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remains. The furnaces for this operation frequently had a removable roof, as in figure. As at present conducted, this final cupellation is always preceded by a refining process, in which the lead is oxidized but is not absorbed by the hearth; a little notch in the side of the furnace allowing the melted oxides continually to flow from the furnace.

Another means of desilverizing lead is Parkes' process of stirring into it, at a red-heat, metallic zinc, and then letting the hath stand. The zinc, rising to the surface, brings all the silver with it ;is a rich alloy, while the remaining lead contains only a little zinc, and needs only to be heated a few hours in a softening furnace to be very pure. The zinc alloy is skimmed off, and heated in closed retorts provided with a condenser to catch the zinc vapors driven off. Sometimes the zinc vapors are not condensed, but allowed to burn directly to zinc oxide, which is caught in bags and used for paint. The silver in the retort is nearly pure. The use of a little aluminium in working Parkes' process is very advantageous, as it prevents oxidation of the zinc in the pot and produces richer scums. The scums are treated in Germany quite satisfactorily by electrolysis, producing a very pure electrolytic zinc and leaving rich silver residues.

In treating argentiferous copper ores, the silver accumulates in the copper-iron sulphide or matte, and is extracted by Ziervogels' process of roasting this very carefully, converting the silver almost entirely into sulphate, soluble in water, and washing it out. The silver solution is then precipitated, as by copper.

It is one of the most widely distributed of the metals, and has been known to man since remote antiquity. At different times, different regions have taken the lead in production. The mines of Saxony, Bohemia, and the Harz Mts. have been worked for centuries, and those of Mexico have long been celebrated for their richness. In S. America, Peru. Bolivia and Chili have been the largest producers In the U. S., prior to 1860, the amount produced was small; but during the next thirty years, the yield rapidly increased, amounting in 1892 to 63,500,000 oz., or two-fifths of the world's total production in that year. Since 1892 the amount annually produced has materially fallen.

The world's production of silver was, in 1805, 169,180.249 oz. Of this the U. S. produced 55,726,945, Mexico 46,962,738, Bolivia 21,999,966. Australasia 12,507,335, Germany 5,818.106. and the rest scattering. The U. S. coining value of silver is $1.29 per oz. U. S. coins are 900 parts silver and 100 copper, a dollar weighing 412.5 grs. (see Dollar). Sterling silver is 925 silver and 75 copper. Dec. 1897 the value of gold was $20.67, and of silver 57 cts. per oz. troy. Oct. 1, 1896, the U. S. had 437.202.141 silver dollars, of which 56.513.178 were in circulation; $75,354,781 subsidiary silver coins, of which $60,228,298 were in circulation. In 1895 there was used in the industrial arts in the U. S. 9.419,552 oz. of silver. See Assay and Coinage.

Silver, Thomas, 1813-1888. American inventor of a marine governor for engines 1854, adopted in several European navies.

Silver Ammonium. (NH,Ag)2. Deep blue liquid with metallic luster, made by the action of sodium ammonium on silver chloride.

Silver-well Tree. Small trees of the genus Mohroden

dron (Halesia), natural family Styracacece, with showy white flowers, natives of the s.e. U. S.; called Snowdrop Tree.

Silvcrfoerry. EJaagnus argentea. Shrub of the natural family Elceagnacece, with silvery leaves and fruit, native of the n.w. U. S.

Silver Rromate. AgBrOs. Tetragonal crystals, unaffected by sunlight; made by precipitating silver sulphate with potassium bromate, and crystallizing from hot water.

Silver Bromide. AgBr. Bright yellow precipitate, obtained by treating silver nitrate with a soluble bromide. It occurs native in small quantities, and is used in photography.

Silver Carbonate. Ag,CO,. Prepared from ammonium silver nitrate, it forms transparent, lemon-yellow needles, or rhombohedra, which polarize light. It blackens in light, and loses carbon dioxide at 200° C.

Silver Chlorate. AgCIO,. White, opaque, tetragonal columns; mpt. 230° C, sp. gr. 4.43; soluble in water; made by passing chlorine into water containing silver oxide in suspension.

Silver Chloride. AgCl. Occurring in nature as HornSilver (q.v.); white, curdy precipitate, obtained by adding a soluble chloride or hydrochloric acid to silver nitrate; soluble in ammonia water. Dry silver chloride absorbs 10 per cent of ammonia, forming ammonio-silver chloride, 2AgCI.3NH,. a white compound. It is decomposed by light, and is used in photography.

Silver Cyanate. AgCNO. White, anhydrous powder, sp. gr. 4.004. It blackens on heating, fuses, and takes fire. It is made by precipitating silver nitrate with, potassium cyanate.

Sliver Cyanide. AgCN. White, curdy precipitate, obtained by adding a soluble cj'anide to silver nitrate; soluble in ammonium hydroxide and in potassium cyanide solution. The solution in potassium cyanide is used for silver plating various metals with the aid of the electric current. It is not affected by sunlight.

Silver Fluoride. AgF. Extremely hygroscopic, yellowish-brown substance; sp. gr. 5.85; made by treating the oxide or carbonate with hydrofluoric acid and evaporating.

Silver Glance. Common name for Aroextite (q.v.).

Silver Grain. Wood which when split radially exhibits the sides of numerous medullary rays as shining specks or small patches.

Silver drays. Conservative Whigs, who withdrew from tlie N. Y. Convention of 1848. Many of them had gray hair.

Silver Hydrozoatc. AgNs. Prisms, melting at 250° C. and exploding with terrific violence; insoluble in water, decomposed by light, soluble in ammonia; similar in its proj>erties to silver chloride.

Silver lodatc. AglO,. White, crystalline substance, unaffected by light; made by the action of iodine in alcoholic solution on silver oxide.

Silver Iodide. Agl. Natural and artificial varieties form hexagonal crystals, isomorphous with greenockite (CdS). The color varies from lemon-yellow to olive-green. Sp. gr. 5.0 to 5.6: made by heating iodine and silver; acted upon by light; used in photography.

Silver Nitrate (lotar Caustic). AgNO,. Rhombic crystals, made by dissolving silver in nitric acid and evaporating the solution. Not changed in the light unless it comes into contact with organic substances, when it blackens. It disintegrates flesh, and is used by physicians to remove warts and other superfluous growths; also used as an ingredient in indelible ink.

Silver Nitrite. AgNO,. Crystallizing in needles, made by adding potassium nitrite to a concentrated silver nitrate solution; soluble with difficulty in water; used in organic syntheses.

Silver Oxide. Ap,0. Dark brown, amorphous powder, made by adding a soluble hydroxide to a silver nitrate solution. It dissolves in ammonium hydroxide, forming black crystals I of the composition A£r,G.2NHs, fulminating silver. Silver also I forms a suboxide, Ag40, and a peroxide, AgO or Ag,0B, similar I to the copper compounds.

Silver Pcrchlorate. AgCIO,. White powder, nipt. I 486° C.; made by treating silver oxide with perchloric acid.

Silver Phosphate. Ag,PO,. Yellow, insoluble compound, obtained by treating silver nitrate with a soluble phosphate.

Silver Plating. Solution of silver nitrate in water is carefully precipitated with potassium cyanide and the silver cyanide is filtered out and washed with water. It is then dissolved in a water solution of potassium cyanide, and this constitutes the plating solution. The articles to be plated are carefully cleaned and hung in the solution, being connected to the negative pole of a battery or dynamo; a plate of silver 1395


is also hung in the same solution and attached to the positive pole. This maintains the strength of the solution. Potassium cyanide should be added from time to time, as the solution should always have a decided odor of it. The solution should be protected from dust.

Silver Standard Countries. Bolivia, Central America, China, Colombia, Ecuador, India. Mexico, and Russia.

Silver Stiek. In the British Court, the title of the lieutenant and the standard-bearer of the corps of gentlemen-atarms; also the field officer of any of the guard regiments.

Silver Snbeliloride. Ag4Cl,?. Black or brown powder, melting to a yellow mass of silver and silver chloride; made by treating silver with a solution of cupric or mercuric chloride.

Silver Sulphate. AgaS04. Small rhombic prisms; soluble with difficulty in water; obtained by dissolving silver in sulphuric acid.

Silver Sulphide. AgaS. Regular or rhombic crystals, or amorphous powder; sp. gr. 7.1 to 7.36; made by heating silver in sulphur vapor, or by passing hydrogen sulphide into a silver salt solution. It occurs in nature as Argentite and ACANTHITE (q.v.).

Sliver Sulphite. Ag,S03. White, curdy precipitate, obtained on adding sulphurous acid to silver nitrate. It blackens when exposed to light.

Silver-Thaw. Fine rain or Scotch mist, deposited on cold objects and frozen by reason of their coldness. The ice thus formed is always clear and transparent, and gives a silvery sheen to the objects. The weight of the ice frequently breaks limbs of trees, telegraph wires, etc.

Silver-Tree. Leucodendron argenteum. Small tree of the natural family Proteacece, with lanceolate silvery leaves, native of S. Africa.

Silverweed. Potentilla anserina. Low trailing herb of the natural family Rosacere, with yellow flowers and leaves silvery-white on the lower surface, widely diffused in the n. temperate zone.

Si I vent re. Theophile Louis, 1823-1876. French critic and historian of art. Delacroix, 1864; Th. Rousseau. 1868.

Silvia, St.. ab. 400. Of s. France; sister of Rufinus, Consul 393; supposed author of Peregrinatio ad loca sancta, pub. 1887.

Simaruoaeea*. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermm and sub-class Dicotyledons, comprising 33 genera and ab. 110 species, mostly trees, natives of tropical and warm countries.

Simeon. Second son of the patriarch Jacob, and ancestor of one of the twelve tribes of Israel.

Simeon, Charles, 1759-1836. English Evangelical leader. Horce Homileticce, 17 vols., 1815-28; Works, 21 vols., 1832-33.

Simeon Stylites, ab.391-459. Syrian fanatic, who spent 30 years on a pillar 60 ft. high; revered as a saint and imitated by many.

Simla. Genus Anthropomorpha (q.v.) or Man-like Apes, including the Mias or Orang-tjtan (q.v.) of Sumatra and Borneo.

Simiadre (quadrumana, Pitheci, or Simoidea). Apes and Monkeys; sub-order of Primates, characterized by having the posterior limbs furnished with an opposable hallux, shorter

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front of the upper, to allow of their overlapping. The body is hairy and the tail often long and prehensile. The orbits of the eyes are shut off from the temporal fossa, and look forward. The facial angle in the adult rarely exceeds 30° (in Chrysothrix it is nearly 60"). The face is more human in appearance in the young. The pinna of the ear is rounded and human-like. They live in companies in tropical forests, with the strongest male for a leader, and feed chiefly on fruits and seeds, but also on insects, eggs and birds. The female bears one or at most two young, which it tends with great care and affection. The sections included are Arctopitheciui, Platyrhina, and Catarhina.

Similar Figures. In Geometry, those of the same form. Similar polygons have equal angles and proportional sides. Similar solids of revolution are generated by the revolution of similar figures.

Simile. Figure of speech comparing two objects by like or as; resembling metaphor, but weaker.

Simla. Town of Hindustan, on the slope of the Himalayas, 170 m. n. of Delhi; socially important as a summer resort;

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government headquarters in the hot months since ISM; settled 1819. It exports opium, fruits and shawl-wool. Altitude 7.048 ft., mean temperature 55* F. Permanent pop. ab.16,000.

Simler, Josias, 1530-1576. Prof. Zurich 1552. De Republica Helvetiorum.

Simmons, Edward Emerson, b.1852. S.A.A. 1888. American painter.

Simmons, Franklin, b.1842. American sculptor.

Simmons, James Fowler, 1795-1864. U.S. Senator from R.I. 1841-47 and 1857-62.

Simmons, Joseph Edward, LL.D.. b.1841. Pres. New York Stock Exchange 1884-86; pres. Board of Education 1886-89.

Simms, William Gilmore, 1806-1870. American novelist. Guy Rivers. 1834; 77<e Yemassee, 1835; Hist. S. Carolina, 1840; Beauchampe, 1842; Life, of Marion, 1844.

Simnel, Lambert, ab.1475-ab.1535. Yorkist claimant to the throne of England, personating Edward, Earl of Warwick: defeated at Stoke. June 16, 1487; afterward employed in the household of Henry VII.

Simon. 1. See Peter. 2. Another apostle. Zelotes, or "the Can.'Uinite," formerly of the party called Zealots.

Simon, Etienne, 1747-1809. Belgian explorer, in Brazif 1795-1804; author of books of travel and history.

Simon, Sir John. LL.D., D.C.L., b.1816. London physician and official, author of reports on sanitation. Pathology, 1850.

Simon, Jules. 1814-1896. Lecturer on Philosophv at the Sorbonne 1839-51; Deputy 1848 and 1863; opposed to'the empire; Minister of Instruction 1871-73; ed. Siecle 1874; Senator 1875. Prime Minister 1876-77; author or editor of many philosophical and political works. Natural Religion. 1856. tr. 1857.

Simon, Pedro ANTONIO, ab.1560-ab.1630. Flemish Franciscan, missionary in New Granada from ab.1590; historical writer.

Simon, Richard, 1638-1712. French theologian and Codtroversialist, Oratorian 1663-78. His Critical Hist. O. T., 1678. tr. 1682, and Hist. Text N. T., tr. 1689, anticipated the modern science of biblical criticism; his Commentateurs du N. T., 1693, attacked the Fathers and provoked a reply from Bossuet. Texte et Version< du N. T., 1695; Lettres, 1700-5; Bibliotheque Critique, 17(.8. His works aroused the wrath of Protestants as well as Catholics.1398

Simond, Alfred, 1740-1801. Brazilian botanist, in Guiana (to which his books chiefly relate) 1776-88. Flora Brasilia, 1800.

Simonds, William, 1823-1859. American writer for boys. Aimwell Stories, 1853-60.

Simonians. Gnostic sect, taking their name from Simon Magus (q.v.).

Simonldes, Of Amoroos, 7th cent. B.C. Greek satirical poet.

Simonides, Of Ceos, 556—468 B.C. Greek lyric poet, winner of 56 prizes; long at Athens, where he wrote on martial and patriotic themes; at Syracuse from 478. Fragments only remain.

Si in on in. Louis Laurent, b.1830. French geologist and writer on America.

Simon Magus. Samaritan sorcerer, imperfectly converted, and rebuked by St. Peter (Acts viii.) for seeking to buy the gifts of the Spirit. Hence simony, traffic in Ch. patronage; a practice always condemned, but common in most ages.

Simonosckl. See Shimonoseki.

Simony. See Simon Magus.

Simoom. Intensely hot wind in n. Arabia, so oppressive that death frequently results from exposure to it, but not believed to have any other poisonous qualities. The intense heat appears to be peculiar to the central portion of the storm, about which there is a rapid gyratory movement on the part of the remainder of the air. It occurs in spring and summer, and seldom lasts longer than a few minutes; twenty minutes, at the outside. Very similar winds occur in the deserts of Sahara and of Sinde.

Simple Harmonic* Motion. That to and fro, resulting from the projection in a vertical plane of a point moving uniformly in a horizontal circle of reference. Instances occur in physics, especially in optics and acoustics. An example is furnished by a particle vibrating under the action of a force which is proportional to the displacement of the particle from its mean position. The condition of the moving point defined with reference to its position and direction of motion is its phase. Phase is also defined as the fraction of a period that has elapsed since the point last passed through its mean position in the positive direction. If the point of maximum elongation be not the position of the body when time begins to be reckoned, the interval, positive or negative, till the body reaches this position is called the epoch. See AMPLITUDE and Period.

Simplicea (ascidi^e Simplices). See Ascidians.
Simplicidcntata. See Rodentia.

Simplielu§. Pope 468-483. He condemned the Monophysites.

Simpllclus, 6th cent. Neoplationist at Athens, commentator on Aristotle.

Slmplon. Pass from Canton Valais into Italy, 6,218 ft. high. A road, built for Napoleon 1800-6, cost $3,600,000. This

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has 20 stations for travelers. It was greatly injured by storms in 1834, '39, '49. making the Sardinian side nearly impassable.

Simpson, Edward, U.S.N., 1824-1888. Lieut. 1855; active on the Atlantic and the Gulf 1863-65; Captain 1870, Commodore 1878, Rear-admiral 1884. Ordnance, 1862.

Simpson, Sir George, 1796-1860. Scottish traveler, Gov. of Rupert's Land 1822-41; knighted 1855. Journey Round the World, 1847.—His cousin, Thomas, 1808-1840, led an important expedition to the Mackenzie River and along the Arctic coast 1836-40.

Simpson, James Hervey, U.S.A., 1813-1883. Explorer of a route from Utah to the Pacific 18594)1; military engineer.

Simpson, Sir James Youno, M.D., D.C.L.. 1811-1870. Prof, of Midwifery Univ. Edinburgh 1840; discoverer of the anaesthetic uses of chloroform, which he introduced 1847; Baronet 1866. Obstetric Memoirs, 1856; Archaeological Essays, 1872.— His nephew, assistant, and editor, Alexander Russell, b. 1835, succeeded to his chair. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1880.

Simpson, John Palorave, 1805-1887. English playwright; biographer of Von Weber.

Simpson, Matthew, D.D., LL.D., 1811-1884. Pres. Indiana Asbury (now De Pauvv) Univ. 1839-48: M. E. bp. 1842; eminent orator, much admired by Pres. Lincoln. He rendered notable service to the Union 1861-65. Hundred Years of Methodism, 1876; Cyclopaedia of Methodism, 1878; Lectures on Preaching, 1879.

Simpson, Thomas. F.R.S., 1710-1761. Prof, of Mathematics at Woolwich 1743. Fluxions. 1737-50; Laws of Chance, 1740; Algebra, 1745: Geometry, 1747; Trigonometry, 1748; Select Exercises, 1752.

Simpson River. In British Columbia, flowing into the Pacific Ocean.

Simroek,KARL, 1802-1876. German poet, prof. Bonn from

1850; tr. Nibelungenlied. 1827; Reineke Fuchs, 1845; Edda, 1851; Beoundf, 1859, and other old poems, besides Shakespeare's Sonnets, 1867, and some of the plays.

Sims, George Robert, b.1847. English playwright and novelist. Romany Rye, 1882.

Sims, James Marion, M.D., LL.D., 1813-1883. Surgeon, in New York from 1853; founder of the Women's Hospital 185558; in Europe 1861-68; organizer and head of an ambulance corps in the Franco-Prussian war 1870; pre-eminent as a gynaecologist.

Siins, Winfield Scott, b.1844. Inventor of an electric motor 1872, and of torpedo boats, used in U. S. navy.

Simson, Robert, 1687-1768. Prof. Glasgow 1711-61. Sectiones Conico?. 1735; his Elements of Euclid, 1756-62, supplied a basis to most modern text-books. Opera, 1776.

Simulation. Counterfeiting a disease. Sometimes it is a manifestation of a nervous disorder; at others it is a means to accomplish an ulterior purpose, e.g., the transference to a hospital of a prisoner condemned to hard labor.

Simultaneous Equations. Those which are satisfied by the same values of the unknown quantities. In the relations of loci, the simultaneity of their equations is the condition of intersection of the loci, and values which make the equations simultaneous determine the intersection.

Simultaneous Values. Those at or for the same time.

Sin. Transgression of duty or of law considered as offense against God.

Sin, Wilderness Of. Region through which the Israelites wandered after coming out of Egypt.

Sinai. Mountain-mass in desert peninsula at head of Red

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wandering's, is ab. 140 m. long n. to s. In different localities of it are ancient inscriptions. Politically it now belongs to Egypt. See Horeb.

Sinaitlc Inscriptions. Uncial manuscripts of the Greek Bible, discovered by Constantine Teschendorf in 1844 in the convent of St. Catharine on the range of Mt. Sinai, in a scrap basket. The manuscript is now in St. Petersburg. See Codex.

Sincerity. That form of truthfulness which consists in a habitual freedom from duplicity.

Sinclair, Sir John, 1754-1835. Scottish M.P. 1780-1811; Baronet 1786; prolific writer. Hist. Revenue of British Empire, 1784-89; Statistical Account of Scotland, 21 vols., 179199.—His daughter, Catherine, 1800-1864, wrote many novels and books, religious, juvenile, or descriptive. Modern Flirtations, 1841; Beatrice, 1852.

Slndbad. See Seven Wise Masters.

Silldc, Scinde, or Sindh. Province of w. India, conquered by Mohammedans ab.712, by Akbar of Delhi 1592, by Persia 1739, and bv the English 1843. Area 54,435 sq. m., pop. near 3,000,000. Capital, Karachi (q.v.).

Sindia, or SciNDIA. Mahratta rulers of Gwalior, n. central India, from 1744; hostile to the British 1779-1844. Their power began 1743 in Malwa.

Sine. Trigonometric function: ratio of the ordinate of any point in the terminal line of the angle (the initial line being the axis of x) to the distance of that point from the vertex of the angle.

Sin-Eating. It was formerly the custom in parts of rural England and Wales to hire poor people at funerals to take upon them the sins of the deceased. A loaf and a bowl of beer was given, which the sin-eater ate and drank. The usage may have originally been limited to the clergy, but was afterward continued and practiced as a profession by others.

Sines, Law Of. See Laws Op Refraction.

Singanfoo. Former capital of China; on the Wei, a branch of the Hoang Ho; notable for its commerce and remains of antiquity. Pop. ab.200,000.

Singapore. 1. Island s. of Malay Peninsula, held by Gt. Britain since 1819. Area 206 sq. m.; pop., 1891, 182,650.



3. Its capital, and that of the Straits Settlements since 1853; of modern growth and great commercial importance. Pop., 1891, 160,000.

Singeing Cake. English term for the HOST (q.v.) in the Latin Church.

Singer, Isaac Merritt, 1811-1875. American improver and patentee of sewing-machines.

Singcrly, William Miskey, b.1832. Publisher of Phila. Record since 1877.

Singhalese. See Ceylon.

Singing. Art of uttering music composed for the human voice. What constitutes good singing depends largely on the state of music and the conceptions which prevail among different peoples and at different periods touching the purpose of the art. Among savages it is, like dancing, more often a religious function than an entertainment, and the idea of beauty is not considered. After the invention of opera, with its artificial forms, sensuous beauty of tone and perfection of


phrasing and execution were chiefly admired and sought. With the development of the dramatic element in opera, the need of truthfulness of expression was more felt, and greater importance was attached to significant enunciation of the words. Vocal composition and singing became more declamatorv, and less attention was bestowed upon mere beauty and flexibility of voice. Singing is also much influenced by the peculiarities of languages, and this has helped to give rise to a variety of schools and methods; but the professed aim of all is to produce tones which shall be true in pitch and consistent in quality, to make the voice full, powerful, flexible, and capable of enduring a strain, and to secure distinctness of enunciation and truthfulness of declamation.

Singing Flames. If a small gas flame be produced at the end of a tube terminating in a fine point, and be slowly passed up into a wide glass tube, some particular position will be found at which the flame alters its character and begins to sound a note the pitch of which is a little higher than that of the tube when sounded by itself. Should the flame not begin to sound immediately when the most favorable position has been reached, it can often be made to respond by singing to it a note corresponding very nearly in pitch to that"which the flame will produce when in action. A flame of h y droren has been found to be more prompt in its action than one of coal gas. An instrument termed the pyrophone has been devised by arranging a set of such tubes of various pitches. The air in the

tube is made to vibrate by the heat of the flame. Phone, and Harmonica, Chemical.

Single-Acting Engine. Form in which the motor fluid acts on one side of the piston only, the other side being in connection with the atmosphere to receive its pressure, or with the condenser. Such are the CORNISH Engine (q.v.) and most of the Caloric and Gas Engines (q.v.).

Single Altitude. Method of determining time. The altitude of the sun or a star is measured with the sextant; then, in the spherical triangle having its vertices at the zenith, the pole, and the star, three parts will be known; therefore the angle at the pole (the hour angle) can be computed.

Single Riveting. Connection of two plates by a single row of rivets. The strength of such a joint is usually ab. 60 per cent of the strength of the plate itself. By adding another row of rivets the strength may be raised to ab. 75 per cent of that of the plate.

Single-Stick. Straight stick with a basket-handle to protect the hand, used in practicing the broad-sword exercise. There are seven cuts, as many corresponding guards, and three thrusts.

Single Tax. The method of obtaining public revenue by taxing land only and not the improvements upon it: proposed in 1887 by Henry George.

Single Touch. One of the three principal methods of magnetization. It consists of moving the pole of a powerful magnet from one end to the other of the bar to be magnetized, the motion always taking place in the same direction. The magnetism developed by this method is usually feeble, and the method is employed only for small magnets. It has also the disadvantage of often developing consequent poles.

Sing Sing. Village of Westchester co., N. Y., on the Hudson, 31 m. n. of New York; site of a state prison.

Singular Points. Those points of a curve having peculiar properties: points of inflexion, multiple points, cusps, nodes, abrupt and conjugate points, etc.

Sinim. Biblical name for the Seres, or ancient Chinese.

Sinistral (left-handed). Gastropod shell whose mouth faces the spectator on the left when the shell is viewed with the spire pointing upward.

Sinistrorse. Twining vines which wind around a sup

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port from right to left, and thus in an opposite direction to the apparent motion of the sun; e.g., the Hop.

Sinker-Bar. In well-drilling machinery, heavy rod of iron, ab. 18 ft. long, occupying a position in the string of tools just above the jar.

Sink Hole. Cavities formed in limestone regions by rain or running water; known in England as Swallow-hole.

Sinking Fund. Financiering plan by which a certain amount of money is laid aside annually, the principal and interest of which are expected to pay off a funded debt by the end of a given period.

Siliope. Ancient capital of Pontus, Asia Minor, on the Black Sea; taken by Romans 72 B.C., and by Turks 1461.

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Near it a Turkish fleet was destroyed bv Russians. Nov. 30, 1853. with loss of 4.000 lives. Pop. a'b.7,500.

Sinter. Cellular siliceous or calcareous deposit formed on evaporation of water at the outlet of some mineral springs.

Sinuate. Wavy margins of certain leaves and other organs.

Slnupalliata. Group of siphoniate Lamellibranchs. including forms having the pallial impression more or less deeply bowed forward at the posterior end. This bay represents the attachment of the muscles that retract the long siphon. Here belong the Venerid^e. Mactridje, Myid^e, PhoLadid^, and Teredid.e (q.v.).

Siiiuh. In Anatomy, a pocket or dilatation in bone or other structure, as the frontal sinus, a cavity in the frontal bone between the eyebrows, communicating with the air through the nose; the sinuses of the dura mater are blood channels for venous blood.—In Surgery, an abnormal canal usually produced by ulceration and through which the products of inflammation may be discharged.

Sin Iik. Indentation at the base of a leaf or other flat organ.

Sioux (dakotas). Confederacy of Indian tribes possibly related to the Six Nations of New York. The territory originally occupied included Wisconsin. Minnesota, and Iowa. They were

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selves. They are nomads, and practice dances in which they endure self-inflicted tortures.

Sioux City. Capital of Woodbury co., Iowa, on the Missouri; founded 1849; of recent growth. It is a railroad center of importance, and has large packing houses and varied manufactures. Pop., 1890, 37,806.

Sioux rail*. Capital of Minnehaha co., S. Dak.; on the Big Sioux; chartered 1877 and 1883; noted for its quarries. Pop., 1890, 10,177.

Sioux War. 1876; occasioned by the refusal of the Sioux to keep a treaty with the U. S., by which they were to relinquish a certain amount of territory and retire from it by Jan. 1, 1876. They continued to roam about Wyoming and Montana, burning, robbing, and killing, whereupon the government sent a force under command of (iens. Terry and Crook to subdue them. Gen. Custer and his whole force of nearly 300 men were destroyed in a battle, but the Sioux were finally defeated and driven across the border into Canada.

Siphon. Instrument by which a mass of liquid may be removed from a vessel to a lower level without moving the vessel. In its simplest form it consists of a U tube, the shorter leg of which is immersed in the liquid, while the longer opens into the air at a level lower than that of the liquid. The flow takes place by reason of the difference of pressure at the two levels of the tube, due to the weight of the columns and to the

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pressure of the air.—In Engineering, a bent pipe for carrying water over an elevation less than 30 ft. in height. A longsiphon will not continue permanently in flow unless a pump be occasionally operated at the summit to remove the air that collects there.

Siphon. In Botany, certain elongated cells in the thallus of some red Algce, grouped in the order Siphonece.

Siphonaeeap?. Order of filamentous Algce of the sub-class Chlorophycece. The filaments are aseptate.

Siphon Condensers. See Condensers.

Siphoniata. Division of Lamellibranchs, in which the posterior parts of the mantle edges are'fused to form long tubular siphons. Here are included the Cockles (Cardii<ice\. Cyprinidce, Yeneridce, Mactridce, Myidce, and the Boring Mussels (Pholadidce). These families may be put under the two groups, Integripalliata and Sinupalliata.

Siphonoehlamj da (siphonostomataj. Division of Prosobranchs, including forms with the aperture of the shell notched or prolonged into a canal, for the exit of the siphon. The groups included are: Rachiglossa, Toxiglossa, and Tcenioglossa (in part, i.e., siphonostomatous Ovthoneura, as Cyprcea. Strombus, Triton).

Siphonodentnlium. See Scaphopoda.

Siphonophora. Free-swimming polymorphic colonies of Hydrozoa, They have a common contractile stem, medusoid buds, nutritive polyps, and usually also nectocaliees, hvdropliyllia, dactylozooids, etc. They are divided into the Physojihoridis, Physalidce, Calycophoridce, and Discoidece.

Siphonopoda. See Cephalopoda.

SiphonoNtomata, or Parasitica. Group of parasitic Copepods or fish-lice, whose mouth-parts are adapted for sucking; the structure is more or less degraded, and the segmentation is lost or obscure. Sometimes the body is reduced to nothing but a branched reproductive organ. The males are rare, usually small, sometimes parasilic on the female. Actlieres is an example. See Siphonochlamyda.

Siphono»touintou(i. Having the lip of the aperture of the shell of Univalves prolonged into a canal.

Siphon Reeorder. Instrument invented by Lord Kelvin, designed to receive the signals transmitted through a submarine cable. The signals are zigzag lines, drawn with ink discharged from a light glass siphon, which is moved by a_ light coil of fine copper wire suspended by a silk fiber between the poles of a powerful electromagnet. The paper in front of

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