydrogen 3.4046

Iron 0.1090 MarshGas 0.5929

Copper 0.0949 Ammonia 0.5080

Zinc 0.0927 Nitrogen 0.2440

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The specific heats for the gases are at constant pressure.

Specific Inductive Capacity. Capacity of a dielectric to transmit inductive influence. It is equal to the ratio of the capacity of a condenser in which this dielectric is used to that of an air condenser of the same dimensions; or it is the coefficient by which the inductive power of air must be multi

£1 ied to give the inductive power of any dielectric. See Iielectric Constant.

Specific Performance. Equitable remedy by which one party to a contract forces the other to perform it in terms; not generally available if the complainant can obtain adequate relief by a common law action; nor if such performance is impossible or would be unjust.

Specific Resistance. See Resistance.

Specific Ilotntory Power. In 1811 Arago observed that when plane polarized light is transmitted through a plate of quartz in the direction of its optic axis, the plane of polarization is rotated through a certain angle depending on the thickness of the plate and color of the light. Other substances, liquids and vapors, as well as solids, were found to possess this property of rotation. The real specific rotatory power, a, of a substance is the rotation, for a given wave frequency, of a layer of the substance 1mm. thick. The apparent power [a] is the rotation of the substance when in solution. If e represent the amount of substance in one grain of solution, 1 the length of the column, usually given in decimeters, and p its density, [a]—a/elp. The molecular rotatorypower is the product of the specific rotatory power by the molecular mass.

Specimen. Entire plant or animal, or portion of one, selected or preserved for study.

Speckbacher, Joseph. 1764-1820. Tyrolese revolutionist of 1801). who, in concert with Hofer, raised the lower valley of the Inn, took Hall, and attacked Innsbruck. He afterward besieged the fortress of Kufstein, and defeated the Bavarians at Lofer and Unken.

Spectacle*. Mechanical device whereby lenses may be kept in position in front of the eyes to correct focal or other defects in seeing. It is usually restricted to that form of device resting on the nose and kept in place by temple pieces extending back over the ears. They are said to have been invented in the 13th century.

Spectator. English periodical, 1711-12 and 1714, to which Addison and Steele were the chief contributors.

Spectrometer. Instrument designed particularly for

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troscope, but has in addition several graduated circles, in order that the positions of the telescope, collimator, and dispersing apparatus may be accurately ascertained.

Spectroscope. See Spectrum Analysis.

Spectrum. See Spectrum Analysis.

Spectrum Analysis. Method of studying the composition of substances by an examination of the light they emit when their vapors are rendered luminous. The light is passed through a prism which separates it into its components, arranging them in the order of their refrangibilities. The result is a band of color which may be received on a screen or upon the retina. This band of color is a spectrum: if the luminous source be the sun, it is the solar spectrum. The instrument employed in spectrum analysis is a spectroscope, and consists of two telescopes and a prism. One of the telescopes, the ColLimator (q.v.), is used to bring into a parallel beam the rays of light which are to pass through the prism. 'It has no eyepiece, but in its place is a narrow adjustable slit, placed in the principal focus of the object glass. The other telescope is used to view the spectrum formed by the prism. The spectrum consists of as many images of the slit as there are rays of different refrangibility in the given light. The light emitted by every elementary substance when its vapor becomes incandescent has its characteristic spectrum; hence the presence or absence of any element in a compound may be readily determined. Bunsen and Kirchhoff first used the prism for this purpose 1860.

Spectra may be classified as follows: 1. The spectrum of the sun, whether received directly or by reflection from the moon or planets, or of the fixed stars, consists of a band of color beginning with red and ending with violet, but crossed by a large number of dark lines. The number, position, and character of these lines varies with the source of the light. They are called absorption lines because they are due to the sifting out or absorbing of certain rays by the chromosphere of the sun or similar envelopes of the fixed stars. The dark lines in the solar spectrum were first observed by Wollaston 1802, but Fraunhofer was the first to map out and describe them 1814. Certain lines in the spectrum, due to the absorption of the eartlfs atmosphere, are called telluric lines.

2. Incandescent solids and liquids furnish spectra which are completely continuous, containing rays of all refrangibilities from extreme red to extreme violet, depending on the temperature.

3. Incandescent gases and vapors give discontinuous spectra, consisting of a definite number of bright lines, their position and character depending on the substance employed, thus furnishing a delicate qualitative test. By noting the coincidence of many of these bright lines with the dark lines of the solar spectrum, we have the best evidence for supposing that many of the elements with which we are familiar on the earth are present in the sun.

4. All transparent media have the power of absorbing certain colors of a continuous spectrum more or less completely, thus forming dark bands. Such are called absorption spectra; and the dark spaces are AbsorpTion Bands (q.v.).

In astronomical work, the spectroscope is usually fitted to a telescope taking the place of the eyepiece and placed with the plane of its slit in the principal focus of the object glass. Thus the light from various parts of the luminous source can be examined separately. A combination of this sort is called a telespectroscope. Ir the dispersing prism be formed of several pieces of two kinds of glass, placed in such a way that the deviation is destroyed but the dispersion not, the instrumec: is known as a direct vision spectroscope.

Specular Iron. See Hematite.

Specular Reflection. That which takes place froc: polished surfaces; regular, as distinguished from irregular reflection, by means of which bodies are visible.

Speculum. Reflector of polished metal.—In Medicine, an instrument for examining inward parts.

Speculum Metal. Alloy of 1 part of tin, 2 of copper, and a small quantity of arsenic, used for making the mirrors of reflecting telescopes. Glass having a film of silver over it is taking its place.



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Speddlng, James. 1808-1881. Editor and biographer of Bacon, 1857-78. Publishers and Authors, 1867; Reviews, 1879.

Speech. Form of language; meansof expression of thought, characterized by the articulate utterance of audible sounds.

Speed. Rate of change of place along any path, without regard to the direction or its changes. Speed is a scalar quantity, while velocity, which involves direction, is a vector quantity.

Speed, James, 1812-1887. Ky. loyalist, law prof. Univ. Louisville 1855-58, 1875-79; U. 8. Atty.-gen. 1864-66.

Speed, John, 1543-1629. English antiquarian and cartographer. Hist. Britain, 1611.

Speed of Locomotive,



See Locomotive.

Herbs of the genus Veronica, natural family Scrophulariacece, of wide geographical distribution, including several common weeds.

SpeUft. Product first obtained when arsenical ores are smelted; an arsenide of the metal.

Speke, John HasNino, 1827-1864. English explorer, in Africa with Burton 1854 and 1857-59, and with J. A. Grant 1860-63; discoverer of the Victoria Nyanza. Source Speedwell (Veronica offlcinalil). Qj, NUe< 1863-64.

Spelling. See Philology.

Spelman, Sir Henry. 1562-1641. English antiquarian, knighted ab.1612. His Olossarium Archceologicum, 1626-64, and Concilia Decreta, etc., 1639-64, were completed by other hands.—His son. Sir John, d.1643, knighted 1641, wrote a life of King Alfred. 1678.

Spelt. Triticum spelta. Tall grass, native of the Old Work), cultivated to a limited extent for its grain, which resembles wheat and barley.

Spelter. Zinc in blocks or pigs. See Zinc, Metallurgy Of.

Spence, Joseph, 1699-1768. Prof, of Poetry at Oxford 1727; of History 1787; prebendary of Durham 1754. Polymetis, 1747; Anecdotes, pub. 1820.

Spence, Robert Traill, U.S.N., 1785-1827. Captain 1815; distinguished in the war with Tripoli 1804 and that of 1812.— His son, Carroll, 1816-1896, was Minister to Turkey 1853-57.

Spencer, Ambrose. LL.D., 1765-1848. Atty.-gen. of N. Y. 1802-4; Justice N. Y. Supreme Court 1804; Chief-justice 181923; M.C. 1829-31. Chancery Reports, 1814-23.—His son, John Canfield, LL.D., 1788-1855, was M.C. 1817-19, Sec. of War 1841-i3, and of the Treasury 1843-44.

Spencer, Herbert, b.1820. English author of a System of Synthetic Philosophy, based on evolution and aiming at scientific precision and coherence. Social Statics, 1850; Psychology, 185.5-72; First Principles, 1862; Biology, 1864-67; Sociology, 187685; Ethics, 1879-93. His writings cover a wide range of thought, exhibit the results of vast industry, and are exciting no little influence.

Spencer, Ichabod Smith, D.D., 1798-1854. Presb. minister in Brooklyn from 1832. His Pastor's Sketches, 1850-53, had a large circulation.

Spencer, Jesse Ames. D.D.. b.1816. Prof. Coll. New York 1869-79; editor of classical text-books. Hist. U. S., 1856-69.

Spencer, John, D.D., ab.1630-1695. Dean of Ely 1677. De Legibus Hebraorum ritualibus, 1685-1727.

Spencer, John Charles, 8d Earl (lord Althorp), 17821845. M.P. 1804; in opposition 1807-30: Chancellor of the Exchequer and leader of the Commons 1830-34; active in carrying the Reform Bill 1832 and the Irish Ch. reform 1838; Earl 1834.

Spencer, John Poyntz. 5th Earl (1857), b.1835. Lordlieutenant of Ireland 1869-74 and 1882-85: pres. Council 1880 and 1886.

Spencer, Joseph William, b.1850. Prof. King's Coll., Windsor, N. S., 1880; Univ. Mo. 1882, and Univ. Ga. 1890; State Geologist of Ga. 1890-93; chiefly engaged in the superficial geology of the Great Lakes.

Spencer, Plait Rogers, 1800-1864. American author

and teacher of a system of penmanship; founder of business


Spencer, Sara (andrews), b.1837, m.1864. American advocate of woman suffrage and other reforms. Problems, 1871.

Spencer, William Robert, 1770-1834. English lyric poet.

Spencer Rifle. First magazine gun used during the rebellion. having1 been introduced into the army in 1860. The magazine carries seven metallic rim-flre cartridges, which are pusTied forward toward the barrel by a spiral spring. The breech-block is curved on one face and flat on the other, wliich closes the breech, and is hinged to the trigger guard. When the latter is pushed forward the block is drawn, opening the breech and allowing a cartridge from the magazine to slip over it. Pulling the trigger guard back, the block rotates to the front and pushes the cartridge home. It is fired by releasing the hammer, which strikes a slide in the block and drives it against the rim of the cartridge. See Magazine Gun.

Spencc'H Metal. Made by melting together a metallic sulphide and sulphur. When sulphide of iron is used, a grayish-black substance is formed which takes a good polish and can be colored to imitate bronze. It is used like lead in pipe joints and for making busts and medallions. It was first used 1879.

Spener, Philipp Jakob. 1635-1705. Preacher at Frankfort 1666, Dresden 1686, and Berlin 1691; founder of the pietistic school, exertinggreat influence and encountering vehement opposition. Pia Desideria, 1675; Theologische Bedenken, 1700-2.

Spengel, Leonhard, 1803-1880. Prof. Heidelberg 1842 and Munich 1847; writer on Aristotle, 1844-68, and Greek rhetoric.

Spenser, Edmund, 1552-1599. English poet, whose Faerie

Queene, 1590-96. is the greatest of allegorical poems. Some of his minor poems are of rare excellence: his Epithalamion,

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mother clothes it with a body." Aristotle advocated this view. The modern theory, that the female furnishes the conservative and the male the progressive factor in heredity, is at least analogous to the ancient view.

Spermatlum. Propagative spore in certain Fungi and Algae..

.Spermatoblasts. See Spermospherk.

Spermatocysl. Cell containing u spermatozoid.

Spermatocytes. See Spermosphere.

Spermatogemme. See Spermosphere.

Spermatogonia. See Spermospores.

Spermatophores. Sac-like sheaths surrounding the spermatozoa in Cyclops, Cuttlefish, and other animals, to protect them during transference from the male to the female.

Spermatophyta. Sub-kingdom of plants, including all those which produce seed. See Phaneroqamia and AnthoPhyta.

Spermatozoid. Coiled protoplasmic body, the male element of fecundation in certain plants, in function similar to the spermatozoon in animals.

Spermatozoon. Microgamete, destined for conjugation with a macrogamete (or ovum) to produce an oosperm (or zygote) from which a new individual will develop. This is tiie all-inclusive biological definition. In popular terms, one of the animalcules of the male-fluid, essential to fruitful impregnation of the female. When semen fails to contain these, the male is sterile.

Spermoderm. See Episperm and Testa.

Spermogone (sperhooonium). Sac containing reproductive spores (spermatia) in certain Fungi and Alga.

Sperm Oil. Found with Spermaceti (q.v.) in the headcavities and blubber of the Sperm Whales (q.v.). It remains liquid at 18° C, is saponified by potash, and yields the same fatty acids as spermaceti. It is used as a lubricant for machinery.

Spermosphere (sperm-morula, Spermatogemme). Ball of cells (spermatocytes), which, after completing multiplication,are known as spermatoblasts and are transformed into spermatozoa. They surround a central blastophore, consisting of a cell which plays no part in the multiplication, but probably functions in the nutrition of the other cells of the sperm ball.

Spermospores, or Spermatogonia. Mother-cells of spermatozoa. They develop first into spermospheres.

Sperm Whales (physeterid.*:). Family of toothed Cetaceans, with united cervical vertebrae, and teeth in the lower jaw only. The blow-holes are on the end of the snout. On

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large enough to admit a man. The fore-limbs are 6 ft. long. The color is black above and gray on breast. The females and young can stay under water half an hour, the old males more than an hour. They have 5 respirations per minute. They swim in schools in the temperate and warm parts of all oceans, but prefer the s. Pacific. When enraged they have sunk boats, and even ships. The period of gestation is 10 months. Ambergris is found in the intestines of some specimens, resulting from a peculiar decomposition of the cuttlefish food. See Catodontid^e.

Sperryllte. PtAs,. Natural mineral combination of platinum and arsenic, found in very small quantity near Sudbury, Ontario.

Spensippus, ab.894-339 B.C. Nephew of Plato, and his successor as head of the Academy at Athens.

Spey. River of Scotland, the most rapid in Britain. It rises in the hills between Badenoch and Lochaber and empties into Morav Firth. It affords valuable salmon fisheries. Length 110 m.

Speyer. See Spires.

Spczia. Principal naval station of Italy; 56 m. s.e. of Genoa. Pop. ab. 20,000.

Sphacelarlaceae. Order of minute marine Algee, mainly parasitic on other plants of the same class.

Sphaeraphides. Clusters of crystals of globular form, found in the parenchyma of a great number of plants.

Sphaeridia. Small, transparent bodies on stalks, situated on the ambulacra! and peristomial plates of Sea-urchins.

Sphaerococcaceae. Order of Algce, of sub-class Rhodophycece.

Sphaerogastra. See Akaneida.

Sphaero-Siderite. Impure varieties of carbonite of iron.

Sphaerozolda. Group of Polycyttaria, including Radiolaria, which have no skeleton, or scattered spicules, outside of the central capsule. Examples are Sphcerozoum and Collozoum.

Sphagnaceae. Order of Bryophyta, comprising the Bog Mosses. All are of the genus Sphagnum. They grow in bogs or swamps, principally in regions of low annual temperature but high humidity, where, by their growth and accumulation, they form Peat. Such conditions are well afforded by Ireland, Scotland, and Scandinavia.

Sphalerite. ZnS. Mineral zinc sulphide, widely distributed in nature, and occurring in deposits of widely varying form and origin; important ore of zinc; also called Zinc-blende. See Blende.

Sphargldae. Family of marine Chelonia, including the Leatherback. This is the largest of tortoises, attaining a

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