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Soissons. Town of France, 65 m. n.e. of Paris; scene of councils 743, 852. 861-862. 866, 1092, 1131 (which condemned Abelaril). and 1201; repeatedly taken in war. as by the Armagnacs 1414, by Charles V. 1544, thrice 1814, and by the Germans Oct. 16,'1870. Pop., 1891, 11,352.

Sojourner Truth, ab. 1775-1883. Illiterate negress of N. Y., who lectured in the interest of reforms 1851-ab.l863.

Sokoto. African kingdom, e. of the Niger. Area ab.200,000 sq. m., pop. ab. 13,000,000.

Solnnnccae. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angioftpermce, sub-class Dicotyledons, and series Oaviopetalce, comprising ab. 75 genera and ab. 1,800 species, widely distributed throughout the warmer portions of the globe; called the Nightshade family.

Solan-Goose. See Gannet.

Solaninc. C„H„N01B(?). Colorless needles, almost insoluble in water, prepared from potato sprouts and from the berries of the deadly nightshade. It is very poisonous, paralyzing the lower extremities, as is shown in cattle which have been poisoned by eating the green shoots of potatoes.

Solano. Warm land wind, in certain valleys in the interior of Spain, belonging to the type of Fohn winds.

Solar Climate. Hypothetical climate that would prevail if the solar heat were the only consideration.

Solar Constant. The approximately constant quantity of radiant heat received by the outer ]av<T of atmosphere of the earth from the sun: its value has been variously determined by Pouillet, 1.76; Violle, 2.5; Crova, 1.90 to 2.32; Langley, 2.84 and 3.0 calorics per minute per square centimeter. The amount of heat received by a square meter of surface on which the sun's rays fall perpendicularly is 25 calorics per min.: this equals the amount required to raise 25 kilograms of water 1° centigrade per min., or 0,886 ft. lbs. of energy per sq ft. per min.

Solar Engine. Form of motor, devised by John Ericsson 18^3, to utilize the heat of the sun for power. The rays fall upon a large reflecting cone or parabola of flat angle, and are converged upon a cylindrical surface, which in the caloric design is the hot end of such a hot-air engine. Behind the reflector


Ericsson's Solar Engine, are the cooling cylinder and the crank mechanism (see CALORIC Esoine). It has been calculated that the heat radiated from the sun during a day of nine hours upon a surface of 100 sq. ft. would give a power of 270.000 ft. lbs., or from 8 to 9 horse power for latitudes between the equator and the 45th parallel. Solar Eyepiece. See Helioscope.

Solario, ANDREA Da, 1458-1530. Milanese painter of the school of Leonardo da Vinci.

Solar Parallax. See Parallax. Solar.

Solar Radiation. Influence that emanates from the sun in straight lines, and whose effect at the earth is to produce the phenomena of light, heat, chemical or molecular or actinic change, and electric or magnetic or electro-magnetic effects. It is of the nature of a vibration, rotation, or other periodic motion or change of motion of the molecules of the ether, and it is the effect of such motion in the molecules of ordinary matter that is observed and described as the RadiaTion (q.v.) of solar light, heat, etc. In meteorology, the name applies specifically to the heat effect. See Solar Constant.


Solar System. See Planets and Sun.

Solar Transit. Engineer's transit, to which is attached the necessary devices whereby the true meridian can be determined by an observation of the sun. The principle of the solar attachment is the same as that of the equatorial telescope.

Solder. Made of equal parts of lead and tin, two of tin to one of lead, or two of lead to one of tin; they fuse at 185°C, 170"C, and 225° C. It is used in general for soldering purposes.

Soldier. One who engages for a definite period in the military service of his country. He faithfully promises implicit obedience to the orders of his commanding officers, to the rules and articles of war, and is entitled to the protection and care of his government, and to pay, subsistence and clothing while so serving. The recognition of the soldier's service empowers him to take life, destroy property, etc., under the legal orders of his commander without subjecting himself to the civil penal ties connected withsuch acts:

neither is he to be held morallv „ . __

Solar Transit.

responsible for the justice or injustice of the war in which his government may employ him.

Soldier Beetles. Differentspecies of carnivorous beetles, useful in destroying other insects; e.g., the sugar-cane borer and the cotton worm.

Soldo. Former copper coin of some Italian States; equal or inferior to the sou or halfpenny.

Solecism. Grammatical error; so named from Soli in Cilicia, s.e. Asia Minor, where imperfect if not semi-barbarous Greek was spoken.

Solemn League and Covenant. See National CoveNant.

Solenoconeliae. See Scaphopoda.

Solcnoglynha. Sub-order of Ophidia,including venomous snakes, having a triangular head, a short tail, a pair of hollow, poison fangs on the niaxillaries, with reserve teeth in the rear. The fangs bend back, but can be erected, when the mouth is open, at will. The poison glands are modified salivary glands, and lie back of the eye. The poison can be thrown from the fang several feet. The blood of the victim bitten loses the power to coagulate. On being bitten a person should wind a ligature tightly on the heart side of the wound, which should be excised, sucked, cauterized, and a one per cent solution of permanganate of potassium injected. The drinking of spirits to keep up the heart vigor is the usual remedy. Bile is also a neutralizer of snake poison. Blood or seruin from animals rendered immune by repeated inoculation of small, gradually increasing doses of snake poison, on being injected into a person, will render him immune, and has been known to cure when practiced even several hours after a bite. In India 20,000 people die from snake-bites annually, especially from the cobra. Compare Proteroglypha. See also Adders, AnCistrodon, Bothrophera, Rattlesnakes, and Vipers.

Solenoid. Series of circular conductors, arranged with their axes parallel and so joined that a current may pass similarly through them all. Such a system, if freely suspended, will behave in every way like a magnet, setting itself parallel to the lines of force in a magnetic field.

Solera. The foundation, or old stock wine, to which later wines are added. See Sherry.

Solcj • James RrssELL. b.1850. Prof. U. S. Naval Academy 1876. Hint. Naval Academy. 1876; Blockade, 1883.

Soltaing. S.-e Solmization.

Solfutara. Escape of steam from the ground, accompanied by sulphurous and other vapors: also, aperture or craterlet from which it issues.

Solfeggio. See Solmization.

Solferino. Variety of Fuchsine (q.v.).

SoU'erino. Village of Lombardy, 19 m. n.w. of Han tan; site of a decisive battle, lasting 15 hours, June 34, 1859, between the allied armies of France and Sardinia under Louis Napoleon and Victor Emmanuel, and ab. 170,000 Austrians under Gen. Hess, who were defeated with loss of 19,300 men and 630 officers; allies lost 17.300 killed and wounded, 936 officers and 8 generals. This victory freed most of n. Italy.

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Solicitor. Formerly, legal practitioner in a court of equity; now, in British Supreme Court of judicature. He ranks below a barrister or counsel; 11is examination and admission to the b;ir, as well as his duties, liabilities, and rights respecting his clients, are largely regulated by statutes.

Solid. Geometric object of three dimensions, length, breadth, and thickness; generated by consecutive position of a surface moving under some fixed law; of revolution, when the surface rotates on some axis; laminate, when the surface remains parallel in all consecutive positions.—In Physics, a body which possesses in any degree elasticity of shape. A

Builder of the Temple at Jerusalem, ab. 1000 B.C.; burned by Nebuchadnezzar 588 B.C.; rebuilt by Zerubbabel 538 B.C.;


Geometrical Solids, rigid solid is one which offers infinite resistance to strain; or the ratio of strain to stress is always 0. Hardened steel perhaps approaches as nearly as anything to this ideal state, though even in steel the rigidity is not perfect. A soft solid is one in which the ratio of strain to stress is very large; i.e., a very small force applied will cause a large deformation. Jelly is a good example. Solidungula. See KnuiD.K.

Solidus. 1. Roman gold coin after 295, succeeding the aureus; wt. -fa lb.; used for a time by the Franks. 2. Mediaeval silver coin, wt. fe lb.

Solifldians. Extreme Protestants, charged with so refining Justification by Faith alone as to divorce Faith from Works.

Sollfllgie. Hairy, spider-like Arachnids, with the body divided, much as in Insects, into head, thorax, and abdomen. The chelioerae and pedipalps are much as in Scorpions. Respiration by trachea; is as in Insects. They are principally found in warm desert regions of the Old World. Solpugidoe is the family included.

Soliman. See Solyman.

Solingcn. Town of Prussia, 13 m. e. of Diisseldorf; noted since ab.1200 for its iron and steel wares. Pop., 1890, 36,540.

Solium*, Caius Julius. 3d cent. Latin historian, formerly popular. Polyhistor, tr. 1587.

Solipcds. Animals walking on a single toe, e.g., the Horse.

Soli*, JUAN Diaz De. ab. 1470-1516. Spanish seaman; killed while exploring the La Plata.

Solis y Rivadeneyra, Antonio De, 1610-1680. Spanish dramatist, historian of the conquest of Mexico, 1684.

Solitaire. Game for one person, of which many varieties exist; played with marbles or pins upon a board, with cards, and with dominoes. The prototypes of these modern card games are found in the Chinese and Corean solitaire games with dominoes, the object of which was once divinatory. One of the most popular Corean domino games is called ••personally counting divination," to distinguish it from the divinatory games participated in by several players.

Solitaria. See Ascidians.

Sollar. Small platform or resting place .at the foot of a ladder in a mine shaft.

Soluiizatioil. Method of learning the intervals of musical scales by associating each interval with a syllable. Its invention is credited to Gnido d'Aivzzo, who applied the first syllables of the lines of a Latin hymn to the tone to which it was sung. Thus arose the familiar syllables, Ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la. In Italy Do took the place of Ut.

Soling Laubach, Hermann Grafzu, b. 1842. German botanist. Tentamen Bryogeogrupliiie Algarvue regni Lusitani provincial. 1868.

Solo. Tune, air or strain to be played by a single instrument or sung by a single voice.

Solomon, ab.1033-975 B.C. Son of David and Bathsheba; King of Israel from ah. 1015: famed for wisdom; reputed author of three O.T. hooks. The burdens of his reign led, on his death, to the revolt of the northern tribes, and the division of the nation into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah.—


The Temple of Soloutou.

reconstructed with great splendor bv Herod ab.20 B.C.; finallv destroyed by Titus 70.

Solomon, Song Of. See Song Of Solomon.

Solomon, Wisdom Of. See Wisdom.

Solomon ben Gabirol, d. ab.1041. Spanish Jew, author of poems and philosophic writings.

Solomon ben Isaac. See Rashi.

Solomon Islands. Ab.500 to 1.000 m. e. of New Guinea; held by Germany and Gt. Britain. Area 17,065 sq. m., pop. ab.175,000. The people are sturdy, well-formed Melanesians, with some admixture of Polynesian blood; in height they average 5 ft.: their skulls are mesoceplialic. They are darkskinned, with curly hair, polygamous, fond of dancing, cunning and deceitful; they practice a simple agriculture, make graceful pottery and weapons, and use shell money; their canoes are the finest in the Pacific. They are fond of human flesh. Christianity has made but slight progress among them. Their dead are exposed on platforms.

Solomon's Seal. Plants of the genus Polygonatum, herbs of the natural family Liliaeea', natives of the n. temperate zone, the root-stock bearing seal-shaped leaf-scars.

Solomon's Seal, False. Plants of the genus Vagnera (Smilacina), herbs of the natural family Liliaeece, natives of the n. hemisphere.

Solon, ab.638-ab.559 B.C. Athenian legislator; commander of the expedition which drove the Megarians out of Salamis; archon 594 with unlimited power. He repealed the laws of Draco, except such as concerned bloodshed, enlarged the functions of the popular assembly, instituted a senate of 400, took measures for relief of debtors, and rectified the calendar. He lived to see his constitution overthrown by Pisiscratus. Some fragments of his poems remain.

Solor. Island of Malay Archipelago off the e. extremity of Flores; s. point in lat. 8°47'S., long. 123° 8'E. Length e. to w. 30 m., breadth 15 m. Pop. ab.30,000.

Soloviev. Sergei Mikhailovich, 1820-1879. Rector Univ. Moscow 1871-77. His History of Russia fills 29 vols, and extends to 1774.

Solpugida>. See Solifug^.

Solstices. Points in the sun's apparent orbit where his greatest and least altitude are reached; also time when the



Summer and Winter Solst ice, altitude is greatest and least. The former is the summer, the atter the winter solstice, June 20-21, and Dec. 20-21.

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Soluble Blue. See Nicholson's Blue and Cotton Blue.

Soluble Oil. Thick solution in water of the sodium salt or soap of ricinoleic acid, prepared by the action of causticsoda solution upon castor oil. Also ALIZARINE ASSISTANT (q.v.).

Solution. 1. Result of mixing1 two substances, one usually a liquid or a gas, which have a mutual action such as to destroy the cohesion of one of the substances and produce a homogeneous fluid mixture. 2. In Botany, separation of organs which are normally more or less united or approximate. 3. In Mathematics, the solution of a problem gives a law of general relation based upon the given conditions and meeting the requirements of the problem. That of an equation gives: (1) a value for an unknown quantity in known terms: (2) an explicit function of a variable from an implicit function. The term is also used, unfortunately, as synonymous with "root of an equation."

Solutions Chemical. Regarded as fluid, unstable, definite chemical compounds in a state of dissociation.

Solvay Process. See Sodium Carbonate.

Sol way Firth. Inlet of Irish Sea, between Scotland and Cumberland; length 35 in., breadth 2 to 22 m.; noted for the rapidity of its tides.

Sol way Moss. In n. Cumberland; scene of a rout of Scottish raiders, Nov. 25, 1542, and of a destructive flood, Nov. 13, 1771.

Sol) ma, or Hierosolyma. See Jerusalem.

Sol) man (or Suleiman) I., 1496-1566. Sultan of the Ottoman empire at its height; able ruler and lawgiver; conqueror of Rhodes 1522, Hungary 1526, and much of Persia and n. Africa 1534. He besieged Vienna 1529 and Malta 1565, unsuccessfully and with heavy losses.—II., 1642-1691. Sultan 1687.

Soma. Plant growing in n. India, and its juice. In Vedic times its sap was held to infuse immortal life and energy into those who quaffed it, and was offered in sacrifices. Hence, third principal deity of the Vedic pantheon, identified with the moon and the moon plant; god of sacrifice; creator, with the aid of Agni, of the heaven and earth, the sun and stars.

Somali*. Mixed race along e. African coast, from equator to Gulf of Aden; allied to the Abyssinians; wild, independent,


Somali Types.

and unfriendly to foreigners: Mohammedans. The region is of indefinite extent, and partly under British (n. part) and Italian protectorates.

Somatic. Pertaining to the body: in Botany, cells which effect the propagation of an organism.

Somatocyst. Cavity in the cocnosarc of certain Siphonophores, at the base of the upper nectocalyx.

Somatology. Study or science of human and other organisms on the material side; also that of inorganic bodies.

Somatropism. In Plant. Physiology, directive influence of the soil on the growth of organs.

Sombrero. Felt hat with a wide brim, common in N. and S. America, originally Spanish.

Somerby, Horatio Gates, 1805-1872. Genealogist of Mass.. in England from 1845

Somers, Sir George, 1554-1611. Colonizer of the Bermudas 1611.

Somers, John, Lord, F.R.S., 1652-1716. Whig leader, M.P.

1689; Baron 1697; Lord Chancellor 1697-1700; impeached 1701: Pres. of Council 1708-10. The Somers Tracts, State papers from his library, were pub. in 16 vols. 1748-52, and in 13 vols. 1809-15.

Somers, Richard, U.S.N., 1778-1804. Lieut. 1799, commander 1804; distinguished for gallantry on the Barbary coast; killed in an effort to blow up the Tripolitan fleet.

Somers (or Sommers) Islands. See Bermudas.

Somerset, Edward Seymour, Duke Of, 1500-1552. Brother of Jane Seymour; Duke and Protector 1547-49. He executed his brother. Sir Thomas Seymour, 1549; plotted against Warwick, and was beheaded.

Somerset, Fitzroy. See Raglan.

Somerset, Robert Carr. See Overbury. Sir Thomas.

Somervllle. City of Middlesex co., Mass., on the Mystic, n. of Boston; part of Charlestown till 1842; chartered'1872. Pop., 1890. 40,152.

Somervllle, Mrs. Mary (fairfax), 1780-1872. Scottish writer on science. Mechanism of the Heavens. 1830; Connection of the Physical Sciences, 1835; Physical Geography, 1848.

Somervllle, William, 1677-1742. English poet. The Chase, 1735.

Somite. Segment or joint of the body of a segmented animal.

Sommc. River of n. France, rising e. of St. Quentin, and flowing 150 m. w. and n.w. to the English Channel.

Somnambulism. Peculiar abnormality of sleep, characterized by the performance of apparently purposive acts, yet with imperfect reaction to sense stimuli and with lack of memory on waking for what has taken place during the state. A common form of it is sleep-walking. The similar condition artificially induced by suggestion or HYPNOTISM (q.v.) is called artificial or induced somnambulism.

Sonata. Literally, sounded piece; antithesis of cantata, a sung piece; originally music wholly instrumental. A sonata is a cyclical composition for a single instrument, with or without accompaniment, consisting of three or four parts, called movements, which are contrasted in tempo and mood, the first of which exemplifies the sonata form. The sequence of movements is generally fast, slow, fast, fast. The first movement written in this form has a triple division. It may or may not have a slow introduction. In the first division the thematicmaterial of the movement is brought forward: in the second, called free fantasia, this material is subjected to the fanciful play of the composer; in the third the first is recapitulated in a related key and provided with a coda. The slow movement may be in the same form or a theme with variations; the third is playful in character, and is usually a Minuet or Scherzo. The fourth may be in the sonata form or a Rondo. Symphonies, concertos for solo instruments and orc hestra, and the various kinds of chamber music, such as Trios. Quartets, etc., are sonatas. As an art-form the sonata was perfected by Haydn. Mozart, and Beethoven, who greatly extended it.

Soildcrbund. In Switzerland, the union of the Catholic cantons, which led to the war of 1845.

siniukoi, or Songka. Largest river of e. Indo-China, rising in the mountains of Yunnan aud emptying into the Gulf of Tonquin. Length 750 m.

Song of Birds. The notes of birds are produced in the syrinx, a portion of the windpipe, by certain muscles, in some birds as many as eight pairs. The tongue has little to do with it. It varies from a single note upward, and the males usually excel. In Man and other Mammals the sounds are made in the Larynx (q.v.).

Song of Solomon, or Canticles. 22d O. T. book; an idyl, representing the attachment of an Israelitish maiden to her rural lover, though wooed by Solomon; traditionally regarded as an allegory of Christ and the Church; never referred to in N. T.

Songs. 1. Brief poems, adapted to be sung; an important section of almost every literature. 2. Musical forms adapted to these.

Sonnet. Poem of 14 ten-syllable lines, variously rhymed; produced in Italy from 13th century; introduced in France, England, and Germany, ab. 1530-50. Shakespeare is its greatest master; Milton and Wordsworth afford eminent examples.

Sonntag, William Louis, b.1822. American landscape painter. N.A. 1861.

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often metal wires. The wires are fixed at one end, while the other passes over a pulley and is attached to a weight, or passes round a tuning peg and is stretched by a tuning-key. Wl len the instrument has but one string, it is sometimes called a Monochord.

Sonorettcencc. That property of hard rubber in virtue of which when a beam of light, intermittent or variable in its intensity or composition, is made to fall upon it, the rubber emits a" sound which reproduces in its pitch or quality the peculiarities of the incident light.

Sontag, Henriette Gertrude Walpengis, 1804-1854. Soprano singer, in both Italian and German opera. Her husband was Count Rossi, See. of Legation in Berlin, Sardinian envoy at the Hague, and Ambassador at St. Petersburg.

Soot. Deposit of carbonaceous matter in a chimney or flue. It contains sulphate of ammonia, and hence is valuable as a manure for cereals and grasses. See Lampblack and Smoke Prevention.

Sophia. See Sofia.

Sophia, Electress Of Hanover, 1630-1714. Youngest child of Elizabeth, queen of Bohemia, and granddaughter of James VI. of Scotland and I. of England; duchess of Brunswick 1658; mother of George I.

Sophia, St. Church at Constantinople; built 532-566 by Justinian at a cost of ab. $5,000,000; chiefly of brick, but lined within with costly marbles; converted into a mosque 1453; finest specimen of the Byzantine style. The dome rises 180 ft., and has a diameter of 107 ft. and a depth of 46 ft. The church is 245 ft. by 225 ft. inside the walls. See Architecture.

Sophism. Fallacy consciously committed in an argument intended to deceive.

Sophists. Body of ethical and rhetorical teachers at Athens, from ab.450 B.C., whose failure to distinguish interest from duty subjected them to the criticism and opposition of Socrates; ridiculed by Aristophanes; defended by Grote in his Hist, of Greece in the 67th and 68th chapters. The most eminent were Protagoras and Gorgias.

Sophocles, 495-406 B.C. Second of the three great Attic

tragedians. Seven tragedies. Antigone, Electra, Trachinice, CEdipua Ty, rannus. Ajax, Philoctetesand CEdipus at Colonim, survive out of 120. He won the first prize over JSschylusand others 468, and was the chief figure in dramatic composition until Euripides came to the front 441. Critics regard him as approaching nearest to the ideal of tragic writing. He partakes of the lofty spirit of jEschylus, and adds more of the human side, as did Euripides, while his characters by their self-restraint and nobility of soul show a higher level of conception.

Sophocles, EvanOki. i N u s A POSTOL1DES, LL.D., 1807-1888. Greek teacher, in America from 1829; prof. Harvard from 1849; author of several



Greek text-books. Lexicon of Roman and Byzantine PeriodsAS'O.

Sophron, 5th cent. B.C. Greek writer of Syracuse, noted as the inventor of Mimes, a variety of Dorian comedy.

Soprano. In most of the music of to-day, highest part written for women's voices; also the voice itself. In choirs of boys and men the voice belongs to boys; in the 17th and 18th centuries it was frequently produced by sexual mutilation, the quality of the immature boy's voice being retained and coupled with the lung-power of the developed man. In the Sistine Choir boys' voices were used until the intricacy of the music compelled the employment of men. Resort was then had to mature soprano falsettists, most of whom came from Spain, and artificial sopranos, products of accident.

Soractc. Mountain 26 m. n. of Rome, site of a temple? of Apollo, and since 746 of a monastery.

Sorata. Peak of the Andes, in Bolivia. Altitude 21,470 ft.

Sorblan Language. Language of the Sorbs or Lusatian Wends. It belongs to the western branch of the Slavic family. It is also called Lusatian-Servian. See Slavic Languages.

Sorbonne. Theological faculty of old Univ. of Paris; founded 1252-50; long of high authority; opposed to the Ultramontanists ami Jesuits; suppressed 1790; partially revived 1808 and later. Tiie name is now applied to the Academie of Paris which occupies the buildings, rebuilt since 1884.

Sorby, Henry Clifton, b.1826. English author of many papers on the microscopical structure of rocks and on new methods of studying the optical character of minerals.

Sorcery. See Magic, Witchcraft, etc.

Sordello, 13th cent. Italian troubadour; subject of Browning's poem, 1840.

Soredla. Minute portions of the thallus of Lichens, consisting of one or more alga-cells to which are attached some of the thread-like cells or hyphae. They break away from the lichen and become propagative bodies.

Sorel, Agnes, 1409-1450. Mistress of Charles VII. of France. Her influence is thought to have been beneficial.

Sorcl's Cements. Invented by a French chemist: depending on the principle that an insoluble, solid oxychloride is formed when a concentrated solution of a metallic chloride and the oxide of the same metal are mixed. A solution of magnesium chloride and magnesia mixed to form a pasty mass solidifies to a white mass resembling marble.

Sorcma. Mass of loosely coherent pistils placed imbricately on the torus of a flower, as in Magnolia.

Soret's Formula. Used in connection with the HypSometer (q.v.).

Sorgh, Hendrik Waertensz, ab.1621-1670. Dutch genre painter.

Sorghum. S. vulgare, or Andropogon sorghum. Tall Asiatic grass. A variety. Sorghum aaccharatum, in all portions of the U. S. where it will mature, has been proven to be a profitable molasses-producing plant. In more northern localities it makes an excellent forage plant. Culture of sorghum is like that of Indian corn, except that, the seed being slow to start, the seed bed must be better prepared and the ground somewhat warmer before it is planted. In 1890 upward of 24,000,000 gals, of molasses were produced. In 1893 ab. 1,000.000 lbs. of sugar were made from it.

Sorghum Sugar. See Sugar.

Sorlcidae (shrew-mice). Family of Insectivora, distinguished by having feet adapted for running rather than for digging, with external ears and well developed eyes. The tail is scaly, the appearance mouse-like. They are very widely distributed. Some are the smallest of Mammals. The Musk rat or Desman of the Pyrenees stands between the Shrews and Moles: it has a flexible elongated snout, webbed feet, and a musk gland at the root of the rudder-like tail. An allied form exists in Japan, but is burrowing rather than aquatic.

Sorln, Edward, b.1814 in France. R.C. missionary in Indiana 1841; founder Univ. Notre Dame, Ind., chartered 1844, and of many other schools; Snperior-gen. of order of Holv Cross 1868.

Sorts, or SNEFRU. First king of 4th Egyptian dynasty.

Sorophora. Order of Mycetozoa. in which the Plasmodium is formed by simple contact, without fusion, of amoeboid cells. The fruit consists of spores produced by the encystment of separate amcebulae, and each spore hatches as a simple amce bula, which, with its fellows, forms a new plasmodium.

Sorosls. In Botany, fleshy collective fruits, as the pineapple.

Sorosls. Club of women in New York, founded 1868. Similar organizations exist elsewhere.

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Sorrel. Certain herbs of the genus Rumex, natural family Polygonacem, with acid foliage anil small, green flowers, widely distributed. The common R. acetosella or Field Sorrel is a native of Europe naturalized in America as a weed, and known as Sour-grass. It takes possession of poor worn-out gravelly soil, and is said to indicate a lack of lime therein. Like the ox-eye daisy, it is not troublesome on lands that are kept fertile and well cultivated. These herbs contain potassium binoxalate.

Sorrel, Mountain. Oxyria digyna. Herb of the natural family Fulygonacece, native of mountainous regions in the colder parts of the n. hemisphere.

Sorrel, Wood. O.ralis acetosella. Low. pink-flowered herb of the natural family Oxalidacece, native of the cooler portions of the n. hemisphere.

Sorrel-Tree. Oxydendrum arboreum. Small tree of the natural family Ericacece, native of the s.e. U. S. The foliag-e is sour, whence the name, Sour-wood.

Sorrento. Ancient Greek and Roman town, on s. side of Bay of Naples; famous for beauty of situation and salubrity of its climate; visited by many tourists; birthplace of Tasso. In


Common Sorrel (Rumex acetoseilu).


Villa at Sorrento.

the time of Augustus it was noted for its fine buildings, the remains of which are few. Its wine was also held in high repute. Pop. ab.6,100.

Sortes Virgilianae. See Sortilege.

Sortilege. Divination with lots; probably practiced originally with arrows, as indicated by many survivals. Throughout e. Asia it is one of the universal methods of fortune telling. A square or cylindrical box, originally a bamboo quiver, containing numbered lots, is found in most Chinese temples, and in both Buddhist and Shinto temples in Japan. The lots consist of strips of bamboo, in China having an arrow-like tip, painted red, the name of which is homophonous with arrow. The worshipers pay a small fee, and, after sacrificing, shake one or more of the lots from the box before the shrine. The number on the lot or lots is then referred to a book, in which, under a corresponding number, the answer is found. The lots of the Greek and Roman temples were little tablets. Another method consisted in opening a book at random, and taking the

first line on which the eye fell as an indication: Virgil was a favorite work for this purpose; hence the Sortes Virgilianae. Mohammedans use the Koran and Hafiz, and Christians have used the Bible and Psalter. Divination with a book is also common in China.

Soru§. Group of sporanges or spore-cases, as the fruit dot of a fern and of some Alga.

Sosigenes, 1st cent. B.C. Egyptian astronomer, employed

by Cajsar in reforming the calendar.

Soter. Bp. of Rome 168-176.

Soteriology. Department of theology dealing with redemption through Christ.

Sothern, Edward Askew, 1830-1881. English actor, known in America from 1852; famous from 1858 as Lord Dundreary in Taylor's Our American Cousin.

Sotlllc Period. Ab. 1.500 years, required for the beginning of the Egyptian year of 365 days to correspond in succession with all of the seasons.

Sothic Year. Egyptian year of 365 days 6 hrs., the beginning of which corresponded with the heliacle rising of the dog star, called by them Sothis.

Soto, Bernardo, b.1853. Pres. of Costa Rica 1885-90.

Soto, Hernando De. See Df. Soto.

Soto, Marco Aurelio. b.1846. Pres. of Honduras 1877-83.

Sotomayor, Cristobal De, d.1511. Lieutenant of Ponce de Leon in the conquest of Porto Rico.

Souari Nut. See Butternut.

Soubeyran, Jean Marie Georges De, Baron, 1829-1897. French statesman.

Soublse, Charles De Rohan, Prince De. 1715-1787. Marshal of France: defeated by Frederick II. at Rossbach Nov. 5, 1757.—His relative, Benjamin, ab. 1589-1642, was a Huguenot leader.

Soublette, Carlos. 1790-1870. Venezuelan soldier, associated with Bolivar in the war of liberation; S^c. of War 183034 and 1839-42; Pres. 1836-39 and 1843-47; in exile 1848-58.

Soudan, or Sudan. Part of Africa s. of the Sahara and Lower Egypt and n. of the Congo basin, not including Abyssinia. The area is indefinite, but not far from 2.000,000 sq. m. It is drained by the Niger, the tributaries to Lake Tchad and the Nile. The climate is tropical, with a wet and a dry season. Central and w. Soudan are inhabited by native tribes, under their own governments. The e. part was under the control of Egypt till 1884-85. when the Mahdist revolt led to the fall of Khartoum and death of Cordon.

Soudanese. People of Central Africa, comprising more or less pure negro tribes in the s. portion, mixed tribes in the central, and foreign elements n., along the Sahara. Berbers have invaded (prehistorically) the w. and central region, other


A Soudanese Marriage Dance.

Hamites the e., and later, the Semitic, Mohammedan influence, has entered the e. and center. The Fulah are the most important Hamitic negroes. They are intelligent, and zealous Mohammedans. The Mandingoes are true negro Mohammedans. See Tuaregs, Dahomey, Ashanti. and Fan.

Soul. In popular language, the spiritual and immortal part of man. The words thus translated were of varying and

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