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Soluble Blue. See Nicholson's Blue and Cotton Blue.
Soluble Oil. Thick solution in water of the sodium salt or soap of ricinoleic acid, prepared by the action of causticsoda solution upon castor oil. Also ALIZARINE ASSISTANT (q.v.).
Solution. 1. Result of mixing1 two substances, one usually a liquid or a gas, which have a mutual action such as to destroy the cohesion of one of the substances and produce a homogeneous fluid mixture. 2. In Botany, separation of organs which are normally more or less united or approximate. 3. In Mathematics, the solution of a problem gives a law of general relation based upon the given conditions and meeting the requirements of the problem. That of an equation gives: (1) a value for an unknown quantity in known terms: (2) an explicit function of a variable from an implicit function. The term is also used, unfortunately, as synonymous with "root of an equation."
Solutions Chemical. Regarded as fluid, unstable, definite chemical compounds in a state of dissociation.
Solvay Process. See Sodium Carbonate.
Sol way Firth. Inlet of Irish Sea, between Scotland and Cumberland; length 35 in., breadth 2 to 22 m.; noted for the rapidity of its tides.
Sol way Moss. In n. Cumberland; scene of a rout of Scottish raiders, Nov. 25, 1542, and of a destructive flood, Nov. 13, 1771.
Sol) ma, or Hierosolyma. See Jerusalem.
Sol) man (or Suleiman) I., 1496-1566. Sultan of the Ottoman empire at its height; able ruler and lawgiver; conqueror of Rhodes 1522, Hungary 1526, and much of Persia and n. Africa 1534. He besieged Vienna 1529 and Malta 1565, unsuccessfully and with heavy losses.—II., 1642-1691. Sultan 1687.
Soma. Plant growing in n. India, and its juice. In Vedic times its sap was held to infuse immortal life and energy into those who quaffed it, and was offered in sacrifices. Hence, third principal deity of the Vedic pantheon, identified with the moon and the moon plant; god of sacrifice; creator, with the aid of Agni, of the heaven and earth, the sun and stars.
Somali*. Mixed race along e. African coast, from equator to Gulf of Aden; allied to the Abyssinians; wild, independent,
and unfriendly to foreigners: Mohammedans. The region is of indefinite extent, and partly under British (n. part) and Italian protectorates.
Somatic. Pertaining to the body: in Botany, cells which effect the propagation of an organism.
Somatocyst. Cavity in the cocnosarc of certain Siphonophores, at the base of the upper nectocalyx.
Somatology. Study or science of human and other organisms on the material side; also that of inorganic bodies.
Somatropism. In Plant. Physiology, directive influence of the soil on the growth of organs.
Sombrero. Felt hat with a wide brim, common in N. and S. America, originally Spanish.
Somerby, Horatio Gates, 1805-1872. Genealogist of Mass.. in England from 1845
Somers, Sir George, 1554-1611. Colonizer of the Bermudas 1611.
Somers, John, Lord, F.R.S., 1652-1716. Whig leader, M.P.
1689; Baron 1697; Lord Chancellor 1697-1700; impeached 1701: Pres. of Council 1708-10. The Somers Tracts, State papers from his library, were pub. in 16 vols. 1748-52, and in 13 vols. 1809-15.
Somers, Richard, U.S.N., 1778-1804. Lieut. 1799, commander 1804; distinguished for gallantry on the Barbary coast; killed in an effort to blow up the Tripolitan fleet.
Somers (or Sommers) Islands. See Bermudas.
Somerset, Edward Seymour, Duke Of, 1500-1552. Brother of Jane Seymour; Duke and Protector 1547-49. He executed his brother. Sir Thomas Seymour, 1549; plotted against Warwick, and was beheaded.
Somerset, Fitzroy. See Raglan.
Somerset, Robert Carr. See Overbury. Sir Thomas.
Somervllle. City of Middlesex co., Mass., on the Mystic, n. of Boston; part of Charlestown till 1842; chartered'1872. Pop., 1890. 40,152.
Somervllle, Mrs. Mary (fairfax), 1780-1872. Scottish writer on science. Mechanism of the Heavens. 1830; Connection of the Physical Sciences, 1835; Physical Geography, 1848.
Somervllle, William, 1677-1742. English poet. The Chase, 1735.
Somite. Segment or joint of the body of a segmented animal.
Sommc. River of n. France, rising e. of St. Quentin, and flowing 150 m. w. and n.w. to the English Channel.
Somnambulism. Peculiar abnormality of sleep, characterized by the performance of apparently purposive acts, yet with imperfect reaction to sense stimuli and with lack of memory on waking for what has taken place during the state. A common form of it is sleep-walking. The similar condition artificially induced by suggestion or HYPNOTISM (q.v.) is called artificial or induced somnambulism.
Sonata. Literally, sounded piece; antithesis of cantata, a sung piece; originally music wholly instrumental. A sonata is a cyclical composition for a single instrument, with or without accompaniment, consisting of three or four parts, called movements, which are contrasted in tempo and mood, the first of which exemplifies the sonata form. The sequence of movements is generally fast, slow, fast, fast. The first movement written in this form has a triple division. It may or may not have a slow introduction. In the first division the thematicmaterial of the movement is brought forward: in the second, called free fantasia, this material is subjected to the fanciful play of the composer; in the third the first is recapitulated in a related key and provided with a coda. The slow movement may be in the same form or a theme with variations; the third is playful in character, and is usually a Minuet or Scherzo. The fourth may be in the sonata form or a Rondo. Symphonies, concertos for solo instruments and orc hestra, and the various kinds of chamber music, such as Trios. Quartets, etc., are sonatas. As an art-form the sonata was perfected by Haydn. Mozart, and Beethoven, who greatly extended it.
Soildcrbund. In Switzerland, the union of the Catholic cantons, which led to the war of 1845.
siniukoi, or Songka. Largest river of e. Indo-China, rising in the mountains of Yunnan aud emptying into the Gulf of Tonquin. Length 750 m.
Song of Birds. The notes of birds are produced in the syrinx, a portion of the windpipe, by certain muscles, in some birds as many as eight pairs. The tongue has little to do with it. It varies from a single note upward, and the males usually excel. In Man and other Mammals the sounds are made in the Larynx (q.v.).
Song of Solomon, or Canticles. 22d O. T. book; an idyl, representing the attachment of an Israelitish maiden to her rural lover, though wooed by Solomon; traditionally regarded as an allegory of Christ and the Church; never referred to in N. T.
Songs. 1. Brief poems, adapted to be sung; an important section of almost every literature. 2. Musical forms adapted to these.
Sonnet. Poem of 14 ten-syllable lines, variously rhymed; produced in Italy from 13th century; introduced in France, England, and Germany, ab. 1530-50. Shakespeare is its greatest master; Milton and Wordsworth afford eminent examples.
Sonntag, William Louis, b.1822. American landscape painter. N.A. 1861.
often metal wires. The wires are fixed at one end, while the other passes over a pulley and is attached to a weight, or passes round a tuning peg and is stretched by a tuning-key. Wl len the instrument has but one string, it is sometimes called a Monochord.
Sonorettcencc. That property of hard rubber in virtue of which when a beam of light, intermittent or variable in its intensity or composition, is made to fall upon it, the rubber emits a" sound which reproduces in its pitch or quality the peculiarities of the incident light.
Sontag, Henriette Gertrude Walpengis, 1804-1854. Soprano singer, in both Italian and German opera. Her husband was Count Rossi, See. of Legation in Berlin, Sardinian envoy at the Hague, and Ambassador at St. Petersburg.
Soot. Deposit of carbonaceous matter in a chimney or flue. It contains sulphate of ammonia, and hence is valuable as a manure for cereals and grasses. See Lampblack and Smoke Prevention.
Sophia. See Sofia.
Sophia, Electress Of Hanover, 1630-1714. Youngest child of Elizabeth, queen of Bohemia, and granddaughter of James VI. of Scotland and I. of England; duchess of Brunswick 1658; mother of George I.
Sophia, St. Church at Constantinople; built 532-566 by Justinian at a cost of ab. $5,000,000; chiefly of brick, but lined within with costly marbles; converted into a mosque 1453; finest specimen of the Byzantine style. The dome rises 180 ft., and has a diameter of 107 ft. and a depth of 46 ft. The church is 245 ft. by 225 ft. inside the walls. See Architecture.
Sophism. Fallacy consciously committed in an argument intended to deceive.
Sophists. Body of ethical and rhetorical teachers at Athens, from ab.450 B.C., whose failure to distinguish interest from duty subjected them to the criticism and opposition of Socrates; ridiculed by Aristophanes; defended by Grote in his Hist, of Greece in the 67th and 68th chapters. The most eminent were Protagoras and Gorgias.
Sophocles, 495-406 B.C. Second of the three great Attic
tragedians. Seven tragedies. Antigone, Electra, Trachinice, CEdipua Ty, rannus. Ajax, Philoctetesand CEdipus at Colonim, survive out of 120. He won the first prize over JSschylusand others 468, and was the chief figure in dramatic composition until Euripides came to the front 441. Critics regard him as approaching nearest to the ideal of tragic writing. He partakes of the lofty spirit of jEschylus, and adds more of the human side, as did Euripides, while his characters by their self-restraint and nobility of soul show a higher level of conception.
Sophocles, EvanOki. i N u s A POSTOL1DES, LL.D., 1807-1888. Greek teacher, in America from 1829; prof. Harvard from 1849; author of several
Greek text-books. Lexicon of Roman and Byzantine PeriodsAS'O.
Sophron, 5th cent. B.C. Greek writer of Syracuse, noted as the inventor of Mimes, a variety of Dorian comedy.
Soprano. In most of the music of to-day, highest part written for women's voices; also the voice itself. In choirs of boys and men the voice belongs to boys; in the 17th and 18th centuries it was frequently produced by sexual mutilation, the quality of the immature boy's voice being retained and coupled with the lung-power of the developed man. In the Sistine Choir boys' voices were used until the intricacy of the music compelled the employment of men. Resort was then had to mature soprano falsettists, most of whom came from Spain, and artificial sopranos, products of accident.
Soractc. Mountain 26 m. n. of Rome, site of a temple? of Apollo, and since 746 of a monastery.
Sorata. Peak of the Andes, in Bolivia. Altitude 21,470 ft.
Sorblan Language. Language of the Sorbs or Lusatian Wends. It belongs to the western branch of the Slavic family. It is also called Lusatian-Servian. See Slavic Languages.
Sorbonne. Theological faculty of old Univ. of Paris; founded 1252-50; long of high authority; opposed to the Ultramontanists ami Jesuits; suppressed 1790; partially revived 1808 and later. Tiie name is now applied to the Academie of Paris which occupies the buildings, rebuilt since 1884.
Sorby, Henry Clifton, b.1826. English author of many papers on the microscopical structure of rocks and on new methods of studying the optical character of minerals.
Sorcery. See Magic, Witchcraft, etc.
Sordello, 13th cent. Italian troubadour; subject of Browning's poem, 1840.
Soredla. Minute portions of the thallus of Lichens, consisting of one or more alga-cells to which are attached some of the thread-like cells or hyphae. They break away from the lichen and become propagative bodies.
Sorel, Agnes, 1409-1450. Mistress of Charles VII. of France. Her influence is thought to have been beneficial.
Sorcl's Cements. Invented by a French chemist: depending on the principle that an insoluble, solid oxychloride is formed when a concentrated solution of a metallic chloride and the oxide of the same metal are mixed. A solution of magnesium chloride and magnesia mixed to form a pasty mass solidifies to a white mass resembling marble.
Sorcma. Mass of loosely coherent pistils placed imbricately on the torus of a flower, as in Magnolia.
Soret's Formula. Used in connection with the HypSometer (q.v.).
Sorgh, Hendrik Waertensz, ab.1621-1670. Dutch genre painter.
Sorghum. S. vulgare, or Andropogon sorghum. Tall Asiatic grass. A variety. Sorghum aaccharatum, in all portions of the U. S. where it will mature, has been proven to be a profitable molasses-producing plant. In more northern localities it makes an excellent forage plant. Culture of sorghum is like that of Indian corn, except that, the seed being slow to start, the seed bed must be better prepared and the ground somewhat warmer before it is planted. In 1890 upward of 24,000,000 gals, of molasses were produced. In 1893 ab. 1,000.000 lbs. of sugar were made from it.
Sorghum Sugar. See Sugar.
Sorlcidae (shrew-mice). Family of Insectivora, distinguished by having feet adapted for running rather than for digging, with external ears and well developed eyes. The tail is scaly, the appearance mouse-like. They are very widely distributed. Some are the smallest of Mammals. The Musk rat or Desman of the Pyrenees stands between the Shrews and Moles: it has a flexible elongated snout, webbed feet, and a musk gland at the root of the rudder-like tail. An allied form exists in Japan, but is burrowing rather than aquatic.
Sorln, Edward, b.1814 in France. R.C. missionary in Indiana 1841; founder Univ. Notre Dame, Ind., chartered 1844, and of many other schools; Snperior-gen. of order of Holv Cross 1868.
Sorts, or SNEFRU. First king of 4th Egyptian dynasty.
Sorophora. Order of Mycetozoa. in which the Plasmodium is formed by simple contact, without fusion, of amoeboid cells. The fruit consists of spores produced by the encystment of separate amcebulae, and each spore hatches as a simple amce bula, which, with its fellows, forms a new plasmodium.
Sorosls. In Botany, fleshy collective fruits, as the pineapple.
Sorosls. Club of women in New York, founded 1868. Similar organizations exist elsewhere.
Sorrel. Certain herbs of the genus Rumex, natural family Polygonacem, with acid foliage anil small, green flowers, widely distributed. The common R. acetosella or Field Sorrel is a native of Europe naturalized in America as a weed, and known as Sour-grass. It takes possession of poor worn-out gravelly soil, and is said to indicate a lack of lime therein. Like the ox-eye daisy, it is not troublesome on lands that are kept fertile and well cultivated. These herbs contain potassium binoxalate.
Sorrel, Mountain. Oxyria digyna. Herb of the natural family Fulygonacece, native of mountainous regions in the colder parts of the n. hemisphere.
Sorrel, Wood. O.ralis acetosella. Low. pink-flowered herb of the natural family Oxalidacece, native of the cooler portions of the n. hemisphere.
Sorrel-Tree. Oxydendrum arboreum. Small tree of the natural family Ericacece, native of the s.e. U. S. The foliag-e is sour, whence the name, Sour-wood.
Sorrento. Ancient Greek and Roman town, on s. side of Bay of Naples; famous for beauty of situation and salubrity of its climate; visited by many tourists; birthplace of Tasso. In
Common Sorrel (Rumex acetoseilu).
Villa at Sorrento.
the time of Augustus it was noted for its fine buildings, the remains of which are few. Its wine was also held in high repute. Pop. ab.6,100.
Sortes Virgilianae. See Sortilege.
Sortilege. Divination with lots; probably practiced originally with arrows, as indicated by many survivals. Throughout e. Asia it is one of the universal methods of fortune telling. A square or cylindrical box, originally a bamboo quiver, containing numbered lots, is found in most Chinese temples, and in both Buddhist and Shinto temples in Japan. The lots consist of strips of bamboo, in China having an arrow-like tip, painted red, the name of which is homophonous with arrow. The worshipers pay a small fee, and, after sacrificing, shake one or more of the lots from the box before the shrine. The number on the lot or lots is then referred to a book, in which, under a corresponding number, the answer is found. The lots of the Greek and Roman temples were little tablets. Another method consisted in opening a book at random, and taking the
first line on which the eye fell as an indication: Virgil was a favorite work for this purpose; hence the Sortes Virgilianae. Mohammedans use the Koran and Hafiz, and Christians have used the Bible and Psalter. Divination with a book is also common in China.
Soru§. Group of sporanges or spore-cases, as the fruit dot of a fern and of some Alga.
Sosigenes, 1st cent. B.C. Egyptian astronomer, employed
by Cajsar in reforming the calendar.
Soter. Bp. of Rome 168-176.
Soteriology. Department of theology dealing with redemption through Christ.
Sothern, Edward Askew, 1830-1881. English actor, known in America from 1852; famous from 1858 as Lord Dundreary in Taylor's Our American Cousin.
Sotlllc Period. Ab. 1.500 years, required for the beginning of the Egyptian year of 365 days to correspond in succession with all of the seasons.
Sothic Year. Egyptian year of 365 days 6 hrs., the beginning of which corresponded with the heliacle rising of the dog star, called by them Sothis.
Soto, Bernardo, b.1853. Pres. of Costa Rica 1885-90.
Soto, Hernando De. See Df. Soto.
Soto, Marco Aurelio. b.1846. Pres. of Honduras 1877-83.
Sotomayor, Cristobal De, d.1511. Lieutenant of Ponce de Leon in the conquest of Porto Rico.
Souari Nut. See Butternut.
Soubeyran, Jean Marie Georges De, Baron, 1829-1897. French statesman.
Soublse, Charles De Rohan, Prince De. 1715-1787. Marshal of France: defeated by Frederick II. at Rossbach Nov. 5, 1757.—His relative, Benjamin, ab. 1589-1642, was a Huguenot leader.
Soublette, Carlos. 1790-1870. Venezuelan soldier, associated with Bolivar in the war of liberation; S^c. of War 183034 and 1839-42; Pres. 1836-39 and 1843-47; in exile 1848-58.
Soudan, or Sudan. Part of Africa s. of the Sahara and Lower Egypt and n. of the Congo basin, not including Abyssinia. The area is indefinite, but not far from 2.000,000 sq. m. It is drained by the Niger, the tributaries to Lake Tchad and the Nile. The climate is tropical, with a wet and a dry season. Central and w. Soudan are inhabited by native tribes, under their own governments. The e. part was under the control of Egypt till 1884-85. when the Mahdist revolt led to the fall of Khartoum and death of Cordon.
Soudanese. People of Central Africa, comprising more or less pure negro tribes in the s. portion, mixed tribes in the central, and foreign elements n., along the Sahara. Berbers have invaded (prehistorically) the w. and central region, other
A Soudanese Marriage Dance.
Hamites the e., and later, the Semitic, Mohammedan influence, has entered the e. and center. The Fulah are the most important Hamitic negroes. They are intelligent, and zealous Mohammedans. The Mandingoes are true negro Mohammedans. See Tuaregs, Dahomey, Ashanti. and Fan.
Soul. In popular language, the spiritual and immortal part of man. The words thus translated were of varying and 1419
unfixed signification, sometimes meaning in Hebrew merely life, and in Greek opposed either to reasoning mind or to spirit, thus indicating, thougli not uniformly, the lower impulses and passions. This vagueness, for which Aristotle is in part responsible, remains. See Psychology.
Soule, Joshua, D.D., 1781-1867. M.E. bp. from 1824; leader in M.E. Ch. South from 1844, residing at Nashville.
Sonic-. Pierre, 1803-1870. French journalist, at New Orleans from 1827; U. S. Senator 1847-53; U. S. Minister to Spain 1853-55; imprisoned 1802; noted for eloquence.
Soul*-, Richard, 1812-1877. Associate ed. Worcester's Dictionary, 1859. Synonyms, 1871.
Soiilic, Melchior Frederic, 1800-1847. French dramatist and novelist.
Soulouquc, Faustin Elic, 1785-1807. Haytian slave, freed 1793; insurrectionist; General 1844; Pres. 1847; Emperor, as Faustin I., 1849-59; defeated by Getfrard 1859, and exiled. He unsuccessfully invaded Dominica 1849 and 1855.
Soult, Nicolas Jean De Dieu, 1769-1851. French general 1794, Marshal 1804, Duke of Dalmatia 1807; prominent at Austerlitz and Jena, 1805-6. and in Spain as Commander-inchief 1809-12; in exile 1815-19; Peer 1827; Marshal-gen. 1847.
Sound. 1. Physically, wave motion propagated through an elastic medium by the longitudinal vibrations of its particles. 2. Physiological sensation in the ear by such wave motion. Sounds may differ in intensity, pitch, and quality.
Sound. Strait or passage connecting two portions of the sea; especially that between the Baltic and the Cattegat.
Sounder. Small electromagnet, in front of the poles of which is a soft iron armature attached to a lever controlled by a spring; employed very generally on telegraph lines for receiving the signals by sound. When the current is made to
pass, the armature is drawn toward the poles; when the current is interrupted the spring draws the armature back. The clicks which accompany these motions are slightly different in sound and the dots and dashes of the Morse alphabet can be readily distinguished.
Sounding Apparatus. Tackle employed by mariners for ascertaining the depth of water and character of the ground. The lead and line are still in universal use. The lead lias a cavity which is partly filled with tallow to which the ground adheres. The common hand lead weighs from 7-11 lbs. See Bathometer, Deep-sea Sounding, and SoundIng Line.
Sounding Lino. Used on shipboard to measure depth of water. The greatest depth so far sounded is 4,655 fathoms e. of Japan. With a ship in motion, there is now used fine steel wire, suspending a brass tube, with an inner glass tube, open at the lower end only, and coated internally with a paint soluble in water, which shows the hydrostatic pressure.
Soup. Decoction of flesh for food, seasoned more or less strongly; strong broth.
Soupo, Marie Joseph. 1738-1794. French physician, writer on cholera, which he studied in Peru 1784; guillotined.
Sour-Grans. See Sorrel.
Sour-Gum. See Pepperidge.
Sour-Sop. See Custard Apple.
Sour-Wood. See Sorrel-tree.
South, Sir James, 1785-1867. English astronomer, knighted 1830.
South, ROBERT, D.D., 1633-1716. Prebendary of Westminster 1663, chaplain to Charles II. 1678; famous as a preacher. His works have frequently been reprinted.
South African Republic. See Transvaal.
South Aincriea. S. grand division of the w. continent: connected with N. Amer-ca by Isthmus of Panama. In shape it is rudely triangular, with a long narrow angle pointing s. Along the w. coast, from Panama to Cape Horn, runs a high, continuous, and rugged mountain system, the Andes. Between it and the Pacific there is but a narrow ribbon of land. E. of it the level of the country drops immediately to nearly sea level and there succeeds a great plain, treeless in the n. in Venezuela, where it is known as llanos, heavily forested in the basin of the Amazon, near the equator (selvas), and again treeless further s. in the Argentine Republic (pampas). In the e. part of Brazil the land rises into asecond system of mountains, broader than the Andes, but of much less height and length. The area is 6,861.400 sq. m. The mean elevation is 2.078 ft. The coast is simple, with few harbors or islands. The temperature varies with latitude, being very high in the Amazon valley, while in the extreme s. it is severely cold. The rainfall is excessive near the equator, diminishing n. and s., becoming very light in the s. parts of the Argentine Republic. The principal livers are the Amazon, the greatest on the globe, and the Rio de la Plata. The population is estimated at 28,380,000. These consist almost entirely of the aborigines and the descendants of the Spanish and Portuguese. The principal countries are Brazil, Guiana, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentine Republic, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chili, Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia; except Guiana, these are republics.
South American Indian*. See Indians. Pampas IndiAns, Patagonians, Peruvians. Tupi-guarani, Caribs, and FieGIANS. Among these tribes civilization increases northward, and also with altitude. Of the Amazon tribes, some are cannibals, and some are dangerous enemies of travelers. A few of the coast tribes have been slightly improved by the i fforts of R. C. missionaries. They live by bunting, fishing, and the cultivation of cassava. The majority of the tribes use arrows poisoned by curari. Some practice the couvade, some apply torture of a severe kind to girls and boys on attaining thenmajority, which occurs about the time of puberty. Dissipation abounds.
Southampton. Seaport of Hampshire, Eng., at the junction of the Itchin and Test; settled ab.500; birthplace of Dr. Watts. It has an important commerce. The remains of its
The Walls of Southampton.
town walls, with a fine arcade on the w. shore, with 4 out of 7 gates, Norman house, etc., show its ancient importance. The Town Quay is 6,072 ft. long. Pop., 1891, 65,325.
Southampton, Henry Wriothesley. Earl Of, 1573-1624. Sentenced to death 1600 as partaker in Essex's insurrection: interested in the colonization of Va.: imprisoned 1621 for efforts against tyranny; officer in the Dutch war with Spain 1623: patron of Shakespeare, whose early poems, 1593-94, were dedicated to him.
Southard, Samuel Lewis. LL.D.. 1787-1842. Justice N.J. Supreme Court 1815; U.S. Senator 1821-23 and 1883-42: Sec. Navv 1823-29: Attv.-gen. of N.J. 1829, Gov. 1832; pres. Senate 1841*. Reports N.'j. Supreme Court, 1819-20. — His father, Henry, 1749-1842, was M.C. rrom N. J. 1801-11 and 1815-21.
South Australia. British colony occupying the middle part of Australia; formed 1836. enlarged 1863. The surface consists mainly of arid plains, 3.000 to 4.000 ft. above the sea. The settled portion is on the s. coast. Copper mines were opened 1843, and gold 1846-52. The capital is Adelaide. Area