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unfixed signification, sometimes meaning in Hebrew merely life, and in Greek opposed either to reasoning mind or to spirit, thus indicating, thougli not uniformly, the lower impulses and passions. This vagueness, for which Aristotle is in part responsible, remains. See Psychology.

Soule, Joshua, D.D., 1781-1867. M.E. bp. from 1824; leader in M.E. Ch. South from 1844, residing at Nashville.

Sonic-. Pierre, 1803-1870. French journalist, at New Orleans from 1827; U. S. Senator 1847-53; U. S. Minister to Spain 1853-55; imprisoned 1802; noted for eloquence.

Soul*-, Richard, 1812-1877. Associate ed. Worcester's Dictionary, 1859. Synonyms, 1871.

Soiilic, Melchior Frederic, 1800-1847. French dramatist and novelist.

Soulouquc, Faustin Elic, 1785-1807. Haytian slave, freed 1793; insurrectionist; General 1844; Pres. 1847; Emperor, as Faustin I., 1849-59; defeated by Getfrard 1859, and exiled. He unsuccessfully invaded Dominica 1849 and 1855.

Soult, Nicolas Jean De Dieu, 1769-1851. French general 1794, Marshal 1804, Duke of Dalmatia 1807; prominent at Austerlitz and Jena, 1805-6. and in Spain as Commander-inchief 1809-12; in exile 1815-19; Peer 1827; Marshal-gen. 1847.

Sound. 1. Physically, wave motion propagated through an elastic medium by the longitudinal vibrations of its particles. 2. Physiological sensation in the ear by such wave motion. Sounds may differ in intensity, pitch, and quality.

Sound. Strait or passage connecting two portions of the sea; especially that between the Baltic and the Cattegat.

Sounder. Small electromagnet, in front of the poles of which is a soft iron armature attached to a lever controlled by a spring; employed very generally on telegraph lines for receiving the signals by sound. When the current is made to

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pass, the armature is drawn toward the poles; when the current is interrupted the spring draws the armature back. The clicks which accompany these motions are slightly different in sound and the dots and dashes of the Morse alphabet can be readily distinguished.

Sounding Apparatus. Tackle employed by mariners for ascertaining the depth of water and character of the ground. The lead and line are still in universal use. The lead lias a cavity which is partly filled with tallow to which the ground adheres. The common hand lead weighs from 7-11 lbs. See Bathometer, Deep-sea Sounding, and SoundIng Line.

Sounding Lino. Used on shipboard to measure depth of water. The greatest depth so far sounded is 4,655 fathoms e. of Japan. With a ship in motion, there is now used fine steel wire, suspending a brass tube, with an inner glass tube, open at the lower end only, and coated internally with a paint soluble in water, which shows the hydrostatic pressure.

Soup. Decoction of flesh for food, seasoned more or less strongly; strong broth.

Soupo, Marie Joseph. 1738-1794. French physician, writer on cholera, which he studied in Peru 1784; guillotined.

Sour-Grans. See Sorrel.

Sour-Gum. See Pepperidge.

Sour-Sop. See Custard Apple.

Sour-Wood. See Sorrel-tree.

South, Sir James, 1785-1867. English astronomer, knighted 1830.

South, ROBERT, D.D., 1633-1716. Prebendary of Westminster 1663, chaplain to Charles II. 1678; famous as a preacher. His works have frequently been reprinted.

South African Republic. See Transvaal.

South Aincriea. S. grand division of the w. continent: connected with N. Amer-ca by Isthmus of Panama. In shape it is rudely triangular, with a long narrow angle pointing s. Along the w. coast, from Panama to Cape Horn, runs a high, continuous, and rugged mountain system, the Andes. Between it and the Pacific there is but a narrow ribbon of land. E. of it the level of the country drops immediately to nearly sea level and there succeeds a great plain, treeless in the n. in Venezuela, where it is known as llanos, heavily forested in the basin of the Amazon, near the equator (selvas), and again treeless further s. in the Argentine Republic (pampas). In the e. part of Brazil the land rises into asecond system of mountains, broader than the Andes, but of much less height and length. The area is 6,861.400 sq. m. The mean elevation is 2.078 ft. The coast is simple, with few harbors or islands. The temperature varies with latitude, being very high in the Amazon valley, while in the extreme s. it is severely cold. The rainfall is excessive near the equator, diminishing n. and s., becoming very light in the s. parts of the Argentine Republic. The principal livers are the Amazon, the greatest on the globe, and the Rio de la Plata. The population is estimated at 28,380,000. These consist almost entirely of the aborigines and the descendants of the Spanish and Portuguese. The principal countries are Brazil, Guiana, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentine Republic, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chili, Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia; except Guiana, these are republics.

South American Indian*. See Indians. Pampas IndiAns, Patagonians, Peruvians. Tupi-guarani, Caribs, and FieGIANS. Among these tribes civilization increases northward, and also with altitude. Of the Amazon tribes, some are cannibals, and some are dangerous enemies of travelers. A few of the coast tribes have been slightly improved by the i fforts of R. C. missionaries. They live by bunting, fishing, and the cultivation of cassava. The majority of the tribes use arrows poisoned by curari. Some practice the couvade, some apply torture of a severe kind to girls and boys on attaining thenmajority, which occurs about the time of puberty. Dissipation abounds.

Southampton. Seaport of Hampshire, Eng., at the junction of the Itchin and Test; settled ab.500; birthplace of Dr. Watts. It has an important commerce. The remains of its

The Walls of Southampton.

town walls, with a fine arcade on the w. shore, with 4 out of 7 gates, Norman house, etc., show its ancient importance. The Town Quay is 6,072 ft. long. Pop., 1891, 65,325.

Southampton, Henry Wriothesley. Earl Of, 1573-1624. Sentenced to death 1600 as partaker in Essex's insurrection: interested in the colonization of Va.: imprisoned 1621 for efforts against tyranny; officer in the Dutch war with Spain 1623: patron of Shakespeare, whose early poems, 1593-94, were dedicated to him.

Southard, Samuel Lewis. LL.D.. 1787-1842. Justice N.J. Supreme Court 1815; U.S. Senator 1821-23 and 1883-42: Sec. Navv 1823-29: Attv.-gen. of N.J. 1829, Gov. 1832; pres. Senate 1841*. Reports N.'j. Supreme Court, 1819-20. — His father, Henry, 1749-1842, was M.C. rrom N. J. 1801-11 and 1815-21.

South Australia. British colony occupying the middle part of Australia; formed 1836. enlarged 1863. The surface consists mainly of arid plains, 3.000 to 4.000 ft. above the sea. The settled portion is on the s. coast. Copper mines were opened 1843, and gold 1846-52. The capital is Adelaide. Area

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814.000 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 320,431, including 4,895 in the Northern Territory, annexed 1863.

South Bend. Capital of St. Joseph co., Ind., on St. Joseph River, 85 m. e. of Chicago; settled 1820 by Frenchmen; chartered 1835 and 1865; seat of Univ. Notre Dame. Its chief manufactures are of wagons and farming implements. Pop., 1890, 21,819.

South Bethlehem. Borough of Northampton co., Pa., on the Lehigh, opposite Bethlehem; seat of Lehigh Univ. and of the Bethlehem Iron Co., employing ab. 4,000 men. Its growth has been since 1865. Pop., 1890. 10,302.

South Carolina. One of the s. Atlantic States. The e. part is low and level, and near the coast marshy. This is succeeded on the w. by a gentle slope rising to the foot of the Blue Ridge, where it reaches 1,000 ft. All its streams flow s.e. into the Atlantic, and the larger of them are navigable to the Fall line. Geologically the State is extremely simple. The Archaean formation covers the upper part of the Atlantic plain. In the central part this is succeeded by Eocene, and that by Neocene formations, while the immediate coast is bordered by Quaternary beds. Its industries are agricultural, consisting in large measure of the cultivation of cotton. In 1890 farms were valued at $99,104,600; and the agricultural product, in 1889, at $51,337,985. It was originally a portion of the single colony, Carolina, which was divided 1729. A vain attempt to settle the region was made in 1562, when Coligny obtained permission from Charles IX. of France to establish a Protestant colony in Florida. It was not permanently settled until 1670, by a party of English colonists with grants from Charles III.; Port Royal was founded, and a settlement was made on the site of Charleston 1680. Important battles were fought in S. C. during the Revolution. It led in the Nullification movement, 1833. and was one of the first States to secede 1860. The Civil War began with the bombardment of Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor. S. C. suffered heavily during the war, and has been slow to regain its prosperity since. It is sometimes called the Palmetto State. Capital, Columbia. Area 30,570 sq. m.; pop., 1890, 1,151,149, threelifths colored.

Southcott, Joanna, 1750-1814. Prophetess of an English sect 1792, of which a remnant survived 1887; author of many alleged revelations. She professed to he the woman of Rev. xii., and expected to give birth to a new Messiah.

South Dakota. One of the n. central States. The e. part consists of the valley of the James, which is fertile and well watered, and is separated from the Missouri by a broad, low plateau, known as the Coteau du Missouri, which has a fertile soil, but is somewhat deficient in rainfall. W. of the Missouri the country is arid. The s.w. part is occupied by the Black Hills, which are covered with forests, and in which are located valuable mines of gold and tin; the former producing $4,266,897 in 1895, those of tin not being profitable. The State was formed 1889. The capital is Pierre on the Missouri. Area 76.700 sq. m.; pop., 1890, 328,808. See Dakota. (See Map, page 1422.)

South Dakota, University Of. Opened 18«3 at Vermillion as Univ. of Dakota; name changed 1891. It has 16 instructors and ab. 280 students.

Southern Confederacy. See ConfederAcy, Southern. Southern Croat,

Constellation first noted 1679 by Royer. Right ascension 12 h., declination 60° S.

Southcrnc, Thomas, ab. 1660-1746. English dramatist. Oroonoko, 1696.


Artemisia abrotanum.

Shrub of the Composite Quadrantof the Southern Heavens from the f.lm:iv ,v:th hitter urn. Rrie to the fortieth degree, showing the Wnlliy, wwn Ditter aromatic foliage,

prose works, which include histories of Brazil, 1810-19, and the Peninsular War, 1823-32; lives of Nelson, 1813, J. Wesley, 1820, and Bunyan, 1830; Book of the Ch., 1824; Naval History,


Soulherii Cross, u, and the Triangle, b. The two bright stars at c are o and p of Centauri.

native of s. Europe; much cultivated in gardens.

Southey, Robert. D.C.L., 1774-1843. English author, long associated with Coleridge and Wordsworth; pensioned 1807; poet laureate 1813. His epics. Hialnba. 1801, Madoc, 1805, Curse of Kehama. 1810, and Roderick, 1814, with a vast number of ballads and minor poems, are now less valued than his


Robert Southey.

1833-40. and The Doctor. 1834-37.—His second wife, Caroline Anne (bowles), 1787-1854, m. 1839, pub. much verse.

Southgate, Horatio, D.D., 1812-1894. Missionary bp. of Constantinople 1844-50; rector in Boston 1852-58, and NewYork 1859-72. Armenia, etc., 1840; Cross above Crescent, 1877.

South Georgia. Group of islands in the s. Atlantic, belonging to Gt. Britain; lat. 54° 30' S., long. 36°-38° W.; area ab.1,000 sq. m.; discovered 1675; uninhabited.

South Mountain. In Md.; scene of a Confederate defeat Sept. 14, 1862.

South Park. Broad elevated valley in Colorado. Elevation 8.000 to 10,000 ft.

Southport. Watering-place in Lancashire, at the Ribble's mouth, 18 m. n. of Liverpool. Pop., 1891, 43.026.

South Sea. See Pacific.

South Sea Bubble. English speculation, initiated 1711. A company assumed the public debt, on which government was to pay 6 per cent after 5 years, with a grant of the monopoly of the South Sea trade; to secure this monopoly £7,500,000 were paid. The stock rose from £100 to £1,000: similar companies sprang up. supported by public infatuation. All collapsed 1720, entailing enormous loss.

South Shetland lolandg. In the Antarctic Ocean, extending n.e. and s.w. between lat. 61°-63° 30' S., and long. 53°-63° W. They are mountainous, covered with ice and snow, and surrounded by deep water. Area ab.850 sq. m.

South Shields. See Shields. South.

Southwell, Robert, 1560-1.M)5. English Jesuit, poet, and martyr, imprisoned 1592, repeatedly tortured, and hanged at Tyburn. Some of his poems possess eminent devotional, philosophical, and poetical merit.

Sotlthwcftt Territory. Organized 1790 from lands ceded by N. C. and S. C. Tenn was taken from it 1796. ceased to exist on the organization of Miss. Territory 1798.

Southworth, Emma Dorothy Eliza (nevitte), b. 1819, in. 1840. American novelist.

Soutzo, Alexander, 1803-1863. Greek satiric and dramatic poet.

Sou ventre, Emile, 1806-1854. French novelist. Les Derniers Bretons, 4 vols., 1835-37; Riche et Pauvre. 2 vols., 1836; Foyer Breton, 2 vols., 1844; Un Philosophe sons les Toits, 1854. His plays have less merit.

Souza, Mme. Adelaide Marie Emilie (filleul) De. 17611836. French novelist. Addle de Senanges, 1794; Eugenie et Mathilde. 1811.

Souza, or Soiinh, Martim Affonso De, ab.1500-1564. Gov.

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and colonizer of Brazil 1530-32: Admiral or Gov. of Portuguese India 1534-45.—His brother. Pedro Lopes. ab.1500-1539, assisted in these activities.—Their relative, d. ab.1560, was first Gov.-gen. of Brazil, 1549-53, and founder of Buhia.

Sovereign. 1. Ruler of a state; usually, but not necessarily, a single person. 2. British gold coin, pound or 20 shillings; minted since 1817.

Sovereignly. Power to make and enforce law in a state. In the U. S. it is divided, so far as domestic affairs are concerned, between the State and Federal Governments, each being sovereign with respect to subjects committed to it by the U. S. Constitution. In international relations the Federal Government is the sovereign power.

Sower, or Saur,Christopher, 1693-1758. German printer, in Germantovvn, Phila., from 1738. His Bible, 1743, was the first pub. in America after Eliot's.—His son, Christopher, 1721-1784, reprinted this 1763 and 1776, and was a sufferer in the Revolution.

Sowcrby, James, 1757-1822. Illustrator of English Botany, 86 vols., 1792-1807; Fungi. 3 vols., 1797-1803; Mineralogy, 7 vols., 1804-17; and Mineral Conchology, 4 vols., 1812-20.—His son, James De Carle, 1787-1871, pub. supplements to the first and last of these.—His nephew, George Brettingham, 1812-1884, wrote much on natural history.

Sowing. See Drill. Grain.

Sow-Thi§tle. Coarse, spiny - toothed, yellow - flowered

herbs of the genus Sonchus, natural family Composite, natives of the Old World, extensively naturalized as weeds in America.

Soy. Glycine soja. Herb of the natural family Leguminous, native of India; cultivated for its seeds.

Soyer, Alexis, 18091858. French chef, in London 1830-55; writer on cookery.

Sozobrniichln. See Perennibkanchiata.

Sozonicn, Hermias, ab.400-443. Of a Palestine family. Historiau of the Ch. 323-439.

Soy.lira. See URODELA. Spa. Belgian resort. 20 m. s.e. of Liege. Its chalybeate waters, known since ab.1370. are widely used; its name has become generic. Pop. ab.7,500.

Space. Indefinite extension in all directions, and something a definite portion of which is occupied by every material body as a condition of its existence. According to W. T. Harris, '"the mind uses the idea of space as an indispensable instrument in thinking the idea of a body."

Space-Perception. The process by which the mind perceives things as extended is one of the most disputed questions of psychology. Perhaps the most widely accepted theory is that every sensation, at least of touch and sight, has an aspect known as extensity or bigness, which is original and innate. With this element as a basis, our developed spatial consciousness is a product of tactual, motor, and visual experience. The earliest space consciousness of the child is evidently largely the result of touch and movement, which with increasing years is supplemented and largely supplanted by the experience of the sense of sight.

Spndiceouft. Resembling or pertaining to a spadix.

Spadiciflorre. Families of plants which bear their flowers in a spadix.

Spadix. 1. Fleshy, elongated flower-cluster, found especially in the natural families Aracete and Palmaceac. 2. Analogue in Nautilus of the hectocotylized arm of Cuttlefishes.

Spaeth, Adolph. D.D., b.1839 in Germany. Pastor in Phila. since 1867; Prof. Lutheran Theol. Sem. since 1874; author or compiler of sundry religious books.

Spagna, Lo (giovanni Di Pietrov d. ab. 1530. Italian painter of the Umbrian School: of supposed Spanish birth; affiliated with Pinturicchio and Perugino, and a fellow-student with Raphael.

Spagnolctto. See Ribera.

Spalght, RICHARD Dobbs, 1758-1802. Delegate to Consxess 1783, and to the Constitutional Convention 1787; Gov. of N. C. 1792; M.C. 1798-1801.—His son and namesake, 1796-1850, was M.C. 1823-25, and Gov. of N. C. 1835-37.


Sow-Thistle (Sonchus arvensia).

Spain. Monarchy of s.w. Europe, occupying with Portugal the Iberian peninsula, separated from France by the Pyrenees. Area 197,670 sq. m. Its surface is mainly a plateau, having a mean elevation of 2,600 to 2,700 ft., capped by mountain ranges 8,000 to 11,000 ft. high. Its rivers are of little value for navigation. The climate as regards temperature varies with the altitude, being tropical in the low country along the seacoast, and temperate, with extremes of heat and cold, over the plateau. The rainfall is scanty. The forest area is very small. Agriculture is the most important industry, cereals and the grape being largely cultivated. Its mineral resources are considerable, consisting mainly of iron, lead, copper, mercury, and coal. Its manufactures are of little importance. It has a large foreign commerce, and in 1893 had 6,708 m. of railway in operation. Its principal colonial possessions are Cuba and the Philippine Islands, both now (1898) in revolt. The capital is Madrid.

S. was originally inhabited by Celtic and Iberian tribes. It was partly conquered by Carthaginians, became a flourishing province of Rome, was overrun ab.409 by the Vandals, whom the Visigoths expelled ab.414, and was won by the Arabs 711714, who established a flourishing empire. The Christians, shut up in the n. mountains, gradually, during 8 centuries, reconquered the territory. Leon, Castile, Aragon, rose into separate Christian kingdoms: these were united under Ferdinand and Isabella. Granada was taken from the Moors 1492; Navarre was absorbed 1575. Under Ximenes the church became the unifying principle. The discovery of America raised


A Bull Fight in a Country Village in Spain.

S. to be the first power of Christendom: it reached its culmination under Charles V.. 1517-56, who held the Netherlands, Franche Comte, the Sicilies, and Milan. With Philip II. the decline began: the great wealth from America destroyed productive energy at home, and a narrow policy fettered intellectual development. 1,000,000 industrious Moors were expelled; the church monopolized the state; heresy was furiously persecuted; and between 1678 and 1700 the population decreased from eleven millions to eight. The European possessions were gradually lost. The accession of the Bourbons, 1700 (Philip V.) brought war again, and by the Peace of Utrecht ail possessions beyond the peninsula were lost. Napoleon placed his brother Joseph upon the throne 1808; a popular revolution followed, and Ferdinand VII. was restored 1813 to a constitutional monarchy. His reactionary policy caused a revolution; civil war followed 1821-28. and the war of succession 1833-40 between Don Carlos, brother of Ferdinand VII.. and Maria Christina, his widow. Maria abdicated 1840; Isabella, her daughter, was proclaimed 1843, and driven out 1868 by an uprising of Liberals. An offer of the crown to Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was refused by him 1870. Amadeus of Savoy was chosen king 1870, and abdicated 1873: a republic followed, and a Carlist war. Alfonso XII., son of Isabella, reigned 1875-85; his widow. Christina (of Austria), has been regent during the minority of her son. Alfonso. Cuban revolution began 1895. Pop., 1887, 17.550.246.

Spalacotherium. Ancient Jurassic Marsupial, whose dentition somewhat resembled that of the Insectivores.

Spalato, or Spalatro. Town of Dalmatia, near the Adriatic; noted for the remains of an immense palace built bv Diocletian and occupied on his abdication 305. Pop., 1890, 15,697.

Spalding, Martin John, D.D.. 1810-1872. R. C. Bp. of Louisville. Ky., 1850; Abp. of Baltimore 1864. Evidences of Catholicity, 1847; Hist. Reformation. I860.—His nephew and biographer, John Lancaster, b. 1840. Bp. of Peoria, 111.. 1877, has pub. Essays, 1876, Means and Ends of Education, 1896.

Spailanzani, Lazaro. 1729-1799. Prof. Modena 1761, and Pavia 1768. He disputed Button's doctrine of spontaneous

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